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Abstract

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Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Marcus Enoch and Stephen Potter

This chapter adopts a transport systems approach to explore why the adoption of paratransit modes is low and sporadic. Regulatory and institutional barriers are identified…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter adopts a transport systems approach to explore why the adoption of paratransit modes is low and sporadic. Regulatory and institutional barriers are identified as a major reason for this. The chapter then reviews key trends and issues relating to the uptake of, and barriers to, paratransit modes. Based on this analysis a new regulatory structure is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies and research/practice literature.

Findings

Following an exploration of the nature of paratransit system design and traditional definitions of ‘paratransit’, it is concluded that institutional barriers are critical. However, current societal trends and service developments, and in particular initiatives from the technology service industry, are developing significant new paratransit models. The chapter concludes with a proposed redefinition of paratransit to facilitate a regulatory change to help overcome its institutional challenges.

Research limitations/implications

A paratransit transformation of public transport services would produce travel behaviours different from models and perspectives built around corridor/timetabled public transport services.

Practical implications

Technology firm invaders (e.g. Uber) are viewed as disrupters from normal transport planning to be controlled or excluded. However they may be the key to a transport system transformation.

Social implications

Existing public transport modes are ill-suited to modern patterns of travel demand. A system involving paratransit could produce enhanced social mobility and system-level improvements in CO2 emissions.

Originality/value

This chapter identifies the key issues raised by the emergence of new paratransit modes and the new actors involved. A new regulatory structure is proposed which reflects this understanding.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1986

ROGER KIRKPATRICK

In talking to librarians, as a publisher, I feel like a book reviewer talking to the author whose book he has reviewed — rather embarrassed and am reminded of Stephen

Abstract

In talking to librarians, as a publisher, I feel like a book reviewer talking to the author whose book he has reviewed — rather embarrassed and am reminded of Stephen Potter's definition of reviewing:

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New Library World, vol. 87 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Stephen Potter and Chris Lovatt

Analyses the law covering the role of the management of auction sales and the implications they bring. Explores the legal obligations of the parties to an auction sale…

Abstract

Analyses the law covering the role of the management of auction sales and the implications they bring. Explores the legal obligations of the parties to an auction sale with specific reference to the newly defined liability of the managers of the auction where articles or property are sold “without reserve”. Concludes that it is now clear that if an auctioneer refuses to sell to the highest bidder then he will incur liability to the bidder. States that this could have dire consequences. Examines existing case law and new precedent materials to draw such conclusions and provides some recommendations.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Robin Roy, Stephen Potter and Karen Yarrow

This paper aims to summarise the methods and main findings of a study of the environmental impacts of providing higher education (HE) courses by campus‐based and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarise the methods and main findings of a study of the environmental impacts of providing higher education (HE) courses by campus‐based and distance/open‐learning methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of an environmental audit, with data from surveys of 20 UK courses – 13 campus‐based, seven print‐based and online distance learning courses – covering travel, paper and print consumption, computing, accommodation, and campus site impacts. Results were converted into energy and CO2 emissions per student per 100 hours of degree study.

Findings

Distance learning HE courses involve 87 per cent less energy and 85 per cent lower CO2 emissions than the full‐time campus‐based courses. Part‐time campus HE courses reduce energy and CO2 emissions by 65 and 61 per cent, respectively, compared with full‐time campus courses. The lower impacts of part‐time and distance compared with full‐time campus courses is mainly due to a reduction in student travel and elimination of much energy consumption of students' housing, plus economies in campus site utilisation. E‐learning appears to offer only relatively small energy and emissions reductions (20 and 12 per cent, respectively) compared with mainly print‐based distance learning courses, mainly because online learning requires more energy for computing and paper for printing.

Research limitations/implications

Assumptions were made in order to calculate the energy and emissions arising from the different HE systems. For example, it was decided to include all the energy consumed in term‐time accommodation for full‐time campus students while part‐time campus and distance learning students live at home, only requiring additional heating and lighting for study. Future studies could include more distance and blended learning courses offered by institutions other than the UK Open University and impacts other than CO2 emissions.

Practical implications

Existing HE sustainability programmes should be broadened beyond considering campus site impacts and “greening the curriculum”. Indeed, were HE expansion to take environmental impacts seriously, then part‐time and distance education should be prioritised over increasing full‐time provision. This appears compatible with the Leitch Review of Skills on continuing education and training for the UK workforce.

Originality/value

The paper represents the only existing quantitative study of this issue.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Sally Caird, Andy Lane, Ed Swithenby, Robin Roy and Stephen Potter

This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions, based on an analysis of the likely energy consumption and carbon emissions of a range of face-to-face, distance, online and information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced blended teaching models.

Design/methodology/approach

An environmental assessment of 19 campus-based and 11 distance-based HE courses was conducted using questionnaire surveys to gather data from students and lecturers on course-related travel: the purchase and use of ICTs and paper materials, residential energy consumption and campus site operations. Results were converted into average energy and CO2 emissions, normalised per student per 100 study hours, and then classified by the primary teaching model used by lecturers.

Findings

The main sources of HE course carbon emissions were travel, residential energy consumption and campus site operations. Distance-based HE models (distance, online and ICT-enhanced teaching models) reduced energy consumption by 88 per cent and achieved significant carbon reductions of 83 per cent when compared with campus-based HE models (face-to-face and ICT-enhanced teaching models). The online teaching model achieved the lowest energy consumption and carbon emissions, although there were potential rebound effects associated with increased ICT-related energy consumption and paper used for printing.

Practical implications

New pedagogical designs using online and distance-based teaching methods can achieve carbon reductions by reducing student travel via residential and campus accommodation.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined the environmental performance of HE teaching models. A new classification of HE traditional, online and blended teaching models is used to examine the role of ICTs and the likely carbon impacts.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1953

S. POTTERSNAITH

I take it for granted that the noble institution of Lifemanship is familiar to all librarians. So competitive a profession, where all must Gambit and Ploy to keep in the…

Abstract

I take it for granted that the noble institution of Lifemanship is familiar to all librarians. So competitive a profession, where all must Gambit and Ploy to keep in the race, is natural soil for the doctrines of the new evangelism. In truth, the sagest among us were practising the creed before it had a local habitation or a name. But what may not be generally known is that a Sub‐Group of the parent institution has recently been formed to study the problems of our profession. In particular, the Group aims to encourage, advise and guide young recruits; to make the rough places smooth and shorten their pilgrimage to Sleepe after toyle, port after stormie seas, Ease after warre— in other words, the Chief's Chair.

Details

Library Review, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Stephen Potter

The purpose of this paper is to show that in any business operation legal constraints and requirements impact upon the activities undertaken with the particular focus of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that in any business operation legal constraints and requirements impact upon the activities undertaken with the particular focus of reference to the provision of food in a public house and restaurant setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted is that of qualitative secondary research drawing on published materials in the form of legal regulations and judicial precedents, and from governmental organisations, trade associations and news articles. This approach is appropriate to the nature of the work, which seeks to raise an awareness of some of the hazards and ramifications, which may result from a failure to appreciate and observe legal standards of conduct.

Findings

The research carried out for this paper reveals examples of the range of legal measures under both the criminal and civil law in the UK which should be met in the commercial provision of food, thereby, in part, contributing to the success and reputation of the business. The rationale for both criminal and civil law is indicated together with the means of enforcement and the consequences of infringement.

Research limitations/implications

The work is not intended to constitute a comprehensive or speculation‐free statement of the totality of the legal measures which operate in this area, nor to be technical in nature, nor to amount to legal advice, but it is intended to highlight some of the legal pitfalls which may await the unwary or insouciant in the supply of prepared food meals to customers and consumers. Each country has its own legal system and regulations in varying degrees, although there may be similarities in certain respects, such as in the common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth and the USA, which have been influenced by English law. Within its areas of legal competence, the European Union has sought to effect harmonisation amongst the member states. As there is no universal system of the legal regulation of food provision, this makes it imperative that appropriate guidance and advice are obtained locally before commencement of activity. To keep within reasonable bounds, this paper is confined to UK law. However, this should serve to exemplify the standards of a democratic and commercially sophisticated country with regard to the subject matter under examination.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with a number of suggestions of a practical character, which may be of interest to those engaged in the provision of food in public houses and restaurants.

Originality/value

The material employed in this work has been gathered from a variety of sources, with the intention that the selections made, together with the interpretations given, serve a useful function in bringing into prominence that in the provision of food, with particular reference to those operating public house and restaurant businesses, it is essential that proper attention is given to all necessary legal considerations.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

A.M. Andrew

It is acknowledged that certain contradictions, or at least incongruities, are implicit in the idea of artificial intelligence. It is fairly certain that these were…

Abstract

It is acknowledged that certain contradictions, or at least incongruities, are implicit in the idea of artificial intelligence. It is fairly certain that these were appreciated by the originators of the field and that the bold introduction of the new term was seen as a lifemanship ploy. This is not to deny the value of work under the heading.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

John D. Pratten and Fabien Marechal

Abstract

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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