The purpose of this paper is to attest whether generalized trust variable is the best proxy for social capital in explaining the latter’s effect on economic growth in a…
The purpose of this paper is to attest whether generalized trust variable is the best proxy for social capital in explaining the latter’s effect on economic growth in a panel setting. Via a specially formulated theoretical framework, the authors also test whether the growth-effect of social capital is direct or indirect, and if it is indirect, can property rights be the link between social capital and growth.
The authors begin with testing the robustness of generalized trust variable in explaining the effect of social capital on growth and property rights. The authors then propose a number of trust-alternative variables that are shown to contain an element of trust based on theoretical arguments drawn from previous studies, to proxy for social capital and re-estimate its effect on growth and property rights. In this study, the authors use panel estimation technique, hitherto has been limited in social capital studies, which are capable of reducing omitted variable bias and time-invariant heterogeneity compared to the commonly used cross-sectional estimation.
First, the authors find that generalized trust data obtained by the World Value Survey (WVS) are unable to yield sufficiently robust results in panel estimation due to missing observations problem. Using the proposed trust-alternative variables, the estimation results improve significantly and the authors are able to show that social capital is a deep determinant of growth and it is affecting growth via property rights channel. The findings also give supporting evidence to the primacy of informal rules and constraints as proposed by North (2005) over the political prominence theory by Acemoglu et al. (2005).
Generalized trust data obtained from the WVS, frequently used in majority of social capital studies to measure social capital, yield highly non-robust results in panel estimation due to missing observations problem. Future studies in social capital intending to use panel estimation therefore need to find trust-alternative variables to proxy for social capital, and this paper has proposed four such variables.
The use of panel estimation technique extends the evidence of social capital significance to economic growth and property rights, since the previous social capital studies rely heavily on cross-sectional estimation technique. Due to the availability of annual observations of the trust-alternative variables, this paper is able to find better results as compared to estimation using generalized trust data.
THE re‐opening of air offensive action on both sides, which marked the later part of January, is likely to complicate life considerably for librarians. The lull that has been enjoyed during the Russian operations, and is probably owing to them, may prove to have been deceptive. We do not know yet how much further the destruction of buildings—and amongst them libraries—will go before a decision is reached. We suppose by now that every librarian has taken every precaution within his power to preserve his stock and his service : more than that it is hardly possible to do with the resources to which we are now restricted.
The difficulties that MR poses for comparativists were anticipated 40 years ago in Sidney Verba's essay “Some Dilemmas of Comparative Research”, in which he called for a…
The difficulties that MR poses for comparativists were anticipated 40 years ago in Sidney Verba's essay “Some Dilemmas of Comparative Research”, in which he called for a “disciplined configurative approach…based on general rules, but on complicated combinations of them” (Verba, 1967, p. 115). Charles Ragin's (1987) book The Comparative Method eloquently spelled out the mismatch between MR and causal explanation in comparative research. At the most basic level, like most other methods of multivariate statistical analysis MR works by rendering the cases invisible, treating them simply as the source of a set of empirical observations on dependent and independent variables. However, even when scholars embrace the analytical purpose of generalizing about relationships between variables, as opposed to dwelling on specific differences between entities with proper names, the cases of interest in comparative political economy are limited in number and occupy a bounded universe.2 They are thus both knowable and manageable. Consequently, retaining named cases in the analysis is an efficient way of conveying information and letting readers evaluate it.3 Moreover, in practice most producers and consumers of comparative political economy are intrinsically interested in specific cases. Why not cater to this interest by keeping our cases visible?
The vast cross‐disciplinary literature exploring work quality and job satisfaction has linked worker experiences to many individual, organizational, and social outcomes…
The vast cross‐disciplinary literature exploring work quality and job satisfaction has linked worker experiences to many individual, organizational, and social outcomes, yet this research has largely failed to shed much light on why cross‐national differences in worker satisfaction and its determinants persist over time. The purpose of this paper to: empirically test (using various bivariate descriptive procedures and comparative OLS regression) significant, cross‐national differences in job satisfaction and its determinants; and explore the reasons for these cross‐national differences, moving beyond the research of social psychologists and organizational behavior researchers, to also include import macro cross‐national factors that directly influence these differences.
In this research, the author applies and extends Handel's Post and Neo‐Fordist framework for understanding job characteristics and job satisfaction, using non‐panel longitudinal data from the International Social Survey Program (Work Orientations I, II, and III:, 1989, 1997, 2005 – survey questions on job characteristics and job quality) and various welfare state country‐contextual variables.
OLS regression results of job satisfaction by country show that for countries with relative higher levels of welfare state safety net provisions, intrinsic work characteristics provide greater overall predictability in overall perceived job satisfaction. Once more, extrinsic work characteristics generally have greater salience and predictability in overall perceived job satisfaction in countries relatively lower levels of welfare state safety net provisions. Furthermore, the results clearly show that regardless of country level of welfare state safety net provisions, intrinsic work characteristics add the most overall predictability to perceived job satisfaction of workers within the study countries. Finally, an often accepted job satisfaction model, commonly considered to be widely generalizable across a wide variety of cross‐cultural and cross‐national contexts, actually appears to have a lack of applicability across countries.
What are the key country‐level contextual and global‐macro variables driving these country differences in job characteristics and perceived worker satisfaction? Prior research could not answer this question. However, this research is the first and only empirical inquiry to look at the relationship between macro welfare state country‐contextual factors and job satisfaction. Like many work attitudes, job satisfaction is a dynamic construct that changes in response to personal and environmental conditions. Finally, monitoring job satisfaction over time and in different contexts allows one to better examine and understand the salient factors that affect job satisfaction.
Introduction The principal objective of a portfolio manager's work is the construction and maintenance of successful, efficient portfolios of investment assets. It is…
Introduction The principal objective of a portfolio manager's work is the construction and maintenance of successful, efficient portfolios of investment assets. It is necessary, therefore, that methods are designed and made available through which the success and efficiency of portfolios may be assessed. Only through the continuous monitoring of the achieved results can long term investment strategies succeed.
The management of children′s literature is a search for value and suitability. Effective policies in library and educational work are based firmly on knowledge of materials, and on the bibliographical and critical frame within which the materials appear and might best be selected. Boundaries, like those between quality and popular books, and between children′s and adult materials, present important challenges for selection, and implicit in this process are professional acumen and judgement. Yet also there are attitudes and systems of values, which can powerfully influence selection on grounds of morality and good taste. To guard against undue subjectivity, the knowledge frame should acknowledge the relevance of social and experiential context for all reading materials, how readers think as well as how they read, and what explicit and implicit agendas the authors have. The good professional takes all these factors on board.
Hybrid libraries provide multiple ways to access information in various formats, normally within a common information framework. The eLib project MALIBU (MAnaging the…
Hybrid libraries provide multiple ways to access information in various formats, normally within a common information framework. The eLib project MALIBU (MAnaging the Hybrid LIbrary for the Benefit of Users) focuses on the development of models, both prototypic and theoretic, for management and organisation of the hybrid library. This article describes the agent technology used for the MALIBU prototype search engine that allows for the search and retrieval of information from disparate resources.
Suggests major factors that will enable service companies to become winners in the 1990s. Includes comment on strategic vision in service delivery, customer needs, communicating leadership vision to front‐line people and the necessary investment in training. Discusses “customer service burn‐out” and a formula for success. Suggests an upsidedown pyramid in line management.