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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Margaret J. Nowak and Steven Ward

Still, (1986) has claimed that representation of women in management is low and has changed little since the late 60s. There may be structural reasons for this, in…

Abstract

Still, (1986) has claimed that representation of women in management is low and has changed little since the late 60s. There may be structural reasons for this, in particular concentration of women in a relatively restricted spread of occupations and industries. Perceived lack of long term career commitment by women has also been put forward as a factor (Still, 1986; Rosenfeld, 1979). Interaction will exist between women's human capital investments and career commitment. It is also claimed that women may have lower motivation to succeed and that this could account for their low participation rates in upper management (Albrech, 1978; O'Leary, 1974).

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Antonia Girardi, Geoffrey N. Soutar and Steven Ward

To validate a measure of use innovativeness, or how existing products are used in a novel and innovative manner. The measure has practical significance for innovation…

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3310

Abstract

Purpose

To validate a measure of use innovativeness, or how existing products are used in a novel and innovative manner. The measure has practical significance for innovation research as it consists of only nine items as opposed to the original 44. The use innovativeness measure derived from research predicts acceptance of new technology (in this case computer technology) and could be adapted to other fields of innovation research.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted and structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyse the data.

Findings

Evidence for a unidimensional measure of use innovativeness is provided by structural equation modelling. The nine‐item measure has fewer items than the original 44‐item measure developed by Price and Ridgway (1983) Price and Ridgway and consists of the items of multiple use and creative reuse. The measure was found to be positively correlated with innovativeness and opinion leadership and the acceptance of new information technology. The construct of use innovativeness is thus a practical measurement for use in innovation research.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations regarding the nature of the sample are discussed. Implications for future research in the diffusion of innovations are also addressed.

Originality/value

The only paper which validates a measure of use innovativeness, so that it has practical and theoretical use in innovation practice and research.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Steven Ward and Aleksandra Lewandowska

The purpose of this paper is to examine which particular marketing strategies will work best in which particular business environments. It also aims to test a series of…

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13249

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine which particular marketing strategies will work best in which particular business environments. It also aims to test a series of propositions that the choice of marketing strategy needs to be carefully considered so that it is appropriate for a set of environmental conditions, or business conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs survey research, structural equation modelling and t‐tests.

Findings

Results in this study of 217 companies from Australia, Singapore, The Netherlands and China finds general support for the hypotheses that different environmental situations provide the suitable conditions for a customer, competitor or societal orientated strategy. In particular, customer‐oriented strategies are most effective in placid clustered and turbulent environments, while competitor orientated strategies work best in a placid‐clustered environment. Societal marketing based strategies were shown to be most effective in placid random and placid clustered environments. This suggests that firms may use social marketing strategies in a pre‐emptive manner to maintain favourable environmental conditions for the organisation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited somewhat by the size and nature of the sample, although this compares well to other studies in the area of marketing orientation. The research shows the importance of the match of the environment type with the business strategy, as certain strategies are most effective in particular environmental conditions.

Practical implications

Choice of an appropriate business strategy is moderated by the environment. Marketing‐based business strategies are not always the most effective. In turbulent environments, customer‐oriented strategies seem to be most effective. Societal marketing strategies seem to be used to manage and maintain placid environments or business conditions. Competitor‐based strategies are best suited to placid‐clustered environments, business conditions, which are favourable and therefore attract greater competition.

Originality/value

This study also introduces an important measure of the societal orientation of the firm. It provides empirical supports the thesis that marketing strategies need to be tailored for the environment and so adds to the understanding of the interplay between the effectiveness of business strategies in different business conditions. There is not a great deal of research which suggests what type of marketing strategy is best suited to what type of environment. This paper makes an important contribution to this area.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

Bill Chitty, Steven Ward and Christina Chua

To determine which factors account for customer satisfaction with a service and their loyalty to a given service provider, in the particular, context of “backpacking” in…

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6038

Abstract

Purpose

To determine which factors account for customer satisfaction with a service and their loyalty to a given service provider, in the particular, context of “backpacking” in Australia, a significant element of the country's hospitality and tourism economy.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of hypotheses was developed from the services marketing literature and built into a 52 item questionnaire administered to 281 backpackers staying at the three youth hostels in Australia, who thus responded whilst actually experiencing the service encounter rather than in recalling it later. The European Customer Satisfaction Index (ECSI) was used to measure the strength and direction of the determinants of customer satisfaction, and the impact that the antecedents of satisfaction had on loyalty to the generic provider.

Findings

The results of confirmatory factor analysis of the questionnaire responses suggest that brand image is a predictor of satisfaction with a hostel, while perceived value indicates a degree of loyalty towards the “brand”.

Research limitations/implications

The ECSI model's generic measuring criteria limit its generalisability. Further, research could usefully investigate other variables applicable to both hostels and conventional hotels to be included in a measurement model of satisfaction and loyalty for the whole hospitality industry.

Practical implications

Backpacker hostels are an example of experienced‐based service encounters with few clear comparative advantages. The marketing of the generic brand must therefore foster a brand image congruent with the experience actually delivered and the potential customers' expectations of it, thereby reducing decision risk.

Originality/value

The unusual context and particular methodology cast fresh light on an important challenge for marketing planners in the service industries.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Steven Ward and Aleksandra Lewandowska

To assess which components of the marketing orientation, along with the new measure societal marketing orientation, predict the performance of the firm and which are…

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2644

Abstract

Purpose

To assess which components of the marketing orientation, along with the new measure societal marketing orientation, predict the performance of the firm and which are moderated by the environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey research in 1999 and hierarchical regression of 81 items.

Findings

Competitor‐based strategy has a more positive impact on firm's performance than the market‐based alternative. Its effectiveness is enhanced by the degree of competitive turbulence in the environment – as, for example, in Singapore in 1999. Societal marketing strategies, while morally appealing, are negatively associated with performance, and further negatively moderated by competitive hostility. The study found no support for the association between market orientation and performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited somewhat by the size and nature of the sample and the low response rate, though these compare well with other studies in the field. The research shows the importance of the business environment as a moderator of the performance of business strategies.

Practical implications

Marketing intelligence gatherers and strategists should take note that choice of an appropriate business strategy is moderated by the environment. Market‐based business strategies are not necessarily the most effective.

Originality/value

Apart from the main findings, introduces an important measure of a firm's societal orientation.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Steven Ward, Cecil Pearson and Lanny Entrekin

Despite the continuing interest in a concern for relationships between culture, management values and economic activity, there is a lack of empirical evidence about these…

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4262

Abstract

Despite the continuing interest in a concern for relationships between culture, management values and economic activity, there is a lack of empirical evidence about these relationships during the unprecedented economic transformations in Asian nations in the 1990s. This study evaluated variations in values that tapped concerns fundamental to the Chinese world view during the period of the Asian financial crisis of 1997. Data were provided by ethnic Chinese managers from Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore prior to and after the meltdown. The study findings demonstrate a number of the values changed significantly, which questions assumptions of the longevity of these values, which were identified in earlier periods of relative economic stability. These findings suggest the emergence of distinct managerial styles in each country, rather than the continuance of more common “Asian” or a Chinese way of doing business.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Anthony Pecotich and Steven Ward

The globalisation of markets combined with the paradoxical rise of nationalism has created an increased concern about the importance of the interaction of global brands…

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10012

Abstract

Purpose

The globalisation of markets combined with the paradoxical rise of nationalism has created an increased concern about the importance of the interaction of global brands with other cues such as the country of origin (COO) of products and services. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the decision‐making processes of experts and novices with respect to international brand names, COO and intrinsic quality differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Within subject experimental design, quantitative study analysis of variance.

Findings

Results of a series of experiments with personal computers as a product with strong COO effects supported this argument. Experts or highly knowledgeable consumers were found to use COO in a circumspect manner or as a limited summary construct, only when such information was consistent with a linked brand name or a particular level of physical quality. Novices, for both products used COO as a halo regardless of brand name and physical quality.

Research limitations/implications

International brand names are used in a more analytical manner by experts, with respect to quality, whilst novices based their decision‐making on extrinsic cues. This was a controlled experimental design and results could be evaluated further by more realistic design using actual products in a more market setting. Although the use of product description as used as experimental treatments in this study is not an unusual manner in which personal computers are purchased by consumers, especially when they are purchased online.

Practical implications

International marketers must carefully consider the quality, brand and COO information carefully when marketing to consumers of varying product knowledge as it appears different decision‐making styles are used by experts and novices.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to experimentally manipulate brand, quality and COO information amongst different groups of consumers with varying product knowledge (experts and novices). The experimental treatments were also carefully chosen so that differences due to the use of a global brand IBM could be evaluated against a lesser known local brand name.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1976

William Wagner

Noteworthy shifts in availability of raw materials, component parts and products have had a profound influence on customer service levels. Changes in these levels have…

Abstract

Noteworthy shifts in availability of raw materials, component parts and products have had a profound influence on customer service levels. Changes in these levels have dramatised the importance of and concern for effective management of customer service in distribution. As a result, adjustments in business procedure and organisational structure are necessary.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0020-7527

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Anya Johnson, Helena Nguyen, Sharon K. Parker, Markus Groth, Steven Coote, Lin Perry and Bruce Way

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a boundary spanning, interprofessional collaboration between advanced practice nurses (APNs) and junior doctors to support…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a boundary spanning, interprofessional collaboration between advanced practice nurses (APNs) and junior doctors to support junior doctors’ learning and improve patient management during the overtime shift.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods evaluation of an intervention in an adult tertiary referral hospital, to enhance interprofessional collaboration on overtime shifts. Phase 1 compared tasks and ward rounds on 86 intervention shifts with 106 “regular” shifts, and examined the effect on junior doctor patient management testing a model using regression techniques. Phase 2 explored the experience of the intervention for stakeholders. 91 junior doctors participated (89 percent response rate) on 192 overtime shifts. Junior doctors, APNs and senior medical professionals/administrators participated in interviews.

Findings

The intervention was associated with an increase in self-initiated ward rounds by junior doctors, partially explained by junior doctors completing fewer tasks skilled nurses could also complete. The intervention significantly reduced doctors’ engagement in tasks carried over from day shifts as well as first year (but not more experienced) junior doctors’ total tasks. Interviews suggested the initiative reduced junior doctors’ work pressure and promoted a safe team climate, situation awareness, skills, confidence, and well-being.

Originality/value

Junior doctors overtime shifts (5 p.m. to 11 p.m.) are important, both for hospitals to maintain patient care after hours and for junior doctors to learn and develop independent clinical decision making skills. However, junior doctors frequently report finding overtime shifts challenging and stressful. Redesigning overtime shifts to facilitate interprofessional collaboration can improve patient management and junior doctors’ learning and well-being.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2013

Marion Orr and Carrie Nordlund

Purpose – This chapter examines the shift in political leadership from white ethnics and African-Americans to Hispanic/Latino representation in city-wide offices…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines the shift in political leadership from white ethnics and African-Americans to Hispanic/Latino representation in city-wide offices. Specifically, we explore the electoral coalition that Angel Taveras constructed to become Providence, Rhode Island’s first Latino mayor. This victory illustrates the continued strength of Hispanic/Latino political candidates in American politics.Design/method – Using public opinion survey data and a ward-by-ward analysis we provide a detailed breakdown of the type of voter Taveras appealed to and where these individuals reside.Findings – Taveras’s win was anchored in the upper-income, white liberal wards of the city. In addition, he won in the old Irish and Italian wards now inhabited by African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino voters. Overall, the significant growth of the Hispanic/Latino community in Providence from 30 percent in 2000 to 38 percent in 2010 was pivotal to his victory.Originality/value – This chapter provides an in-depth examination of how a Latino candidate won in a Northeastern city that had been dominated by Irish and Italian political leaders. The coalition that Taveras constructed highlights how Latinos appeal to liberal white voters. Finally, Taveras’s victory signals the continued political ascension and strength of the Hispanic/Latino community.

Details

21st Century Urban Race Politics: Representing Minorities as Universal Interests
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-184-7

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