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The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of three sources of social representation (i.e. direct experience of an event, the media and social interaction…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of three sources of social representation (i.e. direct experience of an event, the media and social interaction) on tourists’ formation of event image; to examine the effect of event image, satisfaction and city image on tourists’ revisit intentions to the host city; and to explore the mediating role of city image.
This study used the 28th Qingdao International Beer Festival (QIBF) as the case for verifying the relationships in the proposed model. The survey was conducted in Qingdao and 366 valid observations were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to validate the research model.
Event image is found to be significantly and positively influenced by direct experience of an event and social interaction. City image and satisfaction are important predictors of revisit intention. The meaning of event image is transferred to city image. City image plays a pivotal role in mediating the effect of event image and satisfaction on revisit intention to the host city.
This study surveyed Chinese tourists attending QIBF in Qingdao and consequently the outcomes may lack generalizability. This research did not survey foreign tourists. Thus, the differences of attitudes and behaviors between Chinese and foreign tourists are not compared.
The outcomes provide insights into how a city manager can organize an event to enhance tourists’ intentions to revisit the city.
This study represents one of the few studies that use both social representation theory and the theory of brand image transfer in examining the influence of external social contexts on tourists’ formation of event image and investigates how the unique meaning of event activities is transferred to city image. In addition, the mediating role of city image is fully explored in this research.
本研究的目的包括（1）探究社会表征的三个来源（事件的直接体验, 媒体影响, 社会互动）对游客事件形象评价的影响；（2）验证事件形象、满意度、城市形象对游客重访举办地意愿的影响；（3）检验城市形象的中介作用。
本研究以第28届青岛国际啤酒节为案例研究对象, 来验证模型中的变量关系。调研在青岛进行, 共收集有效问卷366份。通过结构方程模型来验证研究假设。
本研究对参加青岛国际啤酒节的中国游客进行调研, 结果可能缺少普适性。本研究没有调研外国游客, 缺少中外游客的态度和行为差异的对比。
本研究将社会表征理论和品牌形象理论应用到事件营销当中, 解释了游客事件形象评价的形成过程中外部社会情境的影响, 以及事件活动的独特内涵向城市形象转移的过程。同时, 本研究验证了城市形象在事件形象和满意度对重访意愿的影响作用中的中介作用。
事件形象, 城市形象, 满意度, 重访意愿, 社会表征理论
Propósitos de investigación
(1) explorar el impacto de tres fuentes de representación social (experiencia directa de eventos, influencia de los medios, interacción social) en la evaluación de la imagen del evento de los turistas; (2) Verificar el impacto de la imagen del evento, la satisfacción y la imagen de la ciudad en la voluntad de los turistas para volver a visitar el lugar; (3) verificar el papel mediador de la imagen de la ciudad.
Métodos de investigación
Este estudio toma el 28° Festival Internacional de Cerveza de Qingdao como un objeto de estudio de caso para verificar la relación de las variables en el modelo. La encuesta se realizó en Qingdao y se recolectó un total de 366 cuestionarios válidos. El modelo de ecuación estructural se utiliza para verificar la hipótesis de investigación.
El estudio muestra que la experiencia directa de los eventos y la interacción social tienen un impacto positivo y significativo en la evaluación de la imagen del evento. La imagen de la ciudad y la satisfacción son factores importantes que influyen en la voluntad de los turistas a volver a visitar. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que la imagen de la ciudad desempeña un importante papel de mediación en el efecto de la imagen del evento y la satisfacción en la voluntad de volver a visitar.
Limitaciones de investigación
este estudio encuestó a los turistas que participaron en el Festival Internacional de Cerveza de Qingdao, y los resultados pueden carecer de generalidad. Este estudio no investigó a los turistas extranjeros, solo a los turistas chinos, por eso careció de una comparación de las diferencias en actitudes y comportamientos entre los turistas chinos y extranjeros.
las conclusiones de la investigación proporcionan nuevas ideas sobre cómo los administradores de la ciudad pueden organizar mejor las actividades del evento para aumentar la voluntad de los turistas a visitar la ciudad nuevamente.
este estudio aplica la teoría de la representación social y la teoría de la imagen de marca al marketing de eventos, explicando el impacto de los contextos sociales externos en la formación de la evaluación de imágenes de eventos turísticos y el proceso de transferir la connotación única de las actividades de eventos a la imagen urbana. Al mismo tiempo, este estudio demuestra que el papel mediador de la imagen de la ciudad tiene un impacto de la imagen del evento y la satisfacción en la voluntad de volver a visitar.
The purpose of this paper is to further the consumer services theory in financial services marketing by examining how perceived benefits influence consumer…
The purpose of this paper is to further the consumer services theory in financial services marketing by examining how perceived benefits influence consumer intention-to-use a co-branded credit card and further how intention-to-use is moderated by involvement.
A conceptual model is developed and tested. A convenience sample of users of a co-branded credit card was surveyed. The responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling.
Results show a strong association between perceived benefits and co-brand equity and between co-brand equity and co-brand preference, as well as between perceived benefits and intention-to-use. The research also identifies four perceived benefits of a co-branded credit card. They also show that highly involved consumers are less affected by perceived benefits than their low involvement counterparts.
Further research might consider co-branding across categories of services and explore the ambivalent results of co-brand preference in the mode. This research is limited by the use of a convenience sample and a cross-sectional survey. A probability sample and a longitudinal element to the study would have added weight to the study’s findings.
Managers with co-branding responsibilities should focus on improving the perceived benefits of co-branded credit cards.
This study has a wider application to understanding how co-branding services may be applied in not-for-profit situations, specifically affinity card co-branding, thus generating greater revenue for charitable and social concerns.
This research advances research in the financial services consumer theory by demonstrating a strong association between perceived benefits and intention-to-use a co-branded credit card, distinguishing between the behavioral traits of consumers with high and low levels of involvement. It thus advances the consumer theory in co-branding.
This research blends perspectives of the Eastern phenomenon of guanxi with the more Western perspectives of relationship marketing and customer centricity. Extending…
This research blends perspectives of the Eastern phenomenon of guanxi with the more Western perspectives of relationship marketing and customer centricity. Extending scholarship on guanxi in marketing (e.g. Park and Luo, 2001; Sheu and Hu, 2009; Luo et al., 2008; Fowler and Reisenwitz, 2014), the objective is to highlight the indirect role of customer centricity (i.e. how visible or central it is for the business partner to communicate with/have information sharing with), for firms in regions with a prevalence of guanxi.
The empirical model is tested in context of global marketing in the business-to-business (B2B) logistics industry (n = 508). A total of 508 global logistics employees and managers with experience in global business participated in the survey in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis with multi-group analyses.
Customer centricity intensifies positive outcomes of guanxi prevalence. Specifically, a high level of customer centricity strengthens established associations among guanxi prevalence, trust, relationship commitment and firm performance.
While most work on guanxi has a focus in China, this research focuses on Taiwan. While building on a wealth of literature, relatively less work has focused on customer centricity.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of functional value and symbolic value between positive moods and word-of-mouth (WOM) referrals in the context…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of functional value and symbolic value between positive moods and word-of-mouth (WOM) referrals in the context of Taiwan’s banking industry. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effect of relational benefits on the relationship between perceived value and WOM.
The research model was tested using data collected from customers (n=362) of the top 10 domestic banks in Taiwan. Structure equation modeling was employed to test and validate the conceptual model.
Positive moods are found to be an important predictor of functional value, symbolic value and WOM in this banking service study. Four types of relational benefits are identified including social, special treatment, confidence and face. Note that two distinct segments of bank customers are identified in terms of relational benefits: those who appreciate face benefits (n1=169), and those who appreciate general relational benefits (n2=193). The findings reveal the existence of partial mediation between a banking customer’s mood and WOM through functional value and symbolic value in the overall sample (n=362). However, it was found that functional value partially mediates the influence of positive moods on WOM among respondents in the “general relational benefits” segment only. That is, relational benefits are found to moderate the relationship between functional value and WOM.
This study expands the existing body of knowledge on customers’ perceptions of value by differentiating types of value perceptions.
Celebrity-themed aircraft campaigns have become a popular tactic that airlines adopt as part of their experiential marketing efforts. The campaign aims at differentiating…
Celebrity-themed aircraft campaigns have become a popular tactic that airlines adopt as part of their experiential marketing efforts. The campaign aims at differentiating their airline from competitors through delivering and/or reforming consumers’ flying experience. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
Based on data collected from Taiwan, this study investigated the influence of four antecedents – attitude toward celebrity-themed aircrafts, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and celebrity worship − on purchase intention.
The results revealed significant positive relationships between all four antecedents and purchase intention. Furthermore, celebrity worship changed the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, as well as perceived behavioral control and intentions.
This study investigates the potential role of marketing program of airlines with a fictional celebrity-themed aircraft that offer immersive flying experience to consumers. The experience starts on the outside where consumers can see the aircraft painted with celebrity-themed livery, and on the inside where the consumers get to experience many celebrity-related products, services, and spirit. According to the results, airlines can influence consumer purchase intention of the airlines services by offering consumers more celebrity related services, including celebrity-themed aircraft, customized products, and limited-amount souvenirs for their patronage. The results also demonstrate that celebrity worship has a significantly moderating effect on consumers’ perception on purchase intention. The results can vary depending on the intensity of celebrity worship.
This research provides accounting-ethics authors and administrators with a benchmark for accounting-ethics research. While Bernardi and Bean (2010) considered publications…
This research provides accounting-ethics authors and administrators with a benchmark for accounting-ethics research. While Bernardi and Bean (2010) considered publications in business-ethics and accounting’s top-40 journals this study considers research in eight accounting-ethics and public-interest journals, as well as, 34 business-ethics journals. We analyzed the contents of our 42 journals for the 25-year period between 1991 through 2015. This research documents the continued growth (Bernardi & Bean, 2007) of accounting-ethics research in both accounting-ethics and business-ethics journals. We provide data on the top-10 ethics authors in each doctoral year group, the top-50 ethics authors over the most recent 10, 20, and 25 years, and a distribution among ethics scholars for these periods. For the 25-year timeframe, our data indicate that only 665 (274) of the 5,125 accounting PhDs/DBAs (13.0% and 5.4% respectively) in Canada and the United States had authored or co-authored one (more than one) ethics article.
The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…
The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.
The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.
In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.
The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.
Allison S. Gabriel, David F. Arena, Charles Calderwood, Joanna Tochman Campbell, Nitya Chawla, Emily S. Corwin, Maira E. Ezerins, Kristen P. Jones, Anthony C. Klotz, Jeffrey D. Larson, Angelica Leigh, Rebecca L. MacGowan, Christina M. Moran, Devalina Nag, Kristie M. Rogers, Christopher C. Rosen, Katina B. Sawyer, Kristen M. Shockley, Lauren S. Simon and Kate P. Zipay
Organizational researchers studying well-being – as well as organizations themselves – often place much of the burden on employees to manage and preserve their own…
Organizational researchers studying well-being – as well as organizations themselves – often place much of the burden on employees to manage and preserve their own well-being. Missing from this discussion is how – from a human resources management (HRM) perspective – organizations and managers can directly and positively shape the well-being of their employees. The authors use this review to paint a picture of what organizations could be like if they valued people holistically and embraced the full experience of employees’ lives to promote well-being at work. In so doing, the authors tackle five challenges that managers may have to help their employees navigate, but to date have received more limited empirical and theoretical attention from an HRM perspective: (1) recovery at work; (2) women’s health; (3) concealable stigmas; (4) caregiving; and (5) coping with socio-environmental jolts. In each section, the authors highlight how past research has treated managerial or organizational support on these topics, and pave the way for where research needs to advance from an HRM perspective. The authors conclude with ideas for tackling these issues methodologically and analytically, highlighting ways to recruit and support more vulnerable samples that are encapsulated within these topics, as well as analytic approaches to study employee experiences more holistically. In sum, this review represents a call for organizations to now – more than ever – build thriving organizations.
Many governments are taking measures in support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to mitigate the economic impact of the COVID-19 outbreak. This paper presents…
Many governments are taking measures in support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to mitigate the economic impact of the COVID-19 outbreak. This paper presents a theoretical model for evaluating various government measures, including insurance for bank loans, interest rate subsidy, bridge loans and relief of tax burdens.
This paper distinguishes a firm's intrinsic value and book value, where a firm can lose its intrinsic value when it encounters cash-flow crunch. Wang transform is applied to (1) calculating the appropriate level of interest rate subsidy payable to incentivize banks to issue more loans to SMEs and to extend the loan maturity of current debt to the SMEs, (2) describing the frailty distribution for SMEs and (3) defining banks' underwriting capability and overlap index in risk selection.
Government support for SMEs can be in the form of an appropriate level of interest rate subsidy payable to incentivize banks to issue more loans to SMEs and to extend the loan maturity of current debt to the SMEs.
More available data on bank loans would have helped strengthen the empirical studies.
This paper makes policy recommendations of establishing policy-oriented banks or investment funds dedicated to supporting SMEs, developing risk indices for SMEs to facilitate refined risk underwriting, providing SMEs with long-term tax relief and early-stage equity-type investments.
The model highlights the importance of providing bridge loans to SMEs during the COVID-19 disruption to prevent massive business closures.
This paper provides an analytical framework using Wang transform for analyzing the most effective form of government support for SMEs.