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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Martin Kunc, David Menival and Steve Charters

The traditional view of the process of value creation suggests that it occurs inside the firm through its activities or resources. However, there are special cases where…

Abstract

Purpose

The traditional view of the process of value creation suggests that it occurs inside the firm through its activities or resources. However, there are special cases where firms create value using external shared resources, e.g. a territorial brand. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how the combination of both internal and external resources co-create value in wine regions.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth case study of nine firms covering different co-creation processes in Champagne, France. The selection of interviews was designed to cover the diversity of firms within the area with different market positioning. Most firms in the region have been selling champagne for more than 50 years, so they have established long-standing relationships with their markets.

Findings

While there is only one value, Champagne, firms create many different values based on owners’ perceptions with diverse effects on the process of value co-creation in the territorial brand. Some firms have strategies which could deteriorate the value of shared resource. This threat needs institutional changes with unknown consequences on the territorial brand.

Research limitations/implications

The research only involved one case study with a highly developed territorial brand system. There are multiple wine regions that have considered managing either implicitly or explicitly their shared strategic resources (e.g. a territorial brand). Consequently, the findings may not be applicable to all wine regions but it can provide a “gold standard” for regions and wineries that do not realize the impact that their value creation actions can have on the wine region.

Practical implications

Collective management of shared strategic resources, such as a territorial brand, can be a powerful action to sustain competitive advantage rather than individual actions to develop individual brands. However, it can work only with an institutional organization managing the collective process.

Originality/value

The paper offers lessons from a comprehensive and well-known case study where resource bundles co-create value with a territorial brand.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Liz Thach, Steve Charters and Laurence Cogan-Marie

The purpose of this research study is to identify differentiation factors Burgundian wineries use to distinguish their brand, and to determine whether these methods align…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research study is to identify differentiation factors Burgundian wineries use to distinguish their brand, and to determine whether these methods align or conflict with luxury marketing differentiation attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology of 23 in-depth interviews with various sized wineries, as well as Burgundy market experts, was used. In addition, document analysis of websites and marketing materials was carried out along with a comprehensive review of the luxury marketing literature.

Findings

Results show that Burgundian wineries have adopted some, but not all, of the luxury marketing differentiation attributes. Furthermore, there are a series of core tensions in the industry, including disagreement on using luxury marketing strategies. These findings contribute to the theory base in luxury wine marketing by illustrating how general luxury marketing attributes are used for wine brand differentiation.

Originality/value

This research is the first of its kind to investigate luxury marketing differentiation practices of Burgundy wineries. The results are relevant for new wineries in Burgundy, as well as those in different regions of the world who desire to emulate, and perhaps come close to achieving, some of the luxury price points that certain Burgundy wine producers achieve. The information is also useful to assist related industries, such as food and spirits, which struggle in implementing luxury marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Geoffrey Lewis, Steve Charters, Benoît Lecat, Tatiana Zalan and Marianna McGarry Wolf

Tasting experiments involving willingness to pay (WTP) have grown over the past few years; however, most of them occur in formal wine-tasting conditions, removed from…

Abstract

Purpose

Tasting experiments involving willingness to pay (WTP) have grown over the past few years; however, most of them occur in formal wine-tasting conditions, removed from real-world experience. This study aims to conduct experiments on wine appreciation and willingness to pay in both settings, to allow a comparison of how tasters reached conclusions in different situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two sets of experiments in Dijon, France, with knowledgeable wine drinkers, in 2014 and in 2016, to explore the relationship between wine ratings, WTP and objective characteristics (appellation, labelling and price). The first was in a formal wine-tasting setting (n = 58), and the second in the social setting of a restaurant (n = 52). The experiments involved deception: the tasters were presented with five wines, but in fact only three wines were involved, two of the wines being presented twice.

Findings

The results from the 2014 study showed that even with a group of experienced tasters, objective characteristics overwhelmed subjective assessment (taste, sensory perception) of the wine. Ratings and WTP were driven by the appellation or brand, labelling and price of the wines. The authors replicated the experiment in a social setting in 2016 which, contrary to their expectations, produced very similar results. In neither experiment did the experienced tasters detect the deception.

Research limitations/implications

The social setting was a lunch in a restaurant with a group of students who were graduating together. The tasting was conducted by some of their professors, which may have influenced the results and raises questions about whether the setting was truly ‘social’. The sample size for the experiments was comparatively small and further research, including novice and expert tasters, might contradict these findings, or at least add nuances to them.

Originality/value

The study finds that, contrary to expectations, in the social wine consumption setting of a restaurant meal enjoyed with colleagues, objective wine characteristics over-rode subjective appreciation of the wine.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Steve Charters, Natalia Velikova, Caroline Ritchie, Joanna Fountain, Liz Thach, Tim H. Dodd, Nicola Fish, Frikkie Herbst and Nic Terblanche

The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the engagement of Generation Y consumers with champagne and sparkling wine across five Anglophone countries.

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the engagement of Generation Y consumers with champagne and sparkling wine across five Anglophone countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was adopted using focus groups with young consumers, including images and wine tasting as projective stimuli.

Findings

There were significant trans‐cultural similarities between consumption behaviour (sparkling wine is a women's drink, and a separate category from still wine, and that they will “grow into” drinking it) but also noticeable differences (responses to images and colours varied substantially, as did attitudes to price and the particular status of champagne).

Research limitations/implications

Research into the behaviour of Generation Y as a cohort needs to take account of cultural as much as generational context. However, as a qualitative study the findings need further quantitative validation.

Practical implications

Marketers cannot view Generation Y as a single group; even within countries marketing strategies may need to be refined depending on where a product is being sold.

Originality/value

No trans‐cultural study on Generation Y has been carried out to date, nor has their engagement with sparkling wine been specifically explored.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Annamma Joy, Kathryn A. LaTour, Steve John Charters, Bianca Grohmann and Camilo Peña-Moreno

In this paper, the authors argue that fine wines can be considered art and as such can be awarded luxury status. The authors discuss the processes of artification, through…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors argue that fine wines can be considered art and as such can be awarded luxury status. The authors discuss the processes of artification, through which such wines are recognized as art (Shapiro and Heinich, 2012), and heritagization, in which the cultural differentiation implicit in the concept of terroir (the various elements of a microclimate that contribute to a wine's specific attributes) connects a wine to its history and provenance. The investigation focuses specifically on fine wines from Bordeaux and Burgundy, which are renowned worldwide for their depth and flavors. What traits are intrinsic to the definition of art, and what social processes culminate in transforming an entity from nonart to art?

Design/methodology/approach

It is a conceptual paper that requires blending several viewpoints to present the authors’ own viewpoints.

Findings

This study aims to address the above questions and argues that fine wines, as a source of aesthetic pleasure, are themselves an art form.

Research limitations/implications

The implications for producers of fine wines and other artisanal products seeking to elevate brand awareness are discussed.

Practical implications

The findings of this study are of interest to wine scholars as well as wineries. They provide evidence as to how artification occurs.

Originality/value

While there are papers that address the issue of artification and heritagization individually, the authors bring to bear the importance of both concepts on specific wine regions in France: Burgundy and Bordeaux.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Stephen Charters, Nathalie Spielmann and Barry J. Babin

The aim of this paper is to consider place as a value proposition, in the context of Resource-Advantage Theory, by analysing the concept of terroir, including its…

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1604

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to consider place as a value proposition, in the context of Resource-Advantage Theory, by analysing the concept of terroir, including its antecedents and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conceptually analyse the role of place in marketing by contrasting terroir to three other approaches: “in the style of […]”; “made in […]” and Protected Designations of Origin. They explore the impact of terroir on a range of products, offering a series of terroir value propositions.

Findings

Versus other place links, terroir offers a more specific Resource-Advantage, operating at environmental, philosophical and commercial levels. It offers a unique form of value to both consumers (e.g. identity, authenticity, cultural rootedness) and producers (e.g. irreproducibility, potential legal protection).

Research limitations/implications

Propositions address the antecedents and consequences of the terroir designation, the impact of consumer engagement, perceived authenticity and the added value offered to other regional goods. Additionally, how terroir may form a barrier to market entry, the relationship it has with the territorial brand, whether it offers greater product longevity and how it can be used as leverage for other related place-based brands and tourism are examined.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to address terroir as a marketing concept and to situate it within other forms of place marketing. It provides a definition, outlines the ways in which terroir creates value and provides a research agenda for future engagement with the concept.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Simone Mueller and Steve Charters

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1427

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Steve Charters

This conceptual paper seeks to examine the issue of whether or not a brand needs to be consistent. Whilst this assumption often seems to be made within the marketing…

Downloads
3041

Abstract

Purpose

This conceptual paper seeks to examine the issue of whether or not a brand needs to be consistent. Whilst this assumption often seems to be made within the marketing literature, it has not previously been examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the example of wine to explore the consumer's desire for consistency. The paper is not based on a specific research project, but rather reflects the findings of a number of projects, and of an engagement with commentators on wine over a number of years.

Findings

The paper suggests that rather than wine invariably being the same it is necessary for it to offer a regular standard of quality within varying external constraints, and that consumers may actually search out such inconsistency. By extension, it is argued that this is relevant for other goods, such as a foods and fashions, and aesthetic and ludic products.

Practical implications

It may be relevant for managers to build inconsistency into product design in some cases to give consumers the chance of involvement in brand co‐creation.

Originality/value

The paper examines an aspect of brands (consistency) not previously considered, and moves on the current debate about consumer participation in the development of brand meaning.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Publication date: 5 February 2018

Annamma Joy, Russell W. Belk, Steve Charters, Jeff Jian Feng Wang and Camilo Peña

Purpose: This paper uses performance theory to explore how wine-tourism experiences are orchestrated by wine tour guides to encourage engagement of consumers. It describes…

Abstract

Purpose: This paper uses performance theory to explore how wine-tourism experiences are orchestrated by wine tour guides to encourage engagement of consumers. It describes how such orchestration is built on material elements such as landscapes, architecture, vineyards, production facilities, and wine tastings.

Design/methodology/approach: A multi-layer ethnographic research on wine-tourism was employed. The interviews, observations, and field notes were analyzed through the lens of performance theory. A constant comparative method was used to identify emergent patterns, and a hermeneutic method was used to interpret the data.

Findings: The paper builds on performance theory and delineates the ways in which guides co-create intense experiences with participants. It portrays how tour guides often adjust their theatrical scripts to consumers’ unique needs through creative variations: surprise treats, activities, and personal stories. When guides take pleasure in tours, participants do as well, resulting in memorable co-created experiences. The tours feature processes such as pitching and relation-building techniques that call upon identity, morality, and materiality scripts, which ultimately build a sense of social obligation among participants toward tour guides and winery staff.

Originality/value: From a theoretical perspective, the paper adds value to the discussion of performance in tourism by suggesting that the service blueprint, architecture, and employee training are only part of the story. This paper shows how consumer engagement and interactions between participants, guides, architecture, and landscapes are essential elements of memorable experiences.

Research limitations: Like other studies, there are limitations to our study as well. Our study only included one-day wine tours. A broader investigation of strategic alliances between tour companies and wineries, and how wine tourists experience and sustain a sense of social obligations to the wineries they visit, will provide further insights into how wine-tourism functions as a co-creative emergent form of consumption involving individuals, products, and processes.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Jane Ali‐Knight

Education is seen to be a key ingredient in today's wine marketing and an important tool for the winery in attracting and maintaining its consumer base in an increasingly…

Abstract

Education is seen to be a key ingredient in today's wine marketing and an important tool for the winery in attracting and maintaining its consumer base in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Wine education therefore plays an important part in the health and future of the industry: ‘Wine education plays a key role in converting the occasional wine drinker into a dedicated wine appreciator.’ (The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker, 1996). Until recently wine research has focused on the specialisms and technicalities associated with winemaking and neglected the importance of research activity into the motivations and behavioural patterns of the wine consumer. This paper will report on the findings from the initial qualitative research process. The exploratory stage involved identifying and conducting key informant interviews with owners or managers of wineries with an education focus in the Swan Valley and Margaret River wine regions. Focusing on the provision for consumer education within wineries in Western Australia, the research aims to identify current awareness levels amongst Australian winery owners into the value and importance of education to the wine tourist. Demandby wine tourists for educational provision within the winery setting was also examined.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

Keywords

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