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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Justin Marcus, Barbara Ann Fritzsche, Huy Le and Michael Dennis Reeves

– The purpose of this paper is to focus on developing and validating a multidimensional measure of work-related age-based stereotypes (WAS) scale.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on developing and validating a multidimensional measure of work-related age-based stereotypes (WAS) scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Based upon a review of the literature, a three-dimensional stereotype content model including both negative (incompetence, inadaptability) and positive (warmth) stereotypes of older workers was created. Construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity for the WAS scale were examined across three independent samples constituting both lab-based experimental studies and a field-based survey (total n=1,245).

Findings

Across all samples, the WAS evidenced good construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity.

Originality/value

As evidenced by a review of the literature, the WAS is unique in that it measures both negative and positive stereotypes of older workers. Implications for research are discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Changbao Lu, Hang Li and Taoran Xu

Almost every consumer has many experiences of sales promotion and different stereotypes of it. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the model of sales promotion…

Abstract

Purpose

Almost every consumer has many experiences of sales promotion and different stereotypes of it. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the model of sales promotion stereotype content (model of SPSC) and its perception differences among groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the methods testifying stereotype content model and mixed stereotype proposed by Fiske et al. (2002), the authors decomposed the SPSC model into two dimensions, namely, the profitability and authenticity of sales promotion, and developed a multidimensional scale for profitability and authenticity. Then a survey that examined 765 participants was conducted to test the reliability of profitability and authenticity as the two primary dimensions of the model of SPSC and perception differences among consumer groups.

Findings

The model which consists of two dimensions, authenticity and profitability, was shown to be reliable and valid. Furthermore, the authors find that the profitability and the authenticity reflect consumers' evaluation (perception) of an enterprise's intention and its ability to enact the intention of sales promotion. In addition, mixed stereotypes of promotion can also explain consumers' entanglement when making promotion decisions.

Originality/value

This paper fills the gap in the existing literature of which the single dimension stereotype of sales promotion by the model of SPSC. In addition, the results show that consumers' stereotype of promotion varied in demographics and psychographic characteristics. Furthermore, this paper provides a basis for exploring the social stereotypes of specific things and related marketing activities.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Maura J. Mills, Satoris S. Culbertson, Ann H. Huffman and Angela R. Connell

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 800 participants completed an online survey, with 546 completing a second survey one week later. Recommended scale development procedures were utilized throughout in order to design and test the proposed instrument.

Findings

Item analyses determined a final set of most effective items, while exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the eight‐item, two‐dimensional (female stereotypes, male stereotypes) scale (Gender Role Stereotypes Scale – GRSS). Additionally, internal consistency and test‐retest reliabilities were acceptable, as was the construct‐related validity. This study also finds that gender role stereotypes are best examined as a two‐factor construct (male, female), rather than conceptualized as two poles of a unidimensional continuum.

Practical implications

The GRSS has advantages over similar measures, including that it assesses attitudes toward both men and women with only eight items, and includes items that are easily understandable, cross‐culturally appropriate, and modern. Practitioners can use the GRSS to assess potential gender role stereotypes held by management. If managers are found to have highly traditional gender role stereotypes, organizations may be able to intervene before stereotypes affect performance ratings or task assignments.

Originality/value

This paper yields an updated and sound measurement scale to replace outdated scales assessing similar constructs and/or assessing only one gender role stereotype (male or female, versus both). The GRSS allows for the parsimonious, comprehensive, and effective measurement of gender role stereotypes in research and practice alike.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Valentini Kalargyrou, Nelson A. Barber and Pei-Jou Kuo

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of employees’ different disability types on lodging guests’ perceptions of service quality delivery and stereotyping

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of employees’ different disability types on lodging guests’ perceptions of service quality delivery and stereotyping. The study also explores the influence of consumer characteristics (i.e. gender, education, religiosity, generational identity and relationship to a person with a disability) on service delivery quality perceptions and stereotyping.

Design/methodology/approach

Using different types of disabilities, the study uses a controlled experiment, followed by a survey, to evaluate consumers’ perception of service quality delivery of a hotel front office staff member.

Findings

The results suggest that there are no significant differences in the perceptions of service quality delivery and stereotyping for service employees with disabilities with the exception of employees with a visual impairment. The study found that participants, who had a close friend or family member with a disability, expressed less stereotyping than those who did not have a close friend or family member with a disability.

Research limitations/implications

Real service encounters can be used where participants might be more involved in the service process than in a controlled experiment setting.

Practical implications

The findings provide support to human resource management in strategically placing people with disabilities into front-line positions because they satisfactorily represent the image of the company and guests consider their service professional and reliable.

Social implications

The study’s findings support that employers should tap into the under-utilized workforce of people with disabilities and avoid pre-existing stereotyping.

Originality/value

A major concern of hospitality companies making employment decisions about hiring people with disabilities is guests’ attitude. This is the first study in hospitality that examines service quality delivery of employees with different types of disability serve guests.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Arijit Sikdar and Sumit Mitra

The extant literature on leadership in the Arab world reflects the traditional bias of leadership being a male domain. Arising out of a patriarchal social structure, men…

3765

Abstract

Purpose

The extant literature on leadership in the Arab world reflects the traditional bias of leadership being a male domain. Arising out of a patriarchal social structure, men assume leadership in organizations while women are often confined to work at home. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emergence of women leaders in UAE organizations by going beyond biological sex role biases to identify leadership as masculine or feminine gendered role stereotypes in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collected over two periods comprised two sets of Schein Descriptive Index (SDI) together with those of leadership intention and behaviour style; correlations thereof were computed to test hypotheses constructed from the literature.

Findings

The findings indicate that within organizations in the UAE, employee feedback highlights gender‐role stereotypes as defining leadership roles, rather than individual biological sex and their traditional family and social role. The findings reveal that in the UAE, gender stereotypes influence leadership intention and behaviour rather than individual biological sex and related traditions. Accordingly, women leaders having higher proportions of “agentic” characteristics of male gender stereotype together with lower proportions of “people orientation” of female gender stereotype, which makes successful leaders in the UAE break the proverbial “glass ceiling”. This explains the emergence of an increasing number of women leaders in the UAE.

Research limitations/implications

Generalizability of the findings is limited by non‐representation of countries with high gender egalitarianism, as well as the geographical limitation of the study to the UAE only. In the context of traditional male‐dominated organizations in the UAE, the findings on gender‐role stereotypes of leaders in these organizations cannot only help organizations take informed decisions in choosing leaders without the “glass ceiling” biases, but can go further to identify and nurture potential leaders, including women leaders, within organizations. These findings are of considerable significance to the Middle East and the Arab world in general, in the wake of the developments witnessed there.

Originality/value

The paper explains women leadership in organizations in the UAE, a part of the Arab world of the Middle East, from the perspective of gender‐role stereotypes, as opposed to traditional sex‐role biases, to bring women leaders there into the mainstream gender literature.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2009

N. Eugene Walls

Purpose – This study examines the relationship between endorsement of positive stereotypes of women and support for women's rights to shed light on the role that…

Abstract

Purpose – This study examines the relationship between endorsement of positive stereotypes of women and support for women's rights to shed light on the role that endorsement of positive stereotypes may play in maintaining social stratification.

Design/methodology/approach – The study uses data collected from a web-based survey of 181 male undergraduate students in six different universities and colleges to examine the relationship between the endorsement of positive stereotypes of women and support for women's rights. The paper examines four ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to determine the relationship and utilizes the statistical software Stata 9.2.

Findings – Rather than a simple direct relationship, the findings suggest that the relationship between the endorsement of positive stereotypes and support for women's rights varies based on the level of hostile sexism. Increased endorsement of positive stereotypes of women was associated with decreased support for women's rights among males with the lowest level of hostile sexism, but the opposite relationship was found for males at the mean and the highest level of hostile sexism.

Research limitations/implications – The findings suggest that endorsement of positive stereotypes plays a unique role for males who do not endorse traditional sexist attitudes. Although data are not available to clarify what processes might be undergirding the relationship, the author suggests directions for future research.

Practical implications – Given the relationship found, prejudice reduction interventions that rely on the promotion of positive stereotypes of various social groups should be closely examined to determine if they actually foster attitudes that are detrimental for the eradication of social stratification.

Originality/value – This study is one of the first to examine the possible negative impacts of endorsement of positive stereotypes of women on gender stratification through a moderated relationship with levels of hostile sexism.

Details

Perceiving Gender Locally, Globally, and Intersectionally
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-753-6

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Dorothea Alewell

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the influence of individual gender role specifications on objective career success (measured by gross yearly income) in the context…

1320

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the influence of individual gender role specifications on objective career success (measured by gross yearly income) in the context of different gender job contexts whilst controlling for human capital and working time variables. Typical economic, sociological and psychological variables are combined to improve explanations of the gender wage gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from Eagly and Karau's role incongruity theory, the paper derives hypotheses on the influence of gender role specification, gender job context and biological sex on gross yearly income. These hypotheses are analysed by logistic regressions with a data set from Germany. The paper presents results of a quantitative empirical survey of employees on wages, gender role-related self-descriptions and human capital variables.

Findings

The paper results show that even in this highly qualified sample, male biological sex, masculine gender roles and non-female job context have a positive effect on individual income. The results hold true when the paper controls for human capital, working time, professional experience and jobs in the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the limited size of the data set and some problems with selectivity, the research results lack generalizability. Researchers are thus encouraged to test the propositions with other data sets.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for wage design and for reaching wage equality in firms. An important implication for policy and practice is that under a gender and equal opportunity perspective, ensuring non-discriminating behaviour with regard to women may be only one (albeit an important) element of equal opportunity activities. Equal wage policies should further consider the gender characteristics of the job context, which may influence job-related roles and thus role incongruities. Additionally, individual interpretations of gender roles might have effects on wages. Human resource (HR) managers could support such policies by shaping job descriptions carefully with regard to gender role aspects, by influencing the gender composition of job contexts and by paying attention to the individual development of gender role interpretations in HR development programmes.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils an identified research need to study simultaneously the influence of human capital variables and gender roles on wages. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study, which studies the influence of gender roles as defined by Born (1992) on income in a German context of highly qualified individuals while controlling for human capital, working time and professional experience. The existing lack in the literature with regard to empirical analyses on the combined influence of economic, sociological and psychological variables is mitigated.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Alecia M. Santuzzi, Jesus Jose Martinez and Robert T. Keating

The formal reporting of disability to an employing organization is inconsistent and likely an underestimate of the true numbers of workers with disabilities and the…

1111

Abstract

Purpose

The formal reporting of disability to an employing organization is inconsistent and likely an underestimate of the true numbers of workers with disabilities and the presence of various types of disabilities. This issue interferes with an organization's count of such workers, as well as efforts to set priorities and develop practices to support workers with disabilities. The authors argue that creating inclusive work environments not only improves worker well-being (as suggested in past research) but also improves their reactions to the process of formal reporting of disability in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 160 working adults in the United States who reported disabilities or health conditions that may qualify as disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990, as amended in 2008) completed a survey that measured perceptions of the workplace environment and reactions to a frequently used disability disclosure form.

Findings

When controlling for age of respondents, anticipated disability stigma and inclusion in the workplace predicted different reactions to a disability disclosure request. Anticipated stigma was associated with more negative emotion, concerns about privacy and others' reactions to their responses on the disclosure form. Inclusion in the workplace was associated with higher ratings for appropriateness of the measure, positive emotion and less negative emotion.

Originality/value

Although research has identified associations between workplace inclusion and general worker experiences, such as job satisfaction and intentions to quit, this work uncovers a benefit of inclusion to required measurement processes in organizations. The unique contributions of inclusion and implications for workplace practices are discussed.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1978

J.P. Bannister and J.A. Saunders

Attitudes towards a specific product or brand could be substantially changed, both favourably and unfavourably, when the country of origin of the product/brand was…

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Abstract

Attitudes towards a specific product or brand could be substantially changed, both favourably and unfavourably, when the country of origin of the product/brand was revealed to the consumer. States that countries have images too, perhaps not so far removed from the marketers' concept of 'brand image'. Aims in this study, to reveal the current stereotypical attitudes of UK consumers towards domestic products and the product offerings from a selection of foreign countries highly active in the UK domestic market. Leans heavily on the cumulative refinements arising from studies conducted in Japan and the USA owing to lack of similar research in the UK. Discusses this in some detail citing the major players in references and showing both methodology and results from the UK, West Germany, Japan, France, Italy, the USA, and the USSR. Concludes that stereotype represents a simple and effective measure for revealing the impact of such changes (nationalism or re‐emphasis on national traits) on the strength of a nation — offering a basis for the development of individual marketing strategies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 12 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Anthony Gary Dworkin

Fishman (1956) has suggested that since stereotypes serve group relations functions, changes in stereotypy should follow changes in target groups, subject groups, or in…

Abstract

Fishman (1956) has suggested that since stereotypes serve group relations functions, changes in stereotypy should follow changes in target groups, subject groups, or in the relationships between subjects and targets. To investigate this we examine the stereotypes and self‐images of Chicanos and Anglos, drawn from three time periods around the social ferment of the 1960s and the development of the Chicano movement: 1963, 1967–8 and 1971. We expect that the images both Anglos and Chicanos have of Chicanos will improve, while the images both have of Anglos will deteriorate. Several measures of stereotypy indicate such a change. In the earliest sample, Chicanos are perceived negatively, and Anglos are perceived positively, by members of both groups. By the last period Anglos are perceived less favourably and Chicanos are perceived more favourably. While the actual images of the two groups vary, the overall valance of the images converges toward a theoretical “neutral” point. We discuss whether this convergence will be maintained.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

1 – 10 of over 6000