Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…
Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.
The mixed assumed strain approach proposed by Simo and Rifai is used to derive three 8‐noded hexahedral mixed strain elements. The approach is also generalized to geometrically non‐linear problems. Based on the Galerkin form of Hu‐Washizu three field variational principle, the Green‐Lagrange strain tensor and the second Piola‐Kirchhoff stress tensor (symmetric) are employed to develop the geometrically non‐linear formulation for 2D and 3D mixed enhanced strain elements. Numerical results are presented to show that the resulting hexahedral mixed strain elements possess all the ideal qualities. They are able to pass the patch test, do not exhibit the false shear phenomena and do not lock for nearly incompressible materials. Also, they are less sensitive to distorted meshes than standard isoparametric elements and exhibit high accuracy for both linear and non‐linear problems, permitting coarse discretizations to be utilized. The elements developed in this paper have been implemented in the general purpose FE package LUSAS.
The use of enhanced strains leads to an improved performance of low order finite elements. A modified Hu‐Washizu variational formulation with orthogonal stress and strain…
The use of enhanced strains leads to an improved performance of low order finite elements. A modified Hu‐Washizu variational formulation with orthogonal stress and strain functions is considered. The use of orthogonal functions leads to a formulation with B (overline) ‐strain matrices which avoids numerical inversion of matrices. Depending on the choice of the stress and strain functions in Cartesian or natural element coordinates one can recover, for example, the hybrid stress element P‐S of Pian‐Sumihara or the Trefftz‐type element QE2 of Piltner and Taylor. With the mixed formulation discussed in this paper a simple extension of the high precision elements P‐S and QE2 to general non‐linear problems is possible, since the final computer implementation of the mixed element is very similar to the implementation of a displacement element. Instead of sparse B‐matrices, sparse B (overline) ‐matrices are used and the typical matrix inversions of hybrid and mixed methods can be avoided. The two most efficient four‐node B (overline) ‐elements for plane strain and plane stress in this study are denoted B (overline)(x, y)‐QE4 and B (overline)(ξ, η)‐QE4.
The purpose of this paper is to present eight local elasto‐plastic beam element formulations incorporated into the corotational framework for two‐noded three‐dimensional…
The purpose of this paper is to present eight local elasto‐plastic beam element formulations incorporated into the corotational framework for two‐noded three‐dimensional beams. These formulations capture the warping torsional effects of open cross‐sections and are suitable for the analysis of the nonlinear buckling and post‐buckling of thin‐walled frames with generic cross‐sections. The paper highlights the similarities and discrepancies between the different local element formulations. The primary goal of this study is to compare all the local element formulations in terms of accuracy, efficiency and CPU‐running time.
The definition of the corotational framework for a two‐noded three‐dimensional beam element is presented, based upon the works of Battini .The definitions of the local element kinematics and displacements shape functions are developed based on both Timoshenko and Bernoulli assumptions, and considering low‐order as well as higher‐order terms in the second‐order approximation of the Green‐Lagrange strains. Element forces interpolations and generalized stress resultant vectors are then presented for both mixed‐based Timoshenko and Bernoulli formulations. Subsequently, the local internal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix are derived using the principle of virtual work for displacement‐based elements and the two‐field Hellinger‐Reissner assumed stress variational principle for mixed‐based formulations, respectively. A full comparison and assessment of the different local element models are performed by means of several numerical examples.
In this study, it is shown that the higher order elements are more accurate than the low‐order ones, and that the use of the higher order mixed‐based Bernoulli element seems to require the least number of FEs to accurately model the structural behavior, and therefore allows some reduction of the CPU time compared to the other converged solutions; where a larger number of elements are needed to efficiently discretize the structure.
The paper reports computation times for each model in order to assess their relative efficiency. The effect of the numbers of Gauss points along the element length and within the cross‐section are also investigated.
This paper aims to propose a new robust membrane finite element for the analysis of plane problems. The suggested element has triangular geometry. Four nodes and 11…
This paper aims to propose a new robust membrane finite element for the analysis of plane problems. The suggested element has triangular geometry. Four nodes and 11 degrees of freedom (DOF) are considered for the element. Each of the three vertex nodes has three DOF, two displacements and one drilling. The fourth node that is located inside the element has only two translational DOF.
The suggested formulation is based on the assumed strain method and satisfies both compatibility and equilibrium conditions within each element. This establishment results in higher insensitivity to the mesh distortion. Enforcement of the equilibrium condition to the assumed strain field leads to considerably high accuracy of the developed formulation.
To show the merits of the suggested plane element, its different properties, including insensitivity to mesh distortion, particularly under transverse shear forces, immunities to the various locking phenomena and convergence of the element are studied. The obtained results demonstrate the superiority of the suggested element compared with many of the available robust membrane elements.
According to the attained results, the proposed element performs better than the well-known displacement-based elements such as linear strain triangular element, Q4 and Q8 and even is comparable with robust modified membrane elements.
An important characteristic of many soil models is a volume change during plastic flow. In computations, this plastic volume change is expressed via a kinematic constraint…
An important characteristic of many soil models is a volume change during plastic flow. In computations, this plastic volume change is expressed via a kinematic constraint on the possible deformations. Due to this constraint the plane‐strain three‐noded triangular element exhibits locking when plastic deformations occur, under dilatant, contractant and isochoric conditions. It is demonstrated that using the method of enhanced assumed strains by Simol this locking cannot be remedied. For six‐noded wedges and four‐noded and five‐noded pyramids the same conclusion is obtained.
This paper focuses on the development of a new class of eight‐node solid finite elements, suitable for the treatment of volumetric and transverse shear locking problems…
This paper focuses on the development of a new class of eight‐node solid finite elements, suitable for the treatment of volumetric and transverse shear locking problems. Doing so, the proposed elements can be used efficiently for 3D and thin shell applications. The starting point of the work relies on the analysis of the subspace of incompressible deformations associated with the standard (displacement‐based) fully integrated and reduced integrated hexahedral elements. Prediction capabilities for both formulations are defined related to nearly‐incompressible problems and an enhanced strain approach is developed to improve the performance of the earlier formulation in this case. With the insight into volumetric locking gained and benefiting from a recently proposed enhanced transverse shear strain procedure for shell applications, a new element conjugating both the capabilities of efficient solid and shell formulations is obtained. Numerical results attest the robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach, when compared to solid and shell elements well‐established in the literature.
The behaviour of cracked finite elements is investigated. It is shown that spurious kinematic modes may emerge when softening type constitutive laws are employed. These…
The behaviour of cracked finite elements is investigated. It is shown that spurious kinematic modes may emerge when softening type constitutive laws are employed. These modes are not always suppressed by surrounding elements. This is exemplified for a double‐notched concrete beam and for a Crack‐Line‐Wedge‐Loaded Double‐Cantilever‐Beam (CLWL—DCB). The latter example has been analysed for a large variety of finite elements and integration schemes. To investigate the phenomenon in greater depth an eigenvalue analysis has been carried out for some commonly used finite elements.
The 4‐node assumed strain elements are among the best elements available today but the bending moments at their full integration points oscillate severely. This paper…
The 4‐node assumed strain elements are among the best elements available today but the bending moments at their full integration points oscillate severely. This paper presents a one point integrated version of the 4‐node assumed strain plate element of Bathe‐Dvorkin. A Taylor series expansion approach is used to accommodate the linear variation of strains/stresses within the element and hence to stabilize the spurious zero energy modes. An extensive number of benchmark results are presented and compared.
A critical assessment of the 4‐node assumed strain element as proposed by Dvorkin and Bathe is made. The element performed excellently in all investigated shell problems…
A critical assessment of the 4‐node assumed strain element as proposed by Dvorkin and Bathe is made. The element performed excellently in all investigated shell problems which sometimes caused difficulties for other assumed strain techniques. For efficient computation in the non‐linear range, linearization of the virtual work equation is done to yield the consistent tangent stiffness. The shell formulation is done for stress and strain tensors based on local element coordinates. To demonstrate the effectiveness and rapid convergence of the non‐linear formulation, three examples are tested for large displacements.