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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Shelley J. Correll and Stephen Benard

Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional…

Abstract

Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional change in recent decades. Two classes of explanations that have been offered as partial explanations of persistent gender inequality include economic theories of statistical discrimination and social psychological theories of status-based discrimination. Despite the fact that the two theories offer explanations for the same phenomena, little effort has been made to compare them, and practitioners of one theory are often unfamiliar with the other. In this article, we assess both theories. We argue that the principal difference between the two theories lies in the mechanism by which discrimination takes place: discrimination in statistical models derives from an informational bias, while discrimination in status models derives from a cognitive bias. We also consider empirical assessments of both explanations, and find that while research has generally been more supportive of status theories than statistical theories, statistical theories have been more readily evoked as explanations for gender inequalities in the paid labor market. We argue that status theories could be more readily applied to understanding gender inequality by adopting the broader conception of performance favored by statistical discrimination theories. The goal is to build on the strong empirical base of status characteristic theory, but draw on statistical discrimination theories to extend its ability to explain macro level gender inequalities.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-330-3

Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Shelley J. Correll, Sarah Thébaud and Stephen Benard

The paradigmatic shift in gender theory, which focuses attention away from the individual and toward structural accounts, has undoubtedly advanced the amount and quality…

Abstract

The paradigmatic shift in gender theory, which focuses attention away from the individual and toward structural accounts, has undoubtedly advanced the amount and quality of research on gender as a macro-level phenomenon. However, social psychological accounts of gender have been less frequent among gender scholars in sociology, perhaps due to the perception that studying individuals might reinvigorate sex role and socialization accounts. This concern is especially understandable since sociology as a field has yet to fully incorporate current theories of gender (Stacey & Thorne, 1985; Ferree & Hall, 1996). For example, Ferree and Hall (1996) have shown that many introductory sociology textbooks still present gender as simply the product of socialization, even while examining other bases of inequality, such as race and class, at a structural level. Rather than rehearsing past debates, we argue that social psychological perspectives make a unique contribution to bridging the multiple levels of the gender system, and are especially well suited to helping us understand the ways that gender is achieved through interaction. Understanding gender as an interactive process sheds light on how structural conditions constrain individual choices as well as how structural patterns of gender inequality are generated and recreated. Discovering mechanisms at the micro level, which play an active role in the persistence of inequality, is especially fruitful because they suggest ways by which gender inequality might be lessened.

Details

Social Psychology of Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1430-0

Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Stephen Benard and Long Doan

The relationship between intergroup conflict and intragroup cohesion is a longstanding concern in sociology and related disciplines. Past work suggests that intergroup…

Abstract

The relationship between intergroup conflict and intragroup cohesion is a longstanding concern in sociology and related disciplines. Past work suggests that intergroup conflict shapes emotional bonds between group members, promotes in-group and out-group stereotyping, encourages self-sacrifice for the group, and changes the social structure of groups. Conflict thus plays an important structural role in organizing social interaction. Although sociologists contributed much to the beginnings of this research tradition, sociological attention to the conflict–cohesion link has waned in recent decades. We contend that despite advances in our understanding of the conflict–cohesion hypothesis, more remains to be done, and sociologists are especially equipped to tackle these unanswered questions. As such, we encourage sociologists to revisit the study of intergroup conflict and intragroup cohesion and offer some possibilities for furthering our understanding of this phenomenon. After reviewing and evaluating the relevant literatures on the conflict–cohesion hypothesis, we consider ways in which a broad range of current theories from the group process tradition – including theories of status, exchange, justice, identity, and emotion – could contribute to understanding the conflict–cohesion hypothesis and how those theories could benefit from considering the conflict–cohesion hypothesis. In doing so, we make a case for the continuing importance of sociology in explaining the link between intergroup conflict and intragroup cohesion.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-774-2

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Abstract

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-330-3

Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Shane R. Thye and Edward J. Lawler

Advances in Group Processes publishes theoretical analyses, reviews, and theory-based empirical chapters on group phenomena. The series adopts a broad conception of “group…

Abstract

Advances in Group Processes publishes theoretical analyses, reviews, and theory-based empirical chapters on group phenomena. The series adopts a broad conception of “group processes.” This includes work on groups ranging from the very small to the very large, and on classic and contemporary topics such as status, power, trust, justice, influence, decision-making, intergroup relations, and social networks. Previous contributors have included scholars from diverse fields including sociology, psychology, political science, business, philosophy, computer science, mathematics, and organizational behavior.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-774-2

Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Several years we began a new trend in the Advances in Group Processes series. Our goal then was to publish a set of interrelated volumes that examine core issues or…

Abstract

Several years we began a new trend in the Advances in Group Processes series. Our goal then was to publish a set of interrelated volumes that examine core issues or fundamental themes in the group processes arena. Each volume was to be organized around a particular problem, substantive area, or topic of study, broadly defined to include a range of methodological and theoretical orientations. Volume 23 represents the fifth volume in the series, addressing issues pertinent to the Social Psychology of the Workplace.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-330-3

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Abstract

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-774-2

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2018

José Luis Collazo Jr and Julie A. Kmec

Reliance on third-party judgments are common in efforts to identify and reduce workplace sexual harassment (SH). The purpose of this paper is to identify whether a…

Abstract

Purpose

Reliance on third-party judgments are common in efforts to identify and reduce workplace sexual harassment (SH). The purpose of this paper is to identify whether a workplace emphasis on inclusion as a cultural value is related to third-party labeling of and response to an exchange between a male manager and his female subordinate.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (n=308) in an online survey experiment were randomly assigned to a workplace that emphasized inclusion or one that emphasized individual achievement as a cultural value. They read a vignette describing a workplace interaction between a male manager and his female subordinate and responded to a series of questions.

Findings

Organizational emphasis on inclusion is unrelated to third-party labeling of the interaction as SH, but positively associated with labeling the female’s intention to pursue harassment charges as an overreaction, and support for the female subordinate in a claim of SH against her manager. Culture is unassociated with willingness to defend the male manager in a SH claim.

Practical implications

Identifying how workplace culture shapes third-party reaction to harassment can help employers use third-party witnesses and cultural value statements as tools to reduce SH.

Social implications

A workplace’s cultural emphasis on inclusion is positively related to third-party support for SH victims implying the importance of workplace context in the fight against workplace SH.

Originality/value

The paper presents the first experimental analysis of how a workplace cultural emphasis on inclusion affects the third-party observers’ reactions to SH.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2015

Lindsey Trimble O’Connor, Julie A. Kmec and Elizabeth C. Harris

Discrimination against workers because of their family responsibilities can violate federal law, yet scholars know little about the context surrounding perceived family…

Abstract

Purpose

Discrimination against workers because of their family responsibilities can violate federal law, yet scholars know little about the context surrounding perceived family responsibilities discrimination (FRD). This chapter investigates both the types of caregiving responsibilities that put workers at risk of FRD and the organizational contexts that give rise to perceived FRD.

Methodology/approach

We identify features of FRD which make detecting it particularly difficult and theorize the mechanisms by which caregiving responsibilities and organizational contexts lead to perceived FRD. We draw on data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce for our empirical analysis.

Findings

Caregivers who provide both child and eldercare are more likely to perceive FRD than caregivers who provide one type of care, as are people who experience high levels of family-to-work interference and who spend more daily time on childcare. Certain family-friendly and meritocratic organizational contexts are associated with lower perceived FRD.

Research limitations/implications

We measure perceptions, not actual discrimination on the basis of family care responsibilities. Our research cannot pinpoint the factors which intensify or lessen actual discrimination, just perceptions of it.

Originality/value

By pinpointing the characteristics of organizations in which perceived FRD occurs, this chapter shows how organizations can create workplaces in which perceived FRD is less likely.

Details

Work and Family in the New Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-630-0

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 October 2020

Stephen Tsekea and Josiline Phiri Chigwada

The purpose of this study was to investigate the various innovative support strategies rendered by academic libraries in support of e-learning in Zimbabwean universities…

4148

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the various innovative support strategies rendered by academic libraries in support of e-learning in Zimbabwean universities. This was necessitated by the change in nature of learning and services provision in universities as a result of COVID-19. Despite the crisis caused by the pandemic, users of libraries still expect services to answer their information needs.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative study was done to unpack the role of digital library services in supporting e-learning in universities in Zimbabwe. An online questionnaire was developed using survey monkey and distributed to 50 professional librarians in both private and state universities in Zimbabwe. A total of 34 librarians responded to the questionnaire and the data was analysed and presented thematically. Data were presented using descriptive statistics in the form of figures.

Findings

The findings revealed that academic libraries play an important role in supporting e-learning in higher education institutions by providing electronic information resources, which are key in research, learning and teaching. The libraries provide a one-stop shop for accessing electronic resources through the digital library. Patrons have benefitted by accessing and using digital library services during the COVID-19 lockdown period. It was also discovered that libraries should ensure that they are prepared to always offer their services despite the closure of physical buildings because of the pandemic.

Research limitations/implications

The study used an online questionnaire only as the data collection instrument, as it was the most suitable one to get data from librarians working from home and also because of the COVID-19 health guidance such as maintaining social distance. The other methods were not used because of financial constraints.

Practical implications

This research showed the importance of digital services in e-learning environments, especially in developing countries. The work revealed how university librarians in Zimbabwe are coming up with practical solutions in supporting e-learning in times of crisis. The research therefore becomes handy for higher education institutions and authorities in crafting e-learning frameworks and positioning academic libraries at the centre of teaching, learning and research activities.

Social implications

This paper provides useful insights into how libraries can support learning especially during a pandemic. The paper details how libraries support communities by offering correct and reliable information from scholarly information sources. It also chronicles how libraries play an important part in the support of researchers in higher institutions in the fight against COVID-19.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is one of the first done in Zimbabwe on strategies that libraries are using in the COVID-19 era to support e-learning. The findings presented in this study are helpful for higher and tertiary education authorities and other policymakers in improving e-learning and digital libraries.

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