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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1960

Aircraft arresting gear comprises a lifter strap normally connecting an actuator strap engageable by the forward part of a moving aircraft to an arresting cable through…

Abstract

Aircraft arresting gear comprises a lifter strap normally connecting an actuator strap engageable by the forward part of a moving aircraft to an arresting cable through means releasable upon a predetermined pull on the lifter strap, the releasable means comprising two pieces of flexible material of unequal lengths, the longer attached at one end to the actuator strap and at its other end to a runway, and the shorter attached at one end to the actuator strap and releasably attached at its other end to the longer piece to form a loop around the cable. Two actuators straps 2, 3 are shown, though there may be any number, each piece of flexible material 6, 8 being attached to one actuator strap by a loop 5 and stitching 7. The actuator straps are stretched across the runway between stanchions (not shown) from which they are releasable by shearing pins. The piece 6 is attached to a grommet 12 on the runway, and is stitched at 15 and at 16 to itself, forming a loop 14, and the arresting cable 20 lies in a bight formed by a button fastener 18. The other piece 8 is stitched at 9 to the loop 14. In operation, a forward part of an aircraft engages the actuators straps 2, 3. The tension on the lifter strap raises the cable 20, and opens fastening 18. The stitching 9 is sheared, and the cable is flung upwardly through the gap so formed, to engage the aircraft. The actuator straps may be of nylon webbing or other woven synthetic or organic material.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 32 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2013

Jeremy Doucet, Xiang Zhang and Philip Irving

This paper aims to present the implementation of a finite element (FE) model used to establish crack and delamination development in a Glare reinforced aluminium plate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the implementation of a finite element (FE) model used to establish crack and delamination development in a Glare reinforced aluminium plate under fatigue loading. This model predicts the behaviour of bonded GLARE straps used as crack retarders for life extension of aircraft structures. In particular, it takes into account the interaction that exists between the substrate crack and the delamination crack at the interface with the reinforcement.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, a 3D FE model with three-layer continuum shell elements has been developed to calculate changes in substrate stress intensity and in fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate produced by bonded strap reinforcement. Both circular and elliptical strap delamination geometries were incorporated into the model. Calculated stress intensity factors (SIFs) were used together with measured FCG data for substrate material to predict FCG rates for the strapped condition.

Findings

The model predicted a decrease in the SIF and a retardation of FCG rates. The SIF was predicted to vary through the thickness of the substrate due to the phenomenon of secondary bending and also the bridging effect caused by the presence of the strap. The influence of delamination shape and size on substrate crack stress intensity and delamination strain energy release rate has been calculated.

Originality/value

This research aims at developing modelling techniques that could be used when studying larger reinforced structures found in aircraft.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Chi‐Shun Liao and Cheng‐Wen Lee

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how brassiere manufacturers develop new designs for bra products, suitable for individual consumers, through consumer codesign.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how brassiere manufacturers develop new designs for bra products, suitable for individual consumers, through consumer codesign.

Design/methodology/approach

New product design that relies on conjoint analysis algorithms can depict multidimensional attribute profiles, such that consumers' choice behavior reflects their preferences and overall judgment of the profiles. This statistical technique provides a means to codesign and customize bra products and thereby enhance the overall bra design process.

Findings

Bra products codesign suggests goals such as attractive appearance, shoulder strap style, vivid/mild color, elegance/sexy lace, comfort/practicality, fabric, lining, comfort/attractive appearance, neckline design, comfort/excellent function cut, sewn cups, and generous quantities. The most preferred combination of attributes for all respondents is a cotton/cotton blend fabric, seamless bra that offers a detachable shoulder strap, lavender color, a two‐strap style, lace details, and a low‐cut plunge neckline. The paper illustrates consumers' bra awareness attributes, codesign approach, and individual optimum individualized bra designs.

Practical implications

The results provide a useful source of information for product managers, who should consider the use of codesign to design the best products for individual consumers and decrease the risk of design failure, as well as promote consumer loyalty and satisfaction toward the product.

Originality/value

The paper provides a unique method to understand the new product codesign structure and make bra product design decisions that integrate optimum individualized design.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Nicola Brown, Jenny Burbage and Joanna Wakefield-Scurr

Previous research suggests that many active females are not engaging in sports bra use, despite the positive health benefits. The aim of this study was to establish and…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research suggests that many active females are not engaging in sports bra use, despite the positive health benefits. The aim of this study was to establish and compare sports bra use, preferences and bra fit issues for exercising females in some of the largest and most diverse global underwear markets (the US, the UK and China).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey covering activity levels, sports bra use and preferences, bra issues and demographics was administered via Qualtrics and completed by 3,147 physically active females (aged ≥ 18 years) from the US (n = 1,060), UK (n = 1,050) and China (n = 1,037).

Findings

In general, participants were 25–29 years, 121 to 140 pounds, 34B bra size and pre-menopausal. “I cannot find the right sports bra” was the most frequent breast barrier to exercise (25.4%). Three-quarters of women wore a sports bra during exercise, with significantly higher use in China (83.9%), compared to the UK (67.2%). A third of all participants reported sports bra shoulder straps “digging into the skin”. Sports bra preferences were: compression sports bras with a racer back, wide straps and thick straps in the US and the UK; thin straps in China and adjustable straps and underband, no wire and maximum breast coverage in the US and the UK, including nipple concealment and with padded/moulded cups.

Originality/value

Information provided on differences in sports bra use, preferences and bra issues across three major global markets could be utilised by brands and manufacturers to optimise bra marketing and fit education initiatives and inform future sports bra design and distribution strategies.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1937

Aircraft structures and in particular thick wing structures comprise ribs 2 of zigzag formation, Fig. 2, assembled in such manner as to form upper and lower reticulated…

Abstract

Aircraft structures and in particular thick wing structures comprise ribs 2 of zigzag formation, Fig. 2, assembled in such manner as to form upper and lower reticulated frames which are spaced apart by posts 4 and are directly secured to the outer covering or skin 1 of the wing or other structure. Longitudinal booms 3 are also secured to the outer covering and to the ribs at the points of inter‐attachment thereof, Fig. 6. Ribs 2 are of channel section shaped at the bends to form flats 2a and to form recesses to allow passage of the booms 3. Adjacent ribs are attached to each other and to the booms at each junction by straps 5, Fig. 5, bent to the shape of the rib angle at 5a, and to that of the underside of the boom at 5b. Parts 5a of opposed straps are introduced between flats 2a of the ribs, the strap extending under the rib channel and then upwardly to connect with the boom, Fig. 6. Tubular posts 4 are secured to flats 5a, Fig. 5, of straps 5 by flanges 6, Fig. 2; the joints may be stiffened by additional gussets such as 7.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 9 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1968

THAT is the title of a survey by the National Joint Advisory Council which has just been issued by the Ministry of Labour. Properly assimilated by both sides of industry…

Abstract

THAT is the title of a survey by the National Joint Advisory Council which has just been issued by the Ministry of Labour. Properly assimilated by both sides of industry it could become an important document for a country continually under pressure to increase productivity. In his Foreword the Minister of Labour says that the number of manual workers engaged on a shift system has increased by more than half in the last ten years and expects the trend to continue.

Details

Work Study, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Yawei Wang, Weihu Zhou, Xiaoquan Han, Zhongyu Wang and Jinbin Ding

The purpose of this paper is to describe a strap‐down image stable strategy for multi‐load optoelectronic imaging platform hung below a tethered aerostat.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a strap‐down image stable strategy for multi‐load optoelectronic imaging platform hung below a tethered aerostat.

Design/methodology/approach

Four two dimension pods, each with a visible light camera, are fixed on the optoelectronic platform. A POS (Position and Orientation System) is used to acquire the attitude rate data of optoelectronic platform, while the data can be coupled to the pods' servo systems through corresponding coordinate rotation, then the motors of pods will adjust the line of sight to the opposite way to keep the stabilization of image exported by visible light camcorders. Simultaneously, two rate gyros are installed at the inner frame of each pod, which are used as a backup to avoid the failure of POS.

Findings

Using one attitude and position measurement system can realize the stabilization of multi optoelectronic pods, which is same as or even better than the ratio gyro stabilization.

Research limitations/implications

As the tethered aerostat is a flexible body, it is affected a lot by the wind speed and wind direction at the low height (<1,000 m), which leads to the motors of pods always adjust the line of sight to the mechanical limiting of pods.

Practical implications

Strap‐down stabilization technology has been successfully used in the tethered aerostat monitoring platform to surveillance Shanghai World EXPO site. Long time experiments verify the feasible and effective of the multi‐load stabilization technology. The impact on the image by the adjustment of servos is less than 10 percent of the whole view of sight.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a strap‐down stabilization technology for multi‐load tethered aerostat platform, which is more suitable to be applied in the platform of relatively minor attitude change, like the airborne multi‐load platform and multi‐load UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) platform.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 84 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1973

This emergency generating system was first fitted on the 01 and 02 pre‐production Concordes and will be installed on the production aircraft. Initial design work commenced…

Abstract

This emergency generating system was first fitted on the 01 and 02 pre‐production Concordes and will be installed on the production aircraft. Initial design work commenced in 1967 and a fully developed and type‐tested unit went into production in 1971.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1980

The latest hand operated strapping machine by Reisosa of Spain for palletised loads and bulk packaging applications in factories is now available for the first time in the…

Abstract

The latest hand operated strapping machine by Reisosa of Spain for palletised loads and bulk packaging applications in factories is now available for the first time in the UK from Packaging Aids Ltd., of Ilford. The Reisosa 5240 incorporates tensioning, sealing and cut‐off facilities and is suitable for use in conjunction with heavy and light grades of polypropylene strapping.

Details

Industrial Management, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Wu Xiaojuan and Wang Xinlong

The purpose of this paper is to overcome the limitations of existing celestial horizon references, and improve the navigation accuracy of the strap‐down inertial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to overcome the limitations of existing celestial horizon references, and improve the navigation accuracy of the strap‐down inertial navigation system/celestial navigation system (SINS/CNS) integrated system with an innovative scheme of deep integration.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a novel conception of mathematical horizon reference (MHR) provided by the strap‐down matrix of SINS is proposed. Then, the realization mechanism of the MHR‐based vertical vector is introduced from the viewpoint of vector rotation. Moreover, the MHR implementation scheme of high precision and reliability is presented, and on this basis, the method which utilizes vertical vector to achieve celestial navigation is introduced. In addition, with considering the characteristics of SINS and the MHR‐based CNS, the SINS/CNS deep integrated navigation system and its specific realization are proposed. Finally, simulation tests are implemented to validate this SINS/CNS deep integrated navigation method.

Findings

The innovative SINS/CNS deep integrated system could make full use of SINS and CNS navigation information to achieve higher navigation accuracy for the long‐duration and high‐altitude vehicles.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel realization method of high precision MHR and the MHR‐based SINS/CNS deep integration.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 83 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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