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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2018

V. Dao Truong, Stephen Graham Saunders and X. Dam Dong

Social marketing has gained widespread recognition as a means of motivating behaviour change in individuals for societal good. Many opinions have been shared regarding its…

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Abstract

Purpose

Social marketing has gained widespread recognition as a means of motivating behaviour change in individuals for societal good. Many opinions have been shared regarding its potential to affect society or systems-wide change, leading to the macro-or systems social marketing (SSM) concepts and ideas. This paper aims to critically appraise the SSM literature, identify key features and highlight gaps for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

A search was conducted of peer-reviewed SSM articles published from 2000 to March 2018 inclusive. A number of online databases were mined, including but not limited to Google, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane and Medline. Key social marketing outlets (Social Marketing Quarterly and Journal of Social Marketing) were browsed manually. In total, 28 SSM articles were identified.

Findings

SSM adopts a dynamic systems thinking approach; it is an orientation, not a theory or model; it is multi-method; and it recognises that intervention can occur on multiple levels. Yet, greater attention should be given to the complexities of the systems context and the power structures and relations that exist between stakeholders. Significant issues also include stakeholder voice and participation, the use and reporting of theories and models, the measurement of long-term intervention outcomes and the undesirable impacts of SSM.

Originality/value

This paper identifies issues that need to be addressed if social marketing is to become a more system-oriented means to positively influence societal change. Implications for theoretical and practical development of the social marketing field are provided.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

V. Dao Truong, X. Dam Dong, Stephen Graham Saunders, Quynh Pham, Hanh Nguyen and Ngoc Anh Tran

This paper aims to examine how social marketing intervention programmes to measure, evaluate and document social marketing impact.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how social marketing intervention programmes to measure, evaluate and document social marketing impact.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of 49 nutritional behaviour intervention programmes (2006–2020) was conducted. To examine the social marketing impact of the programmes, a logic model of social impact was used. The model comprises inputs (the resources used for an intervention programme), outputs (the direct products resulting from the use of resources), outcomes (short- to medium-term programme effects) and impacts (long-term programme effects on the individual, community or societal levels).

Findings

Most intervention programmes set the goal of encouraging their target audience to increase fruit and vegetable intake, choose healthy food items, drink less sugary beverages or consume low-fat diaries, while few others sought policy or systems change. Multiple criteria were used for impact evaluation (e.g. exposure and reach, changes in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, behaviours and body mass index). (Quasi) experiments were the most popular method used for impact measurement, followed by the pre-post model of impact. Positive changes were found in 33 programmes, often reported in terms of short-term outputs or outcomes. Long-term impact particularly on the broader societal level was not indicated.

Originality/value

This research offers a systematic review of how social marketing impact is measured, evaluated and documented. It also provides some guidance for social marketers on how to shift from a reductionist, behavioural outcome-focussed approach towards an “expansionist” impact approach that explicitly considers social marketing impacts on the quality of life of individuals, communities and societies.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Stephen Graham Saunders and V. Dao Truong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamic nature of behaviour change over time and to gain insights into the effectiveness of social marketing efforts at three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamic nature of behaviour change over time and to gain insights into the effectiveness of social marketing efforts at three different intervention points under three different delay time conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

A system dynamics simulation modelling approach was used.

Findings

The findings showed that the effectiveness of social marketing interventions at different points of intervention and delay times is dependent on complex dynamic system interactions and feedback loops.

Research limitations/implications

As the dynamic simulation model was an abstraction or simplified representation, it was only useful to gain insights into generalised patterns of behaviour over time.

Practical implications

The paper provided practical guidance to social marketers’ intent on gaining insights into “where to do” and “when to do” social marketing rather than “how to do” social marketing.

Originality/value

The paper provided theoretical and practical insights into the temporal nature of behaviour change and the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing behaviour over time.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Estelle van Tonder, Stephen Graham Saunders, Mwarumba Mwavita and Sohee Kim

This study aims to examine customer helping and advocacy behaviours within dyadic financial service relationships involving customers and fellow customer helpers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine customer helping and advocacy behaviours within dyadic financial service relationships involving customers and fellow customer helpers.

Design/methodology/approach

The gift-giving literature was used to propose a customer-to-customer interaction model, which was tested and cross-validated among electronic banking customers in South Africa (n = 404) and Australia (n = 244). Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents who are users of electronic banking services and who previously received help with the service from a fellow customer. Data analysis included multi-group structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings support the view that selected source credibility dimensions may influence greater affective commitment towards fellow customer helpers at various levels. Subsequently, further altruistic gift-giving in the form of customer helping and advocacy behaviours may result from higher levels of affective commitment. Feeling secure in their relationships with fellow customer helpers, customer recipients of help are likely to further socialise other customers who may share a common interest in the service category (e.g. electronic banking), but do not necessarily support the financial service provider of the customer.

Originality/value

The findings extend the conceptual domain of affective commitment and shed light on the factors contributing to the development of strengthened bonds between customers and fellow customer helpers within dyadic financial service relationships. Additionally, greater financial service socialisation and use may be achieved when the helping and advocacy behaviours of customer helpers are not restricted to a specific service provider. Subsequently, the current investigation advances knowledge of the underlying processes involved in motivating these desired service outcomes and behaviours.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Stephen Graham Saunders

The purpose of this paper is to suggest and recommend an alternative visual technique to collect scenario planning information. This visual technique is known as collage

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest and recommend an alternative visual technique to collect scenario planning information. This visual technique is known as collage or papier collé.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study example of using collage construction to collect scenario planning information is presented.

Findings

Collage construction was deemed well suited to scenario planning as it overcome some of the problems of verbal communication techniques, providing an additional technique that allows the scenario planner to analyse information from multiple angles and sources. Through using multiple techniques, the scenario planner is able to increase “trustworthiness” of the data and analysis and build confidence that the future scenarios are “authentic”, “believable” and “applicable”.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study is that only one case study is presented. To ensure “trustworthiness” across a variety of industries and cultural contexts, further replication would be needed.

Practical implications

Collage construction can prove to be a valuable additional tool for the scenario planner when verbal communication is limited or problematic.

Originality/value

This research recommends a scenario planning technique that does not necessarily rely on verbal communication skills.

Details

Foresight, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Stephen Graham Saunders

The purpose of this paper is to examine the PAKSERV service quality measure in a South African cultural context.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the PAKSERV service quality measure in a South African cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test and confirm the dimensionality of the PAKSERV service quality construct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used. The data were collected through a survey of over 300 Black South African banking customers.

Findings

The results of the CFA confirmed that PAKSERV is a valid measure of service quality in a South African cultural context, consisting of six dimensions: tangibility, reliability, assurance, sincerity, personalisation and formality.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study is that PAKSERV was only validated for the banking sector. To ensure validity across a variety of industries and cultural contexts, further replication would be needed.

Practical implications

By measuring and evaluating service quality dimensions that are culturally relevant to customers, marketing managers can focus on the dimensions of service quality that are not adequately captured in the SERVQUAL instrument. The paper recommends three useful managerial applications of the service quality construct. The findings are particularly valuable to international services managers who what to move away from a single international service strategy and embrace a flexible service delivery strategy that is culturally sensitive.

Originality/value

The study contributes by providing further validation for the PAKSERV service quality measurement scale. This is also one of the few studies to test and confirm a culturally sensitive service quality construct in Africa. Furthermore, the study questions the notion that the PAKSERV measurement scale is culturally specific and argues that PAKSERV should be seen as a generic measurement scale that can be used across a variety of countries and cultural contexts.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Stephen Graham Saunders

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate over time the ethical performance of a multinational foods company – Nestlé – operating in a highly dynamic, complex, and often…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate over time the ethical performance of a multinational foods company – Nestlé – operating in a highly dynamic, complex, and often ambiguous environment in a crisis torn Zimbabwe.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study applies an ethical performance evaluation (EPE) managerial framework to evaluate the actions of Nestlé Zimbabwe at various critical decision‐making time periods.

Findings

While consumer pressure groups and international rights activists in Europe condemned Nestlé's actions in Zimbabwe as unethical and unacceptable, this research found that by exploring the events over time (i.e. longitudinal research) as the context of the event (crisis in Zimbabwe) evolved, it was shown that Nestlé faced a major ethical dilemma; and may have acted ethically and indeed acceptably given the unfolding crisis in Zimbabwe.

Research limitations/implications

An EPE managerial framework is a useful tool to provide insight and knowledge of a particular event, however using the framework will not determine what is ethical or not. Evaluating ethical performance is always a value judgement and therefore the framework only offers insight and knowledge into the events over time, allowing the researcher or manager the opportunity to draw better, more informed, ethical decisions.

Practical implications

The case study provides an illustration of a dynamic approach that can be used by business managers to assess the ethical performance of a company.

Originality/value

The paper proposes that an ethical performance of a company needs to be evaluated over time as the context of the events evolves. The EPE managerial framework is adapted to emphasize the importance of evaluating the time and context parameters.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Stephen Graham Saunders and Ralph Borland

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through a comparative historical analysis, the impact of a shift to a marketing‐driven (business‐oriented) philanthropic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through a comparative historical analysis, the impact of a shift to a marketing‐driven (business‐oriented) philanthropic funding structure on NGOs, international businesses that fund charities, and the recipients of the funding for a water pump system in southern Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The study deconstructs and dissects the introduction and acceptance of the PlayPumps water pump system by generating four historical funding‐structure models that typified the philanthropic funding at the time. Each time period is critically examined to investigate how changes toward marketing‐driven philanthropy affected the viability of the project.

Findings

The key finding is that by shifting to a marketing‐driven (business‐oriented) philanthropic funding structure, NGOs risk fundamentally disconnecting the funders and the recipients of the funding. Serious concerns arise regarding the role of businesses in driving the “overcommercialisation” of marketing‐driven philanthropy.

Research limitations/implications

The funding‐structure models highlight some of the hidden costs of marketing‐driven philanthropic funding, but do not show what funding structure would be most efficient in better connecting international businesses and consumers with the charities they are supporting.

Originality/value

This analysis examines the underexplored intersection of business, marketing, consumerism and philanthropy.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Stephen Graham Saunders, Mike Bendixen and Russell Abratt

The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the banking needs of urban informal poor consumers in South Africa. These consumers find it difficult to obtain…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the banking needs of urban informal poor consumers in South Africa. These consumers find it difficult to obtain access to banking products.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of consumers was undertaken in a large informal settlement outside Johannesburg. A qualitative exploratory pilot study was undertaken first to gain a better understanding of these consumers and to develop a research instrument. Second, a quantitative analysis was undertaken among 200 households.

Findings

Banking products used by the sample are discussed as well as all their patronage motives. It was established that the majority of consumers did have a bank account and there was a significant association between having an account and various demographics such as income level, employment status and level of education.

Research limitations/implications

Each informal settlement may have unique characteristics and therefore it may be difficult to generalize the findings.

Practical implications

Banks will have to address the patronage factors of these consumers as they have very different needs when compared to middle and upper income customers. Specify strategies are recommended to bank management.

Originality/value

No study has been done on the banking needs of this segment of the market and very little is known about the urban informal poor in general. This paper gives insight into how banks can play their part in uplifting the poor in societies where they make up large segments of the population.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Goran Svensson

223

Abstract

Details

European Business Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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