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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Sena Demirbağ Genç and Sennur Alay-Aksoy

In this study, fabrication of polymer and cotton fabric exhibiting stimuli-responsive wetting and water vapor permeability features together with antibacterial activity was aimed.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, fabrication of polymer and cotton fabric exhibiting stimuli-responsive wetting and water vapor permeability features together with antibacterial activity was aimed.

Design/methodology/approach

Temperature and pH-responsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-graft-chitosan) (PNIPAM-g-CS) copolymer were produced via the free radical addition polymerization method and fixed to the cotton fabric using butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) cross-linker by double-bath impregnation method. The chemical structure of the graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy and H-Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analyses. Thermo-responsive behavior of the fabric was investigated by wetting time and water uptake tests, contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation. Additionally, antibacterial activity of the fabric treated with copolymer was studied against S. aureus bacterium.

Findings

PNIPAM-g-CS graft copolymer was synthesized successfully, which had lower critical solution temperature (LCST) value of 32 °C and exhibited thermo-responsive property. The treated fabrics exhibited hydrophilic character at temperatures below the LCST and hydrophobic character at temperatures above the LCST. It was found that polymer-coated fabric could have regulated the water vapor permeability by the change in its pore size and hydrophilicity depending on the temperature. Additionally, treated fabric displayed a pH-responsive water absorption behavior and strong antibacterial activity against S.aureus bacterium.

Originality/value

In the study, it has been shown that the cotton fabrics can be fabricated which have antibacterial activity and capable of pH and temperature responsive smart moisture/water management by application of copolymer. It is thought that the fabric structures developed in the study will be promising in the production of medical textile structures where antibacterial activity and thermophysiological comfort are important.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Eujin Pei, Giselle Hsiang Loh, David Harrison, Henrique de Amorim Almeida, Mario Domingo Monzón Verona and Rubén Paz

The purpose of this paper is to extend existing knowledge of 4D printing, in line with Khoo et al. (2015) who defined the production of 4D printing using a single…

1910

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend existing knowledge of 4D printing, in line with Khoo et al. (2015) who defined the production of 4D printing using a single material, and 4D printing of multiple materials. It is proposed that 4D printing can be achieved through the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) that involve gradational mixing of materials and are produced using an additive manufacturing (AM) technique to achieve a single component.

Design/methodology/approach

The latest state-of-the-art literature was extensively reviewed, covering aspects of materials, processes, computer-aided design (CAD), applications and made recommendations for future work.

Findings

This paper clarifies that functionally graded additive manufacturing (FGAM) is defined as a single AM process that includes the gradational mixing of materials to fabricate freeform geometries with variable properties within one component. The paper also covers aspects of materials, processes, CAD, applications and makes recommendations for future work.

Research limitations/implications

This paper examines the relationship between FGAM and 4D printing and defines FGAM as a single AM process involving gradational mixing of materials to fabricate freeform geometries with variable properties within one component. FGAM requires better computational tools for modelling, simulation and fabrication because current CAD systems are incapable of supporting the FGAM workflow.

Practical implications

It is also identified that other factors, such as strength, type of materials, etc., must be taken into account when selecting an appropriate process for FGAM. More research needs to be conducted on improving the performance of FGAM processes through extensive characterisation of FGMs to generate a comprehensive database and to develop a predictive model for proper process control. It is expected that future work will focus on both material characterisation as well as seamless FGAM control processes.

Originality/value

This paper examines the relationship between FGAM and 4D printing and defines FGAM as a single AM process that includes gradational mixing of materials to fabricate freeform geometries with variable properties within one component.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2022

Abstract

Details

Women, Work and Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-670-4

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

H.B. Lu, W.M. Huang and Y.T. Yao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the…

1601

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the future trend of development and potential applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Working mechanism in chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers is firstly identified. And then the physico‐chemical requirements for the representative polymers are characterized.

Findings

The different working mechanisms, fundamentals, physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins have been discussed. Current research and development on the fabrication strategies of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers have been summarised. The future trend and potential applications have been explored and estimated.

Research limitations/implications

This review examines physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins necessary to achieve chemo‐responsiveness, and then discusses recent developments and future trends.

Practical implications

Shape change/memory polymers can be used in the broad field of bio‐ and/or medicine.

Originality/value

Breakthroughs and rapid development of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers will significantly improve the research and development of smart materials, structures and systems.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Gregory I. Peterson, Mete Yurtoglu, Michael B Larsen, Stephen L. Craig, Mark A. Ganter, Duane W. Storti and Andrew J. Boydston

This paper aims to explore and demonstrate the ability to integrate entry-level additive manufacturing (AM) techniques with responsive polymers capable of mechanical to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and demonstrate the ability to integrate entry-level additive manufacturing (AM) techniques with responsive polymers capable of mechanical to chemical energy transduction. This integration signifies the merger of AM and smart materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Custom filaments were synthesized comprising covalently incorporated spiropyran moieties. The mechanical activation and chemical response of the spiropyran-containing filaments were demonstrated in materials that were produced via fused filament fabrication techniques.

Findings

Custom filaments were successfully produced and printed with complete preservation of the mechanochemical reactivity of the spiropyran units. These smart materials were demonstrated in two key constructs: a center-cracked test specimen and a mechanochromic force sensor. The mechanochromic nature of the filament enables (semi)quantitative assessment of peak loads based on color change, without requiring any external analytical techniques.

Originality/value

This paper describes the first examples of three-dimensional-printed mechanophores, which may be of significant interest to the AM community. The ability to control the chemical response to external mechanical forces, in combination with AM to process the bulk materials, potentiates customizability at the molecular and macroscopic length scales.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Shubham Shankar Mohol and Varun Sharma

Additive manufacturing has rapidly developed in terms of technology and its application in various types of industries. With this rapid development, there has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing has rapidly developed in terms of technology and its application in various types of industries. With this rapid development, there has been significant research in the area of materials. This has led to the invention of Smart Materials (SMs). The 4D printing is basically 3D printing of these SMs. This paper aims to focus on novel materials and their useful application in various industries using the technology of 4D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

Research studies in 4D printing have increased since the time when this idea was first introduced in the year 2013. The present research study will deeply focus on the introduction to 4D printing, types of SMs and its application based on the various types of stimulus. The application of each type of SM has been explained along with its functioning with respect to the stimulus.

Findings

SMs have multiple functional applications pertaining to appropriate industries. The 4D printed parts have a distinctive capability to change its shape and self-assembly to carry out a specific function according to the requirement. Afterward, the fabricated part can recover to its 3D printed “memorized” shape once it is triggered by the stimulus.

Originality/value

The present study highlights the various capabilities of SMs, which is used as a raw material in 4D printing.

Graphical abstract

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2014

Eujin Pei

The purpose of this article is to reviews state-of-the-art developments in four-dimensional (4D) printing, discuss what it is, investigate new applications that have been…

2624

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to reviews state-of-the-art developments in four-dimensional (4D) printing, discuss what it is, investigate new applications that have been discovered and suggest its future impact.

Design/methodology/approach

The article clarifies the definition of 4D printing and describes notable examples covering material science, equipment and applications.

Findings

This article highlights an emerging technology cycle where 4D printing research has gained traction within additive manufacturing. The use of stimuli-responsive materials can be programmed and printed to enable pre-determined reactions when subject to external stimuli.

Originality/value

This article reviews state-of-the-art developments in 4D printing, discusses what it is, investigates new applications that have been discovered and suggests its future impact.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

J.N. Chakraborty, Priyanka Kumari Dhaka, Akshit Vikram Sethi and Md Arif

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond with a change in their shape against a specific stimulus by memorizing their original shape and are reformed after deformation most…

Abstract

Purpose

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond with a change in their shape against a specific stimulus by memorizing their original shape and are reformed after deformation most often by changing the temperature of the surrounding without additional mechanical efforts. In the coming years, these polymers indeed will be in limelight to manufacture textile materials which will retain their shape even after prolonged use under disturbed conditions. This study aims at defining shape memory materials and polymers as well as their technological characteristics and also highlights application in various fields of textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used to explain these SMPs have been carried out starting with the discussion on their properties, their physical nature, types, viz., shape memory alloys (SMAs), shape memory ceramics, shape memory hybrid, magnetic shape memory alloy, shape memory composites, shape memory gels and SMP along with properties of each type. Other related details of these polymers, such as their advantages, structure and mechanism, shape memory functionality, thermally responsive SMPs and applications, have been detailed.

Findings

It has been observed that the SMPs are very important in the fields of wet and melt-spun fibers to offer novel and functional properties, cotton and wool fabric finishing, to produce SMP films, foams and laminated textiles, water vapor permeable and breathable SMP films, etc.

Originality/value

The field of SMPs is new, and very limited information is available to enable their smooth production and handling.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Xin Li, Jianzhong Shang and Zhuo Wang

The paper aims to promote the development of intelligent materials and the 4D printing technology by introducing recent advances and applications of additive layered…

13616

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to promote the development of intelligent materials and the 4D printing technology by introducing recent advances and applications of additive layered manufacturing (ALM) technology of intelligent materials and the development of the 4D printing technology. Also, an arm-type ALM technology of shape memory polymer (SMP) with thermosetting polyurethane is briefly introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins with an overview of the development and applications of intelligent materials around the world and the 4D printing technology. Then, the authors provide a brief outline of their research on arm-type ALM technology of SMP with thermosetting polyurethane.

Findings

The paper provides the recent developments and applications of intelligent materials and 4D printing technology. Then, it is suggested that intelligent materials mixed with different functional materials will be developed, and these types of materials will be more suitable for 4D printing.

Originality/value

This paper overviews the current developments and applications of intelligent materials and its use in 4D printing technology, and briefly states the authors’ research on arm-type ALM technology of SMP with thermosetting polyurethane.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2020

Libin Yang, Dong Wang, Hong Gao, Hui Cao, Yuzhen Zhao, Zongcheng Miao, Zhou Yang and Wanli He

This study aims to develop a new kind of functional low molecular weight organic dyes, which is highly efficient, meanwhile inexpensive and easily prepared and modified…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a new kind of functional low molecular weight organic dyes, which is highly efficient, meanwhile inexpensive and easily prepared and modified and can be used in photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT). To further realize the release of molecules under the biomedical condition, the releasing efficiency of micellar nanoparticles under different stimuli were represented.

Design/methodology/approach

A class of azo and Schiff base derivatives with different click reagents were characterized by PA imaging and photothermal (PT) experiments. The molecule with best PT effect was loaded into a temperature-stimuli-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer which demonstrated the capability of releasing the polymers under the near-infrared (NIR) light of 650 nm.

Findings

The PA and PT effects of a series of azo and Schiff base derivatives with different click reagents were characterized. Introducing the click reagent F4-TCNQ can result in red shift of peaks of PA intensity. Stimulated with 650 nm laser irradiation, the polymer processed higher release rate than being stimulated by temperature stimuli.

Practical implications

This paper not only guides the design of NIR dyes with good PA intensity but also provides a method which has great potential for the application of NIR photothermal dyes in the field of biotechnology for controlled release.

Originality/value

This paper uses click reagents to modify azo and Schiff derivatives and an amphiphilic block copolymer under NIR light to realize controlled release.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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