Search results

1 – 10 of 148
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Steven P. Feldman

Every writer, Nietzsche once commented, has an intellectual idiosyncrasy that, once grasped, can be used as a key to interpret their work. In Chester Barnard’s classic…

Downloads
590

Abstract

Every writer, Nietzsche once commented, has an intellectual idiosyncrasy that, once grasped, can be used as a key to interpret their work. In Chester Barnard’s classic text on management theory, The Functions of the Executive, the use of dichotomy is such a key. Barnard uses dichotomy in all his major conceptual frameworks. Analyses his three central sociological concepts: society, organization purpose, and organization authority. Shows that the purpose behind Barnard’s use of dichotomy is political: he is attempting to legitimate the dominance of formal organization in society. His main means to accomplish this is by defining dichotomies in such a way that they either assume the dominance or demonstrate the superiority of formal organization. The result is that Barnard’s use of dichotomy is misleading and contradictory. He tries to conceal the contradictions by the use of complex and ambiguous discussions. Ultimately, Barnard’s theoretical method is shown to rest on the erroneous dichotomy that assumes organization rationality is autonomous from and superior to culture and society.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Steven P. Feldman

Refers to Chester Barnard’s classic work in management theory, The Functions of the Executive, which includes one of the first systematic discussions of management ethics…

Downloads
1252

Abstract

Refers to Chester Barnard’s classic work in management theory, The Functions of the Executive, which includes one of the first systematic discussions of management ethics, and is an attempt to create a new justification for executive control and organization freedom. The literature reviewing Barnard’s effort has focused on the various arguments he uses to justify these ends. Contends that the key fact in understanding Barnard’s work on management ethics is that he broke with any historical continuity of (traditional) moral belief. Barnard attempts to replace traditional moral beliefs with a rational process of moral conflict resolution controlled by the executive. He develops a complex system of dichotomies, assumptions, and concepts in order to incorporate the individual into the organization and demonstrate the moral superiority of the individual executive. This conceptual system, however, is shown to be based on a contradictory reversal of the definitions in the individual‐organization dichotomy. This reversal supports Barnard’s objectification of organization which enables him to reduce morality to a functional role within the organization. In other words, morality is reduced to politics. The argument is based on the dubious ambition that only organizations, not society, can provide an integrated moral whole. Barnard’s justification fails in that rational individualism cannot provide a stable or legitimate moral system.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

To provide a concise briefing on the most topical issues and relevant implications from the top 400 management publications in the world.

Downloads
4048

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a concise briefing on the most topical issues and relevant implications from the top 400 management publications in the world.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the argument in context.

Findings

Feldman's detailed study reviews the decision‐making processes – and the influences which were brought to bear on those processes – in the years before the space shuttle Challenger exploded in 1986. He demonstrates – with a carefully‐constructed view of the culture of objectivity, of how decisions are made and what knowledge is brought to bear on those decisions – how misunderstandings of flight risk resulted. Robert F. Gratton analyses President Kennedy's style of leadership and decision making during the crucial days of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. He reveals that Kennedy adopted a questioning, Socratic approach and concludes that the collective strategy process can not truly begin until a collective aim has been decided. In addition, the strategy process is best led by a facilitator than an authoritarian, and strategy formulation is an art, guided by whatever science can be brought to bear. Howard Hills demonstrates the benefits of collaborative decision making. He identifies symptoms of teams that fail to make collaborative decisions, and offers actions a team leader may take to enable effective collaborative decisions to be made. He asserts the value of mutual respect, learning from mistakes and welcoming feedback.

Originality/value

Provides implementable strategies and practical thinking that has influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Rachid Zeffane

In the past decade or so, workplace organisation and restructuring processes, have been subjected to the most intense scrutiny. Driven by rapidly intensifying competitive…

Abstract

In the past decade or so, workplace organisation and restructuring processes, have been subjected to the most intense scrutiny. Driven by rapidly intensifying competitive pressures, work organisations sought increased flexibility, especially from labour, as they struggled to maintain market shares in an economic environment increasingly characterised by excess in labour supply. Pressures for change were probably most evident in the public sector where economic and ideological forces combined to limit the growth of government services and increase their exposure to competitive forces.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 13 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Russell Cropanzano, Howard M Weiss and Steven M Elias

Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please…

Abstract

Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please customers, maintain internal harmony, and promote employee well-being. Despite these valid intentions, display rules can engender emotional labor, a potentially deleterious phenomenon. We review three mechanisms by which emotional labor can create worker alienation, burnout, stress, and low performance. Though not as widely discussed, emotional labor sometimes has propitious consequences. We discuss the potential benefits of emotional labor as well.

Details

Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-238-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Downloads
53959

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

David M. Boje, Heather Baca-Greif, Melissa Intindola and Steven Elias

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model for depicting organizational processes: the episodic spiral model (ESM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new model for depicting organizational processes: the episodic spiral model (ESM).

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of a strong process view as the orienting paradigm, the authors demonstrate the need for the ESM by discussing the shortcomings of two specific spiral types in the organizational literature – the knowledge creation spiral and the efficacy spiral.

Findings

A review of each spiral type through the lens of nonlinear assumptions reveals the treatment to date of organizational spirals as uni-directional and insufficient for understanding organizations. The authors propose that managers must undertake a paradigm shift in order to gain a greater awareness of both the environment in which they operate, as well as their process actions. To facilitate this shift, the ESM depicts choice points, chosen and rejected trajectories, and upward and downward environmental drafts, as well as a multi-dimensional environment, as a way of re-conceptualizing approaches to space, time, and change in organization studies.

Originality/value

The authors propose that the model provides a way for scholars to enhance the study of organizations by understanding that organizations exist in a more dynamic environment than previously studied; recognizing that the organization has a wider range of choices available, and acknowledging the long-lasting ramifications of both choices made and choices discarded; and obtaining a more comprehensive look at the way the organization moves through space and time at any given moment. Taken together, the authors hope that these contributions allow organizational scholars a new approach to theorizing, exploring, and writing about the organizations they study.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Susan L. Adkins

As CD‐ROM becomes more and more a standard reference and technicalsupport tool in all types of libraries, the annual review of thistechnology published in Computers in

Downloads
346

Abstract

As CD‐ROM becomes more and more a standard reference and technical support tool in all types of libraries, the annual review of this technology published in Computers in Libraries magazine increases in size and scope. This year, author Susan L. Adkins has prepared this exceptionally useful bibliography which she has cross‐referenced with a subject index.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2013

Michael Schwartz and Debra R. Comer

We argue that Oskar Schindler is a moral exemplar. Oskar Schindler and other moral exemplars should, according to Mayo, be emulated. Emulating Schindler when he acted as a…

Abstract

We argue that Oskar Schindler is a moral exemplar. Oskar Schindler and other moral exemplars should, according to Mayo, be emulated. Emulating Schindler when he acted as a moral exemplar could have led to others’ being helped during truly terrible times. Yet, had officialdom at that time known what Schindler was doing, he would have lost his life, and the lives of the many others he was able to save – as well as their progeny – would also have been lost. Thus, we underscore that it can be extraordinarily difficult for someone to be recognised as a moral exemplar when a moral exemplar is so desperately needed.

Details

Moral Saints and Moral Exemplars
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-075-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Jerry A. Carbo, Steven J. Haase and M. Blake Hargrove

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a model of union reform that may help to revitalize the labor movement. Our model presents a path using democracy and militancy…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to develop a model of union reform that may help to revitalize the labor movement. Our model presents a path using democracy and militancy to overcome union oligarchy to build stronger unions and a stronger broader movement. We develop a new model of union revitalization by expanding the Voss and Sherman (2000) model from our own experiences and a review of past union revitalization efforts. Democratic and militant strategies are a key to successful reform efforts. Entrenched union leaders tend to oppose such efforts. Reformers must adequately overcome entrenched leader responses to succeed in reforming their unions. We have developed a new conceptual model of union revitalization. Our model should be tested further through in-depth case studies and analysis of reform efforts which have failed or succeeded. Our model presents strategies and tactics for labor activists to revitalize their unions and the labor movement. We present a new model of union revitalization that looks at both internal and external union revitalization. This chapter accumulates evidence across reform efforts throughout the modern history of unions. This comparative and contrasting analysis of the evidence from these efforts is a unique contribution to the field. Further, the resulting model from this review presents a unique focus on the strategies and tactics of reform efforts as well as the interaction between union reform efforts and entrenched leaders. This model provides a path for both future research and practical revitalization efforts.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, 2017: Shifts in Workplace Voice, Justice, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution in Contemporary Workplaces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-486-8

Keywords

1 – 10 of 148