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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2022

Susan Shortland and Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to report on trends in the deployment of minority expatriates, review organisational interventions to increase expatriate diversity and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on trends in the deployment of minority expatriates, review organisational interventions to increase expatriate diversity and to consider the challenges facing employers in widening expatriate diversity through a review of practitioner publications published by relocation management companies/consultancies.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of 109 practitioner publications on organisational international assignment policy and practice was conducted to identify trends across three decades in minority expatriation and employer interventions to widen expatriate diversity.

Findings

Practitioner publications record percentage female expatriate participation and expatriate age profiles. While expatriate diversity challenges are reported, employer interventions focus on supporting women and LGBTQ+ assignees but with little detail on their outcomes. There is little emphasis on ethnicity/race, religion, disability, pregnancy/maternity, intersectionality of diversity characteristics and inclusion.

Research limitations/implications

Practitioner publications consulted were primarily Western-focused, with access to a “complete” publications record precluded. Academic research that compares employer policy on diversity interventions with how it is implemented is needed.

Practical implications

A stronger focus on supporting the full range of expatriate diversity attributes and intersectionality is required, explaining how challenges have been addressed and inclusion achieved.

Social implications

Analysis of employer interventions could assist organisations to widen expatriate diversity and inclusion, and minorities to access international careers.

Originality/value

This review of practitioner data reveals trends in the deployment of minority expatriates, interventions taken by employers and challenges they perceive in widening expatriate diversity, providing a unique perspective and enriching our understanding of academic expatriate diversity research. Path-dependent organisational action may hinder employers' future focus on diversity, inclusion and intersectionality.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to surface and discuss issues associated with employee performance appraisal as a multi-staged social interaction reportedly the butt of…

1737

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to surface and discuss issues associated with employee performance appraisal as a multi-staged social interaction reportedly the butt of managerial dissatisfaction, especially when used to inform decisions around pay and other rewards.

Design/methodology/approach

To substantiate the territory, existing management-based evidence from the published literature is curated and discussed to frame issues for investigation under the rubric of performance appraisal as an activity that may be understood as combining interaction between forms of administrative, social and psychologically oriented control. Primary evidence, drawn from recent research sponsored by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, which combines data sets informed by a survey of HR specialists and a follow-on focus group, is then used to illustrate views on relevant themes across a sample of UK-based private, public and third sector organizations (n=715).

Findings

A significant number of organizations apply performance appraisal approaches, somewhat mediated by sector and size, and in turn use the results to inform various forms of HRM decision making – in particular reward management. While claims have been circulating in popular media suggesting the widespread abandonment of traditional performance appraisal, and while the study finds dissatisfaction regarding the utility of existing bureaucratic elements of appraisal mechanisms, the position is more nuanced.

Practical implications

Corporate management attention is drawn to choices of the extent to which they are investing in building line management capabilities to address the consequences of policy decisions to amplify the importance of informal alongside formal performance management processes, and potential reward decision making, mindful of the indeterminate character of the employment relationship and its dynamic, socially constructed character.

Social implications

Performance appraisal may benefit from re-interpreting the balance between emphasis on administrative, social and self-control, given changing expectations among workforce members and those who evaluate organizational effectiveness in contemporary society, and the ongoing contested nature of organizational control.

Originality/value

Employee performance appraisal as an institutional process central to organizational control systems is a topic of interest to both organizational effectiveness academics and the managerial practitioners they study. Using data that broadly represent recent developments in managerial practice across “UK plc”, the paper informs reflection on theory and practice.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2019

Susan Shortland and Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of organisational performance and development review policy and practice on women’s access to international careers via…

1045

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of organisational performance and development review policy and practice on women’s access to international careers via long-term expatriate assignments in the oil and gas industry, with a specific focus on women’s perceptions of procedural justice.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative cross-sectional case study research design is used to analyse performance and development review, and international assignment policies in two firms, together with in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 14 Human Resource policy custodians and 21 female long-term current assignees.

Findings

Women assignees do not see performance and development reviews as effective mechanisms to access expatriate roles. Nonetheless, women use these procedures while also operating within senior male networks to signal their desire to expatriate.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies differences between organisational policy objectives and policy implementation, and female assignees’ experiences and expectations of accessing expatriate roles. Women’s perceptions of organisational justice are not harmed because women place more emphasis on process and conversations than on policy. Research propositions are suggested extending organisational justice theory.

Practical implications

Clear articulation of performance and development review processes aids organisational succession planning. Formalised, transparent expatriate career management supports women’s access to expatriation. The roles of key personnel in determining access to expatriate career paths require clarification.

Originality/value

This paper extends our knowledge of women’s organisationally assigned expatriate careers and perceptions of procedural justice. Women use performance and development reviews to access expatriate opportunities. Employer action aligned to policy intent could help increase female expatriate participation.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Susan Shortland and Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to examine how female expatriates interpret the effectiveness of practical implementation of equality/diversity policies, trusting this to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how female expatriates interpret the effectiveness of practical implementation of equality/diversity policies, trusting this to support their expatriate careers.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional, qualitative research approach draws upon in-depth semi-structured interviews with 14 human resources equality/diversity policy implementers and 26 current female expatriates in two oil and gas firms.

Findings

Early-career stage female expatriates believe that equality/diversity policy implementation will support their international careers. At the most senior levels, women expatriates highlight unequal treatment breaching their trust in delivery of equality/diversity principles to support their expatriate career progression.

Research limitations/implications

Longitudinal research is needed to assess how early-career women expatriates' willingness to trust in organisational equality/diversity principles alters as their careers progress, and the effects of any changing trust relations on their contributions to organisational strategic objectives. Larger senior female expatriate samples are needed to research links between trust relations and turnover.

Practical implications

Organisations must weigh up benefits from using transparent expatriate selection processes versus less formal mechanisms, if informal processes are not to undermine espoused equality interventions. Unconscious bias training should form part of wide-ranging programmes to tackle discrimination. Senior managerial action with embedded accountability is needed.

Originality/value

Exploring the rhetoric and reality of equality/diversity policy implementation on women comprising a minority expatriate group, this research demonstrates women expatriates' early-career trust in gender equality falls away as they first recognise and then accept diminishing female expatriate senior grade representation and the implications for their expatriate careers. Should turnover result, this could detrimentally affect organisational expatriate gender diversity objectives.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to reflect theoretically on a quarter-century of attempts to codify “best practice” standards related to oversight of and reporting on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect theoretically on a quarter-century of attempts to codify “best practice” standards related to oversight of and reporting on executive remuneration. Issues around the regulation of UK executive remuneration are analysed focussing on decision making by elite actors, informed by corporate governance codification artefacts and theoretical considerations inspired by notions of the social construction of reality.

Design/methodology/approach

Using documentary materials to trace evolution of executive remuneration regulation in the UK, consideration is given to the social antecedents of processes governing corporate board remuneration committee practices. The paper reconstructs the social construction of the UK Corporate Governance Code and draws on relevant theoretically inclined literature to help make sense of processes involved.

Findings

Shaping the problems, to be addressed as “legitimate problems”, is core to efforts intended to create “persuasive narratives” around how UK executive remuneration should be regulated.

Research limitations/implications

The paper sketches an agenda for subsequent empirical “field” investigation to assess the social antecedents of UK executive remuneration outcomes.

Practical implications

Offering an alternative way of thinking about executive reward and on-going controversy as to how it may be legitimately regulated, informed by contextual considerations.

Originality/value

A novel look at executive remuneration from a social construction of reality perspective. Adding value to public debate on organisational effectiveness at a time of warnings from luminaries such as the Bank of England governor about the adverse social impact of “stateless companies” and calls for action against unfairness in income distribution.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Stephen J. Perkins and Romain Daste

The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of influences on interaction between corporate personnel and development specialists and line functions associated…

3381

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of influences on interaction between corporate personnel and development specialists and line functions associated with expatriating managers. Line managers are expected to accept greater responsibility for people management and development. But line managers' strategies for managing risks inherent in supervising expatriate managers may cause to surface incompatibilities with specialists' corporate “policy conscience” role. A pluralistically inclined perspective on “managerial interest streams” offers insights into inter‐group perceptions and behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on organisational actors' interpretations, a non‐standardised survey by e‐mail, covering a small sample of expatriate managers (n=20) employed in various countries by a large UK‐headquartered healthcare retail group, was complemented by semi‐structured interviews with personnel and development specialists in a further seven large multinational companies.

Findings

Potential tensions around the application of corporate expatriation policy may be attributed to factors “educating” line and specialist orientations to expatriate managers.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is in the development of an original model sketching pluralistically located interaction around expatriation management. While limited to an exploratory empirical investigation, the practical implications derive from specification of opportunities and threats to partnership building between those involved in expatriating managers.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Susan Shortland and Stephen J. Perkins

Drawing upon compensating differentials, equity theory, and the psychological contract, women’s voices illustrate how organisational policy dissemination, implementation…

1111

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon compensating differentials, equity theory, and the psychological contract, women’s voices illustrate how organisational policy dissemination, implementation and change can lead to unintended assignee dissatisfaction with reward. Implications arise for organisational justice which can affect women’s future expatriation decisions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study methodology was employed. Reward policies for long-term international assignments (IAs) were analysed. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted confidentially with 21 female long-term assignees selected using stratified sampling, and with two managers responsible for international reward policy design/implementation.

Findings

Policy transparency is required. Women perceive inequity when allowances based on grade are distorted by family status. Women in dual career/co-working couples expect reward to reflect their expatriate status. Reward inequity is reported linked to specific home/host country transfers. Policy change reducing housing and children’s education are major causes of reward dissatisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This case study research was cross-sectional and set within one industry. It addressed reward outcomes only for long-term IAs from the perspectives of women who had accepted expatriation in two oil and gas firms.

Practical implications

Reward policy should be transparent. Practitioners might consider the inter-relationship between policy elements depending on grade and accompanied status, location pairings, and the effects of policy content delivery to dual career/co-working couples.

Originality/value

This paper advances the field of IA reward by examining compensating differentials, equity and the psychological contract and takes these forward via implications for organisational justice. It identifies reward elements that support women’s expatriation and address their low share of expatriate roles, thereby fostering gender diversity. Future research themes are presented.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Stephen J. Perkins

311

Abstract

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Veronica A. Azolukwam and Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to examine managerial opinion regarding human resource management (HRM) practices in eastern Nigeria (western Africa).

3895

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine managerial opinion regarding human resource management (HRM) practices in eastern Nigeria (western Africa).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is informed by a survey administered to a small sample of Nigerian HR practitioners (n = 50 usable responses, 25 per cent response rate), replicating earlier work in different regions of the same country.

Findings

Nigerian HR practitioners appear open to people management practices under the HRM rubric. But rather than predicting convergence with western‐inspired approaches, evidence suggests that cultural and institutional influences on how normative HRM may be interpreted and acted on may result in a blend of transplanted and indigenous managerial behaviour.

Practical implications

Sensitivity to individuals’ socialization as well as economic, historical, political, and social contexts may enable multinational organizations to capitalize on the potential to transplant forms of HRM from parent country cultures to developing countries such as Nigeria, at least among managerial employees.

Originality/value

The paper augments and builds on limited empirically informed research to date on people management issues in African country contexts, helping to ground consideration of abstract debates in the literature around convergence and divergence in culturally and institutionally embedded managerial practice.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Stephen J. Perkins

Heuristically oriented, for pedagogic purposes, globalisation and international personnel management and development trajectories are examined from a comparative…

12047

Abstract

Heuristically oriented, for pedagogic purposes, globalisation and international personnel management and development trajectories are examined from a comparative perspective. The paper concludes that a normative operational definition of the human resource management (HRM) paradigm may be partnered with attempts to diffuse a neo‐liberal inspired corporate governance regime internationally. However, caution is expressed against uncritical determinism. There is evidence from emergent studies that institutional factors offer scope for diverse interpretations of international HRM (IHRM) experimentation observable across different jurisdictions. Throughout, the paper enquires as to the empirical research questions interrogation of this material give rise to, with implications for those associated with international training and development.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

1 – 10 of 298