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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Stephen Tomsen and James W. Messerschmidt

This chapter provides a critical focus on the relationship between masculinities and widespread forms of interpersonal violence. The chapter begins by discussing the…

Abstract

This chapter provides a critical focus on the relationship between masculinities and widespread forms of interpersonal violence. The chapter begins by discussing the contribution of second wave feminist criminology in securing disciplinary attention to the study of gender and its relation to crime, and how the growth and maturation of theory and research on specific masculinities and crime followed logically from this feminist work. As part of this development, examination of masculine perpetrated violence initially commenced with Messerschmidt’s (1993) influential account of masculinities and crime in his book of the same name, and was further expanded through a range of historical and contemporary criminological studies on masculinities and interpersonal violence. The authors discuss the origins and history of critical masculinities theory, its relation to social understandings of interpersonal violence, and how these have shaped criminological research interest and findings. Masculinities are linked intricately with struggles for social power that occur between men and women and among different men, but they vary and intersect importantly with other dimensions of inequality. The authors utilise this conception of masculinities to discuss research on various forms of interpersonal violence, from men’s physical and sexual violence against girls and women, attacks on sexual minorities, violence between/among boys and men, and to the ambiguities of gender, sexualities, and violence by girls, women and men.

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The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Liz Kelly and Aisha K. Gill

The “Rotis not Riots” group is an online discussion forum formed during the August 2011 riots in England to facilitate feminist dialogue aimed at making sense of these…

Abstract

Purpose

The “Rotis not Riots” group is an online discussion forum formed during the August 2011 riots in England to facilitate feminist dialogue aimed at making sense of these unprecedented events.

Design/methodology/approach

The founders use roti (a type of unleavened bread) as a symbol to focus attention on the importance of sharing different perspectives. This reflective paper draws on the group's exchanges, exploring: the complexity of the ways in which gender intersects with the riots and their aftermath; the role of consumerism and race; the ways in which the media has framed the riots in news stories; and the ways in which criminal justice system responses have been received by both the media and the general public.

Findings

The paper concludes by examining some of the group's ideas about how Britain might move forwards through responses that are constructive rather than punitive, aimed at ensuring that all citizens feel they have a stake in both their local community and British society as a whole.

Originality/value

The focus of this paper is on fostering positive collective action and dialogue that involves people of all ages and backgrounds.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Abstract

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Gender and Contemporary Horror in Film
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-898-7

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Darryl L. Chambers, Yasser A. Payne and Ivan Sun

While the past few decades have witnessed a substantial number of studies on public attitudes toward the police, a relatively thin line of inquiry has focused exclusively…

Abstract

Purpose

While the past few decades have witnessed a substantial number of studies on public attitudes toward the police, a relatively thin line of inquiry has focused exclusively on low income urban Black-Americans, and especially street-identified Black populations. The purpose of this paper, however, is to examine trust in police amongst street-identified Black men and women.

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on a street participatory action research methodological approach, the authors collected survey data (N = 520) from two low-income unban Black neighborhoods, to examine the effects of an instrumental model versus an expressive model on procedural- and outcome-based trust in police.

Findings

The findings suggested a community sample of street-identified Black men and women were able to differentiate between procedural- and outcome-based trust. The instrumental model was better in predicting procedural-based trust in police, while the expressive model accounted better for outcome-based trust in police.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for street participatory action research methodology, future research and policy are also discussed.

Originality/value

This paper is an original manuscript.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Navin Kumar

Purpose – Exploration of the methodological aspects of male sex work is rather limited. Without a strong methodological toolkit to draw from, research in male sex work…

Abstract

Purpose – Exploration of the methodological aspects of male sex work is rather limited. Without a strong methodological toolkit to draw from, research in male sex work will not be able to accurately capture changes in the dynamic sex work environment. Thus, the author provides a comprehensive review of methods in male sex work along with a broad spectrum of methodological insights through which future research can be advanced.

Methodology/approach – Drawing from two studies that the author conducted in the male independent escorting space, this chapter provides a range of methodological insights and offers avenues for future research.

Findings – This chapter reviews the methods used in male sex work research over the years and details the lack of research on methodological inquiry in the field.

Originality/value – With the increasing normalization and dynamism of male sex work, it is necessary for the research to provide methodological guidance for the next wave of studies in the field. The recommendations and research directions proposed herein are hoped to have implications for research in the larger sex work context.

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Methods of Criminology and Criminal Justice Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-865-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Lynne Millward and Sarah Senker

The purpose of this paper is to consider how male young offenders on community orders made sense of their offending behaviour as well as considering the extent these views…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider how male young offenders on community orders made sense of their offending behaviour as well as considering the extent these views aligned with traditional stereotypes of masculinity.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted a qualitative approach, using semi‐structured in‐depth interviews followed by interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify themes within the participant's narratives.

Findings

Two master themes were identified; “dissociating from an offender identity and authoring a new non‐offender identity” as well as “masculinity as multifaceted”. These themes were interpreted using self‐determination theory, highlighting the importance of intrinsic motivation and specific environmental conditions in enabling change and exploration of new identities.

Research limitations/implications

This work was based on a small sample size. Whilst this permitted an in‐depth analysis it is acknowledged that this may have implications for making generalisations across the youth offending population.

Practical implications

This study identifies that the principles of autonomy, relatedness and competence, as outlined in self‐determination theory, potentially offer fruitful areas to be implemented in community orders. Such conditions can help to harness intrinsic motivation to change and self‐regulated behaviour.

Originality/value

This paper is of value to those working and holding an interest within the criminal justice domain. Its adoption of a qualitative approach, considering a UK sample of young offenders on community orders at the time of the interview is unique. This study allows practical recommendations to be made to those engaged in youth rehabilitation.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Suraj Lakhani and James Hardie-Bick

This chapter draws upon empirical data collected with former violent extremists in the UK to address the phenomenological attractions of engaging in terrorism. We argue…

Abstract

This chapter draws upon empirical data collected with former violent extremists in the UK to address the phenomenological attractions of engaging in terrorism. We argue that there needs to be more consideration of the attractions of belonging to a terrorist organization and a more thorough appreciation of the experiences that attract people to acts of terrorism. This chapter begins to address these issues by engaging with Jack Katz's (1988) research on the phenomenological foreground, the compelling and seductive qualities of engaging in criminal acts. Katz's highly original and influential research shifts attention away from traditional criminological approaches that emphasize structural background factors such as class, unemployment, gender, poverty, or education. As Katz argues, this structural level of analysis overlooks the subjective phenomenological feelings that accompany criminal behavior. We argue that this is a serious omission as it is precisely the search for thrill, risk, and intense excitement that can serve to motivate further acts of criminality.

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Jack Katz
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-072-7

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Book part
Publication date: 3 November 2017

Barbara Guzetti and Leslie Foley

The purpose of this case study was to describe how a Chicano man, Tomas Moniz, wrote and edited zines to reconstruct stereotypical notions of masculine performance and…

Abstract

The purpose of this case study was to describe how a Chicano man, Tomas Moniz, wrote and edited zines to reconstruct stereotypical notions of masculine performance and fatherhood and formed community for grassroots action. Data were triangulated by collecting observations and photographs of the informant distributing and discussing his zine at a national zine symposium and by in situ interviews as he did so. These data were triangulated by collecting 17 issues of Tomas’ zines and by a semistructured interview conducted by telephone and by informal interviews conducted by electronic mail. Screen shots were collected of Tomas’ social media (his Facebook page, blog, and YouTube videos) that extended or supported his zines. These data were analyzed by thematic analysis. Member checks were conducted with the participant as a measure of trustworthiness. Results illustrated how a Chicano man wrote in atypical forms and substance to reconstruct masculinity and fatherhood in an inclusive model. He wrote of being marginalized as a parent by his gender; he discussed difficult issues in the performance of masculinity and parenting; and he self-published contributions by other men (and women) that highlighted alternative ways of performing and representing masculinity. He used his zines and social media to build community for support and activism. This study contributes to the extant research that refutes gender stereotypes and presents alternative models of masculinity and literacy engagement for Latino males. Although there has been a growing interest in the status of men, there is little scholarship on Latino males, their masculinities, and their literacy practices. The absence of such scholarship has reinforced educators’ stereotypical views of Latino males as hyper-masculine and nonacademic, contributing to low expectations for their academic success. This case study refutes those stereotypes and presents a model of a minority man enacting alternative representations of masculinity through literacy. Findings from this study can be used to demonstrate the functions that reading and writing can serve in an adult man’s life and provide permission for minority youth to engage in literacy practices.

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Addressing Diversity in Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-048-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Maree V. Boyle

This qualitative study explores the intersection between organizational masculinity and emotionality within a pre‐hospital emergency services organization. The existence…

Abstract

This qualitative study explores the intersection between organizational masculinity and emotionality within a pre‐hospital emergency services organization. The existence of multiple masculinities within a male‐dominated and emotion‐laden organization indicates that men who work within this context are required to negotiate multiple forms of masculinities within heavily emotionalised organizational regions or spaces. This study found that there were competing tensions between at least two forms of masculinity within the organisation in question. While militarized and managerial/technical forms of masculinity dominate as the principal hegemonic form, a heroic and caring masculinity is also essential to how the organization in question produces its key services. It is argued that forms of masculinity that are closer to the hegemonic ideal type are not “compensatory”, but have to co‐exist with other, albeit more marginalized, masculinities.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Adam Baird

The aim of this paper is to help in understanding the relationship between the construction of the male identity and how social violence may be “reproduced” (using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to help in understanding the relationship between the construction of the male identity and how social violence may be “reproduced” (using the concept of habitus after Pierre Bourdieu), in poor and socially excluded contexts. The paper aims to inform debate and policy making.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on empirical data collected in 2008, in the form of life‐history interviews with male youths – including members and non‐members of gangs – from two poor and very violent neighbourhoods in Medellín, Colombia's second largest city.

Findings

Masculinities alone do not account for urban violence, but they play an integral role why violence is reproduced. In socio‐economically excluded contexts the gang becomes an attractive vehicle for “doing masculinity” for boys and young men. Youths who did not join gangs tended to have family support to develop a “moral rejection” of gangs, crime and violence during childhood, which contributed to them finding non‐gang pathways to manhood. Youths who joined gangs were less likely to develop this “moral rejection” during childhood, often due to family problems; and were more likely to admire older gang members, and perceive the gang as an attractive pathway to manhood.

Research limitations/implications

As the sole researcher a limited number of 32 individuals were interviewed.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research on masculinities and gang affiliation in the UK and across the globe. This paper provides new conceptual ideas for understanding why young men make up the vast majority of violent gang members, whilst providing an original data set from a very violent urban setting.

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