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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Geetha Mohan, Bharadhwaj Sivakumaran and Piyush Sharma

This paper aims to explore the process by which four store environment (music, light, employee, and layout) and two individual characteristics (shopping enjoyment tendency…

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27370

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the process by which four store environment (music, light, employee, and layout) and two individual characteristics (shopping enjoyment tendency (SET) and impulse buying tendency (IBT)) influence impulse buying behavior through positive and negative affect, and urge to buy impulsively.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained using a structured questionnaire from 733 respondents in a mall survey conducted in Chennai, South India.

Findings

In the structural model tested with AMOS, the authors found that store environment drove impulse buying (IB) through positive affect and urge. Results also showed that the personality variables (SET and IBT) influenced IB through positive affect and urge. This paper did not find support for the relationship between negative affect and urge.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically, the authors add to the list of antecedents of impulse buying, and to the outcomes of store environment. From a managerial viewpoint, the authors suggest that retail managers invest in improving the store environment to increase the level of impulse buying in their stores. Specifically, they need to focus on enhancing friendliness of store employees, playing appropriate music, designing proper layouts and having well-lit stores to encourage impulse buying.

Originality/value

Prior research studied the elements of the store independently and also its long-term impact. To the best of the authors' knowledge, their research is the first to study the impact of store environment (in conjunction with trait variables) on impulse buying.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2018

Ioannis Krasonikolakis, Adam Vrechopoulos, Athanasia Pouloudi and Sergios Dimitriadis

Positioned in the e-retailing field, this study aims to investigate the effect of the retail store’s atmosphere on consumer behavior in 3D online shopping environments

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4524

Abstract

Purpose

Positioned in the e-retailing field, this study aims to investigate the effect of the retail store’s atmosphere on consumer behavior in 3D online shopping environments, focusing on store layout as a critical influential factor.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses a mixed research method approach that includes two complementary studies. First, a three-round Delphi study with domain experts is used to develop a store layout classification scheme (Study 1), resulting in five distinct types of store layout. Subsequently, 3D online retail stores that use the five layouts are designed and developed. These serve as treatments of a laboratory experimental design, which is used to assess layout impact on a number of attitudinal and behavioral variables (Study 2).

Findings

Five distinct types of store layout have been identified in Study 1, and their distinctive features are presented. The findings of Study 2 indicate that online shopping enjoyment, entertainment and ease of navigation are influenced by the store layout types of 3D online environments. Specifically, the “avant-garde” layout type facilitates the ease of navigation of customers in the store and provides a superior online customer experience. The “warehouse”’ adopts long aisles for the display of products, which simplifies the comparison of products, whereas the “boutique” layout was found to be the best in terms of shopping enjoyment and entertainment. The “department” layout shares many common characteristics with traditional department stores, providing an entertaining and enjoyable store, whereas the “pragmatic” layout emphasizes low system requirements.

Practical implications

The paper presents characteristics that make store layouts effective for different aspects of online customers’ experience and identifies opportunities that 3D online store designers and retailers can explore for the provision of enhanced, customized services to online customers.

Originality/value

This paper examines recent technological developments in store design and visual merchandising. It identifies five layout types of 3D online stores, which are different from those of brick–and–mortar and 2D online stores, and investigates their impact on consumer behavior. Further, the paper examines how each layout type influences online shopping enjoyment, entertainment, ease of navigation, online customer experience and, in turn, purchase and word-of-mouth intentions. Finally, the paper examines the moderating role of telepresence. Individuals with high sense of telepresence conceive 3D environments as “real” and are more concerned about the attributes that trigger the sense of enjoyment they experience while browsing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2007

Jochen Wirtz, Anna S. Mattila and Rachel L.P. Tan

It is widely accepted that consumers enter into a service consumption experience with a set of expectations, including affective expectations. This research aims to…

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6437

Abstract

Purpose

It is widely accepted that consumers enter into a service consumption experience with a set of expectations, including affective expectations. This research aims to investigate the matching effects between arousal‐level expectations and perceived stimulation (i.e. arousal congruency) on satisfaction and in‐store behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3 (under‐stimulation, arousal congruency and under‐stimulation) perceived arousal congruency)×2 valence (pleasant or unpleasant environment) factorial design was employed and tested across two service settings, a music store and a book store. A short narrative was used to induce arousal level expectations (high and low). Subjects were then exposed to a video clip in which the actual arousal of the store environment was manipulated at three levels (high, moderate, low). Consequently, subjects could perceive the store environment to match their expectations (arousal congruency), exceed their expectations (over‐stimulation) or to fall short of their expectations (under‐stimulation). Half of the video clips showed a pleasant store environment, whereas the other half of the videos involved an unpleasant store environment. Satisfaction and in‐store behaviors served as the two dependent variables in this study.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that the valence of the service environment (pleasant or unpleasant) moderates the arousal‐congruency effect on satisfaction and in‐store behaviors. Satisfaction in pleasant service environments was maximized at arousal congruency, while such matching effects failed to influence satisfaction in unpleasant settings. For in‐store approach behaviors, perceived under‐stimulation, compared with over‐stimulation, had a positive effect on in‐store behaviors.

Practical implications

The findings of this study indicate that retailers need to pay attention not only to the pleasantness of the store environment, but also to arousal level expectations regarding the servicescape.

Originality/value

This paper posits a hitherto neglected theory that affective expectations, which reflect people's expectations about how they expect to feel in a given situation, might be equally important in influencing customer responses in a service setting.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Multi-Channel Marketing, Branding and Retail Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-455-6

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2018

Ju Yeun Jang, Eunsoo Baek and Ho Jung Choo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of a fashion store’s visual complexity on consumers’ behaviour. Considering environmental order and individuals…

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2739

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of a fashion store’s visual complexity on consumers’ behaviour. Considering environmental order and individuals’ sensation-seeking tendencies, the authors examine the effect of visually complex fashion stores on consumers in a more conclusive way to address the inconsistent effect found in the previous literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This study features a 3 (visual complexity level: low, medium, high) × 2 (environmental order condition: low, high) between subjects design, with individual sensation-seeking tendency included as a moderator. Using this design, an online survey was administered to 188 participants in South Korea.

Findings

The results indicate that there is a three-way interaction, where the interaction effect of visual complexity and environmental order is moderated by individuals’ sensation-seeking tendency. The effect of visual complexity on approach behaviours had an inverted U-shape in the low-order condition, while had a positive linear shape in the high-order condition, and the interaction effect was significant only for high-sensation seekers.

Practical implications

The findings assist practitioners in establishing strategies for visual merchandising and store design within fashion stores. It is suggested that retailers consider environmental order when organising a large amount of varied merchandise in a complex environment. Store managers must adjust the complexity and environmental order to meet the optimal stimulation level of their target consumers.

Originality/value

This study strengthens the literature on visual complexity by applying the concept to the retail environment. The results provide a significant contribution to the literature because they show how individual-level and store-level variables interact to influence consumer behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Marlon Dalmoro, Giuliana Isabella, Stefânia Ordovás de Almeida and João Pedro dos Santos Fleck

This paper aims to investigate how the physical and sensory environmental triggers interact with subjective consumer evaluations in the production of shopping experiences…

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1208

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how the physical and sensory environmental triggers interact with subjective consumer evaluations in the production of shopping experiences, an under-investigated theme, despite its relevance.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretative multi-method approach was used by combining video observation with camera eyeglasses and in-depth interviews with 30 customers of a department store.

Findings

Results offer a holistic framework with four-dimensional axial combination involving physical comfort, psychological comfort, physical product evaluation and sensorial product evaluation. Based on this framework, results highlight the role of comfort and products in producing shopping experience in ordinary store visits.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute both to consumer experience studies and to the retail marketing literature in shading a light on experience production in ordinary store visits. Specifically, we detail these visits not as a static response to a given environment stimulus, but as a simultaneous objective and subjective combination able to produce experience.

Practical implications

The results encourage managers to understand the experience production not just as an outcome of managerially influenced elements, like décor or odor. It involves considering subjective elements in the design of consumers’ physical and sensorial retail experiences.

Originality/value

Adopting an innovative method of empirical data collection, results generated a framework that integrates the objective shopping environment and subjective consumer responses. This research considers the role of comfort and product features and quality both physically and sensorially to develop experiences in a holistic manner in ordinary shopping visits.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Hyo Jung Chang, Ruoh-Nan Yan and Molly Eckman

Guided by the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, this study aimed to investigate direct and indirect effects of apparel store environmental characteristics and…

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8493

Abstract

Purpose

Guided by the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model, this study aimed to investigate direct and indirect effects of apparel store environmental characteristics and consumers' positive emotional responses to the environment on impulse buying behavior. Also, this study sought to examine how situational variables interact with consumers' positive emotional responses in influencing impulse buying behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected using a store intercept method from 118 female consumers of an outdoor retail store in the western region of the USA.

Findings

The study found direct effects of ambient/design characteristics on consumers' positive emotional responses and direct effects of consumers' positive emotional responses to the retail environment on impulse buying behavior. Money availability and task definition moderated the relationship between consumers' positive emotional responses and impulse buying behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptualization of a theoretical framework of impulse buying behavior for apparel resulted from this study.

Practical implications

Managing appealing store design characteristics may increase consumers' positive emotions and impulse purchases. Displays designed to attract impulse purchasers should target browsers without restricted budgets.

Originality/value

This study expands the application of the S-O-R model in the context of apparel by including situational factors as moderating variables.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Kafia Ayadi and Lanlan Cao

The purpose of this paper is to explore children’s responses to store atmosphere, and the role of parent-child interaction in these responses.

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1521

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore children’s responses to store atmosphere, and the role of parent-child interaction in these responses.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a qualitative study within two French stores and employed a grounded-theory approach to analyse data. Data were collected from 41 in-store observations and 20 in-depth interviews with children aged 7-11.

Findings

This research reveals that the impact of store atmospherics on children’s responses to store environment and on their behaviour in-store is a complex phenomenon. Children passively and actively respond to store atmosphere. They appropriate and re-appropriate store environment for their own goal of play. Store atmospherics may lead to positive outcomes in the form of children’s exploration of the store, desire to stay longer and intention to revisit. However, store atmosphere can also become the source of conflicts between parents and children, and therefore have a negative impact on children’s behaviour in-store.

Research limitations/implications

The study deepens the understanding of children’s responses to store atmosphere by taking account of parent-child interaction. It extends research on the effects of store atmosphere on children’s behaviour by suggesting the moderating effect of parent-child conflict. Nevertheless, the number of stores selected limits the findings.

Practical implications

The findings of this study enable retailers to improve the atmosphere of their stores by making it fun and creative in order to attract children to play there. Furthermore, the study provides interesting findings for retailers on how to overcome the challenge of inappropriate store atmosphere creating or aggravating parent-child conflict during shopping trips.

Social implications

The authors suggest solving conflicts between children and parents through common activities within the store or through interactive technologies that favour communication and enable children to learn through play.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in its focus on the role of parent-child interaction in children’s responses to store atmosphere. The authors intend to reveal the complicated relationship between store atmosphere, children’s responses and parent-child interaction in-store.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Haiyan Hu and Cynthia R. Jasper

The purpose of this study is to examine the roles that social cues play in affecting patronage behavior and how consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence would…

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11876

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the roles that social cues play in affecting patronage behavior and how consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence would moderate the influence of social cues on store image.

Design/methodology/approach

A two (high vs low socially‐oriented in‐store graphics) by two (high vs low personalized customer service) between subject experimental design was conducted to achieve the research objective. A total of 193 surveys were used for data analysis.

Findings

Consumers had a more favorable attitude toward merchandise and service quality and felt more aroused or pleased with a store where more social cues were present. They also had a more favorable perception of store image when high‐personalized service was provided. Consumers perceived that they would be more likely to shop in a store that had more in‐store displays of graphics with social meaning. Consumer susceptibility to informational influence (SII) played a moderating role in some cases.

Practical implications

Retail service needs to be reinvented to create excitement. Consumers may use social cues embedded in the store environment as an information source. Sales skills of staff and in‐store graphics should be especially appealing to low‐SII customer.

Originality/value

This study has added to the retail literature by demonstrating that the social cues in store environment can affect consumers' perception of store image and patronage intention. It provides interesting insights on how retailers can use a socially meaningful environment as a source of competitive advantage.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Julie Baker, Kara Bentley and Charles Lamb, Jr

This paper aims to explore the evolution of the service environment literature and speculates about future research in this area. This paper focuses on studies regarding…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the evolution of the service environment literature and speculates about future research in this area. This paper focuses on studies regarding how the interior and exterior environments of physical service settings (including retail stores) influence consumer response. Web atmospherics are not covered in this paper. In addition, while a number of studies have been conducted on retail and service atmospherics elements in other disciplines, such as environmental psychology and leisure and hospitality, the focus is on research published in marketing and consumer-related journals.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports the results of empirical studies; however, as there are few empirical studies on the effects of exterior environmental characteristics (e.g. storefronts) in marketing, two conceptual papers on this topic will be reviewed to set the stage for future research on exterior design.

Findings

Over the past 40 years, there has been a proliferation of articles on how service environments influence consumer responses. The review covers illustrative examples of articles in several categories of environmental topics. The areas for future research based on the review are suggested.

Originality/value

An up-to-date review of service environment research that is broad in scope is provided. The authors also propose 41 different research questions based on the review that services scholars can use to take this area of inquiry forward.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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