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This article explores the relationship, in the contemporary UK context, between employee retention and the provision by employers of occupational pension schemes. Several…
This article explores the relationship, in the contemporary UK context, between employee retention and the provision by employers of occupational pension schemes. Several sources of literature are drawn on to develop cases for and against the proposition that pensions play a discernible role in reducing employee turnover. Original research carried out by the author is then presented which suggests that the retention effect is limited in terms of both its potency and its extent. A particular finding is the varying importance of pension schemes in terms of the retention of different staff groups.
Regenerative braking is an efficient energy saving technology in urban rail system, in which the recovery energy from braking trains is collected by some equipments and…
Regenerative braking is an efficient energy saving technology in urban rail system, in which the recovery energy from braking trains is collected by some equipments and released to accelerating trains when needed. However, the high cost and low lifetime of storage devices prevent the widespread use of this technology. The purpose of this paper is to conduct thorough cost-benefit analysis to facilitate China’s urban rail companies to make decisions on the use of such technology.
To evaluate the benefit from regenerative energy storage, the authors formulate an improved integrated scheduling and speed control model to calculate the net energy consumption associated with different energy recovery rates and then define the benefit as the amount of energy saving arising from the usage of storage equipments. With the frequent charge/discharge operations on storage equipments, the energy recovery rate generally decreases which lowers the benefit, but the maintenance cost increases. By trading-off benefit and cost, the authors derive the optimal scrapping time, the maximum profit and the profitability condition for storage devices.
Simulation studies based on the Beijing Metro Yizhuang Line of China are given. The results show that compared with the current timetable and speed profile, the integrated scheduling and speed control approach with energy recovery rate of 0.5 can reduce the net energy consumption by 12.69 per cent; the net energy consumption can be well approximated as a linear function of energy recovery rate; and the maximum profit and the optimal scrapping time on regenerative energy storage devices are both positively related to the electricity price. The allowance proportion and the number of service trains such that busy lines with higher electricity price or allowance proportion have advantages to use the regenerative energy storage devices.
In this work, a linear energy recovery rate and a linear maintenance cost are used in the cost-benefit analysis process. In future research, the more accurate expressions on energy recovery rate and maintenance cost should be considered if more data on recovery rate and maintenance cost can be gathered.
The main values of this paper are to develop the integrated optimization approaches for train scheduling and speed control and, on this basis, make thorough cost-benefit analysis for regenerative energy storage to improve the operations management of urban rail transit.
WE begin a new year, in which we wish good things for all who work in libraries and care for them, in circumstances which are not unpropitious. At times raven voices prophesy the doom of a profession glued to things so transitory as books are now imagined to be, by some. Indeed, so much is this a dominant fear that some librarians, to judge by their utterances, rest their hopes upon other recorded forms of knowledge‐transmission; forms which are not necessarily inimical to books but which they think in the increasing hurry of contemporary life may supersede them. These fears have not been harmful in any radical way so far, because they may have increased the librarian's interest in the ways of bringing books to people and people to books by any means which successful business firms use (for example) to advertise what they have to sell. The modern librarian becomes more and more the man of business; some feel he becomes less and less the scholar; but we suggest that this is theory with small basis in fact. Scholars are not necessarily, indeed they can rarely be, bookish recluses; nor need business men be uncultured. For men of plain commonsense there need be few ways of life that are so confined that they exclude their followers from other ways and other men's ideas and activities. And, as for the transitoriness of books and the decline of reading, we ourselves decline to acknowledge or believe in either process. Books do disappear, as individuals. It is well that they do for the primary purpose of any book is to serve this generation in which it is published; and, if there survive books that we, the posterity of our fathers, would not willingly let die, it is because the life they had when they were contemporary books is still in them. Nothing else can preserve a book as a readable influence. If this were not so every library would grow beyond the capacity of the individual or even towns to support; there would, in the world of readers, be no room for new writers and their books, and the tragedy that suggests is fantastically unimaginable. A careful study, recently made of scores of library reports for 1951–52, which it is part of our editorial duty to make, has produced the following deductions. Nearly every public library, and indeed other library, reports quite substantial increases in the use made of it; relatively few have yet installed the collections of records as alternatives to books of which so much is written; further still, where “readers” and other aids to the reading of records, films, etc., have been installed, the use of them is most modest; few librarians have a book‐fund that is adequate to present demands; fewer have staffs adequate to the demands made upon them for guidance by the advanced type of readers or for doing thoroughly the most ordinary form of book‐explanation. It is, in one sense a little depressing, but there is the challenging fact that these islands contain a greater reading population than they ever had. One has to reflect that of our fifty millions every one, including infants who have not cut their teeth, the inhabitants of asylums, the illiterate—and, alas, there are still thousands of these—and the drifters and those whose vain boast is that “they never have time to read a book”—every one of them reads six volumes a year. A further reflection is that public libraries may be the largest distributors, but there are many others and in the average town there may be a half‐dozen commercial, institutional and shop‐libraries, all distributing, for every public library. This fact is stressed by our public library spending on books last year at some two million pounds, a large sum, but only one‐tenth of the money the country spent on books. There are literally millions of book‐readers who may or may not use the public library, some of them who do not use any library but buy what they read. The real figure of the total reading of our people would probably be astronomical or, at anyrate, astonishing.
MID‐OCTOBER sees all library activities in process. The autumn and winter prospects are interesting and, in some senses, may be exciting. The autumn conferences have been held, except that of the London and Home Counties Branch, which is at Southend for the week‐end October 17th to 20th, and is the third sectional conference to be held this month in addition to seven other meetings. These gatherings, at Torquay, Greenwich, Felixstowe, London (three), Tunbridge Wells and Leicester, show a fairly wide coverage of the lower part of Great Britain. The northerners had their go, so to speak, last month, in Durham and elsewhere, as we have previously recorded. The Programme of Meetings, 1952–53, arranged by organisations in the London and Home Counties Branch area, is a most convenient leaflet listing 33 meetings in the area. Every interest seems to be served, with two exceptions, and every L. A. member of whatever section may attend any or all of the meetings. The exceptions are the meetings of ASLIB and the Bibliographical Society. Any list of meetings for librarians would be improved if it noted all that interest them and these would be a useful, not extravagant, addition. London Library Intelligence, the editorship of which has been handed over by Mr. F. J. Hoy, who did it extremely well, to Mr. R. W. Rouse, Borough Librarian, Finsbury, E.C.1, does provide the required information we understand. It is perhaps too much to expect a list of all gatherings throughout these islands; or is it? There are 12,000 of us and, if only 50 attended a meeting once a year—a satisfactory number for discussion— there would be room for 240 meetings.
The purpose of this paper is to inform readers of developments in drug policy debate in Australia following the publication of the Global Commission Report. To explain the activities, discussions and findings of events organised by the Australian NGO Australia21. To provide some key contextual information and references.
Overview of international situation following publication of Global Commission Report. Summary of current Australian national policy and its origins. Summary of recent national reports and their impact on policy. Account of NGO reports and recommendations.
Civil society agencies have entered national debate on drug policy and recommended an abandonment of prohibition-based approaches, using the Global Commission Report as a catalyst. First steps have been taken to introduce this debate into the Australian parliament.
Incomplete knowledge of relevant national documentation.
Probable delay in government developing debate and acting on recommendations in an election year.
Case study of developments and debate in one jurisdiction resulting from Global Commission Report. Aligns with similar debate and moves in other nations. Adds to knowledge of developments which challenge existing international policy debate and practical approaches which reject prohibition.