Team management strategy will become an increasingly important concern for organizations as they change to or increase the number of teams in their structures. The role of the team leader – as the medium through which teams are managed – needs to be integrated into and become a major aspect of management development programmes. Only through this process can organizations capture the potential which all teams possess and effective teams utilize.
Cape and Barkham's practice improvement model (PIM) describes how healthcare systems can be designed to facilitate the usage of self‐generated clinical outcomes in the…
Cape and Barkham's practice improvement model (PIM) describes how healthcare systems can be designed to facilitate the usage of self‐generated clinical outcomes in the delivery of subsequent interventions. This article aims to describe the application of the PIM in the implementation of group‐based cognitive‐behavioural therapy, for clients referred from Primary Care with anxiety disorders.
The groups were evaluated using and pre‐ and post‐intervention design using a variety of validated measures of psychological functioning as part of a wider audit and evaluation system. The conclusions drawn from the audit and evaluation system, in the form of PIMs, were fed‐back into the design of successive groups in the attempt to increase subsequent effectiveness. Group 1 had no PIM applied, group 2 had a single PIM applied and group 3 had two PIMs applied.
The introduction of the single PIM for group 2 increased the effectiveness of clinical outcomes, while for group 3, the introduction of two PIMs increased effectiveness again in comparison to group 1, but not in comparison to group 2.
The results indicate that the active use of feedback of outcomes from interventions conducted can be utilised to design and then evaluate the application of resultant PIMs. This represents attempts to introduce and operationalise the concept of continuous quality improvement in the delivery of a clinical service.
The evaluation of PIMs is in its practical and methodological infancy and this initiative represents the first attempt to utilise PIMs in the design of Primary Care psychological services.
This study explored the experiences of detention under the Mental Health Act (1983) of people with learning disabilities. Semi‐structured one‐to‐one interviews (N = 7) were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants had mild learning disabilities and had been detained under the Mental Health Act in England for compulsory assessment and treatment within a two‐year period prior to the study. A number of valuable insights emerged, including: the impact of perceived lack of control over self, experiences of vulnerability/powerlessness/ victimisation (both prior to and following detention), participant's sense of care versus punishment; the development of ‘role’ within the mental health system and attribution of blame. The study helps expand the current literature on experiences of people with learning disabilities from their perspective, identifies the possible emotional impact of detention and indexes the range of coping styles elicited between participants in the face of detention.
Single case experimental design (SCED) has a long, well‐respected tradition in evaluating the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for people with learning…
Single case experimental design (SCED) has a long, well‐respected tradition in evaluating the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviours. However, shift the focus to other psychological modalities (such as psychodynamic psychotherapy) or differing presenting problems (such as interpersonal problems) and the use of SCED methodologies is severely curtailed. This paper describes the application of SCED methodologies in the evaluation of treatment of three clients: the psychodynamic psychotherapy of hypochondriasis in an A/B design, psychodynamic psychotherapy of ambulophobia in an A/B design, and cognitive‐behavioural therapy of anger and aggression in a shifting criterion design. Visual and statistical analysis of the time series data revealed that the hypochondriasis and the anger cases responded to treatment, whereas the ambulophobia case showed some deterioration during the intervention. The cases are discussed in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies applied and the relative merits of accruing SCED evidence in the evaluation of the plethora of psychological modalities now being made available to learning disabled clients.
In a study of fat‐spreading habits of children, it was found that most children were already spreading by the age of five years and that their habits did not appear to change during the age range of five‐11 years. Few factors were found to explain individual differences in amount spread on bread, but families choosing spreads for spreadability may encourage a greater amount of spread, children copying others may use more, and children having difficulty using knives may use less spread than others.
The Library Association of Ireland issued last month the first number of An Leabharlann, their new official journal. The title, for those of us who do not speak the language of Erin, means The Library. It is an extremely interesting venture which will be followed by librarians on the mainland with sympathetic curiosity. In particular our readers would be interested in the first of a series of articles by Father Stephen J. Brown, S.J., on Book Selection. The worthy Father lectures on this subject at University College, Dublin, in the Library School. It is mainly concerned with what should not be selected, and deals in vigorous fashion with the menace of much of current published stuff. No doubt Father Brown will follow with something more constructive. Mr. T. E. Gay, Chairman of the Association, discusses the need for a survey of Irish libraries and their resources. We agree that it is necessary. The Net Books Agreement, the Council, Notes from the Provinces, and an article in Erse—which we honestly believe that most of our Irish friends can read—and an excellent broadcast talk on the Library and the Student by Miss Christina Keogh, the accomplished Librarian of the Irish Central Library, make up a quite attractive first number. A list of broadcast talks given by members of the Association is included.
Investigates ‘end paper advertising’ (publishers inclusion in own publications of additional printed matter not connected with the primary text). Makes note of books and other publications from as far back as 1751 ‐ ‘The Gardeners Kalendar’ and goes on to give an in‐depth study of this area. Concludes that this study covers a heretofore‐uncovered area of interest.
The design of work has been shown to influence a host of attitudinal, behavioral, cognitive, well-being, and organizational outcomes. Despite its clear importance…
The design of work has been shown to influence a host of attitudinal, behavioral, cognitive, well-being, and organizational outcomes. Despite its clear importance, scholarly interest in the topic has diminished over the past 20 years. Fortunately, a recent body of research has sought to reenergize research into work design by expanding our view of work design from a narrow set of motivational work features to one that incorporates broader social and contextual elements. In this chapter we seek to review the literature on work design and develop a framework that integrates both job and team design research. We begin by briefly reviewing the history of work design in order to provide needed historical context and illustrate the evolution of job and team design. We then define work design, particularly as it relates to incorporating job and team design elements and transitioning from a view of jobs to one of roles. Following this, we identify a comprehensive set of work design outcomes that provide the basis for understanding the impact that different work characteristics can have on individuals and teams. We then offer an extended discussion of our integrative model of work design, which includes three sources of work characteristics (task, social, and contextual) and the worker characteristics implied by these characteristics. Having defined the range of work and worker characteristics, we then discuss some of the fit and composition issues that arise when designing work, as well as discuss the mechanisms through which the work characteristics have their impact on outcomes. Finally, we discuss research into informal forms of work design.
Food has always been an attractive field for the eccentric, the holder of extraordinary views on dietetics and nutrition, the “ back‐to‐nature ” types, whose ideas of what happens to food after it has passed the mouth must be even more fantastic than their knowledge of food values generally. These fanatics invade other spheres, of course. There is the “ fresh air fiend,” who cannot distinguish between fresh air and piercing draughts, with the result that he (or she) scalps everyone unfortunate enough to be travelling in the same railway carriage, but there seems nothing to touch the food faddist. His views attract an inordinate amount of publicity. Sometimes these are based entirely on misconceptions, but more often have orthodox premises, but have become confused and distorted in the person's own process of reasoning.