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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Stephen Bazen and Jean-Marie Cardebat

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Kadija Charni and Stephen Bazen

Cross-section data suggest that the relationship between age and hourly earnings is an inverted U shape. Evidence from panel data does not necessarily confirm this finding…

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1513

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-section data suggest that the relationship between age and hourly earnings is an inverted U shape. Evidence from panel data does not necessarily confirm this finding suggesting that older workers may not experience a reduction in earnings at the end of their working life. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper the authors use panel data on males for Great Britain in order to examine why the two types of data provide conflicting conclusions. Concentrating on the over 50s, several hypotheses are examined: overlapping cohorts, job tenure, job-changing, labour supply behaviour, and selectivity bias.

Findings

Cohort and individual fixed effects partly explain the divergent conclusions. However, for fully, year-on-year employed individuals, there is no evidence of earnings decline at the end of working life. The authors find no role for selectivity due to retirement, although shorter working hours or partial retirement along with job-changing late in life does provide an explanation for why hourly earnings decline for certain older workers.

Originality/value

The authors find no evidence that the process of ageing itself leads to lower earnings as suggested by the cross-section profile.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Stephen Bazen and Khalid Maman Waziri

Using a representative survey of young persons having left full-time education in France in 1998 and interviewed in 2001 and 2005, the purpose of this paper is to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a representative survey of young persons having left full-time education in France in 1998 and interviewed in 2001 and 2005, the purpose of this paper is to examine the process of their integration into normal employment (a stable job with a standard employment contract) and the extent to which job matches are inefficient in the sense that the pay in a job is below an individual’s potential earnings. The latter are determined principally by diploma level and educational specialisation, although other forms of training and labour market experience are relevant.

Design/methodology/approach

A stochastic earnings frontier approach is used in order to examine workers’ ability to capture their full potential earnings in labour markets where there is inefficient job matching (due to the lack of information, discrimination, over-education or the process of integration).

Findings

The results suggest that young workers manage to obtain on average about 82 per cent of their potential earnings three years after leaving full-time education and earnings inefficiency had disappeared four years later. The results are robust to the treatment of selectivity arising from the exclusion of the unemployed in the estimation of the frontier.

Originality/value

The stochastic earnings frontier is a useful and appropriate tool for modelling the process of labour market integration of certain groups (young persons, migrants and the long-term unemployed) where over-education due to inefficient initial job matches occurs. Over time this situation tends to be rectified as job mobility leads to improved matching and less inefficiency.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Vasiliki Koutsogeorgopoulou

Examines the employment effects of minimum wage regulation on Greekmanufacturing for the period 1962‐87. The empirical analysis is carriedout in three steps. First…

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2178

Abstract

Examines the employment effects of minimum wage regulation on Greek manufacturing for the period 1962‐87. The empirical analysis is carried out in three steps. First, estimates the effect of the minimum wage on the average wages of adult male and female industrial workers to derive estimates of wage elasticities of each type of labour with respect to the minimum wage. Second, estimates labour demand equations for the two types of labour to derive the employment elasticities with respect to the corresponding average wage. Finally, provides estimates on the employment effects of the minimum wage by combining the results derived in the first two stages. The results provide some indications that the minimum wage plays a more significant role in the employment of female than male workers in manufacturing, and suggest that minimum wages positively affect the average real wage of both types of workers examined.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Stephen Bazen

Minimum wage fixing came to be increasingly questioned during the 1980sowing to high unemployment and the rise of liberal economic thinking.This led many countries to…

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1705

Abstract

Minimum wage fixing came to be increasingly questioned during the 1980s owing to high unemployment and the rise of liberal economic thinking. This led many countries to dilute minimum wage protection by freezing the rates or altering the coverage. However, close examination of the relevant research reveals that empirical support for the criticisms of minimum wages is fairly weak and fragmented. At the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, many countries, Great Britain being a notable exception, pursued a more active minimum wage policy. Concludes with a re‐examination of the goals and form of minimum wage legislation in the light of recent history.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 3 April 2003

Stephen Bazen and Patrick Moyes

When incorporating differences in household characteristics, the choice of equivalence scale can affect the ranking of income distributions. An alternative approach was…

Abstract

When incorporating differences in household characteristics, the choice of equivalence scale can affect the ranking of income distributions. An alternative approach was pioneered by A. B. Atkinson and F. Bourguignon (G. R. Feiwel (Ed.), Arrow and the Foundation of the Theory of Economic Policy, Macmillan, New York, 1987), who derive a sequential Lorenz dominance criterion for comparing zistributions with an identical population structure. In order to make their approach applicable to international comparisons, we extend their criterion to the case of different marginal distributions of household types, and derive a sequential stochastic dominance criterion that highlights the importance of first order dominance of the marginal distribution of household characteristics for obtaining consistent rankings of income distributions. Comparisons of distributions are made using the Luxembourg Income Study database for a number of countries.

Details

Inequality, Welfare and Poverty: Theory and Measurement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-014-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Arthur van Soest

Legal minimum wage rates for young workers were introduced in TheNetherlands in 1974. After substantial increases during the 1970s,youth minimum wages were lowered in the…

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1478

Abstract

Legal minimum wage rates for young workers were introduced in The Netherlands in 1974. After substantial increases during the 1970s, youth minimum wages were lowered in the 1980s, in response to the large increase of youth unemployment. Analyses the employment effects of lowering youth minimum wages. Looks at macro and micro evidence. At the macro level, does not find convincing evidence of negative effects of youth minimum wages on youth employment. Constructs a micro model in which an individual′s labour market state can be affected by the sign of potential earnings minus the relevant minimum wage. The model is estimated with data from 1984 and 1987. Finds significant minimum wage elasticities of employment and unemployment, with expected signs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

B. Callaghan and R. Jones

The TUC is opposed to the decision by the British Government toabolish wages councils, which if successful will worsen the pay andconditions of the 2.6 million workers…

Abstract

The TUC is opposed to the decision by the British Government to abolish wages councils, which if successful will worsen the pay and conditions of the 2.6 million workers covered by them, and many other low paid workers who use the rates set as reference points. Drawing on theoretical literature and empirical research, explores the arguments for and against abolition and discusses the case for a statutory national minimum wage. Concludes by arguing that the case for abolition is far from proven on economic and social grounds, and that the introduction of a statutory national minimum wage, combined with other active labour market intervention by the Government, is needed to overcome the problem of low pay.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Richard Dickens, Stephen Machin and Alan Manning

Presents a theoretical approach to analysing the effects of minimumwages on employment which is intended to conform more with thefunctioning of actual labour markets than…

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2328

Abstract

Presents a theoretical approach to analysing the effects of minimum wages on employment which is intended to conform more with the functioning of actual labour markets than do other popular models traditionally used to analyse the likely effects of minimum wages on employment. The model has the desirable property of not only allowing for the negative effect predicted by conventional models, but also permiting a non‐negative impact which is consistent with several recent empirical pieces of work. Examines the employment effects of the industry‐level system of minimum wages which operated in the UK until September 1993. Results reported are not in line with the orthodox model as they suggest a neutral or positive impact of Wages Council minimum wages on employment between 1978 and 1990.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Gilbert Benhayoun

Recent studies of the French experience find a small, negative impact ofthe minimum wage on young persons′ employment, a finding which has ledto a political debate over…

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906

Abstract

Recent studies of the French experience find a small, negative impact of the minimum wage on young persons′ employment, a finding which has led to a political debate over the role of sub‐minimum wage rates for youths. The current study initially aimed simply to update previous work. However, the employment series for young persons has been revised in a non‐negligible manner and the results obtained show that the impact of the minimum wage is far less robust than previously thought. The desirability of sub‐minimum rates for young persons would appear questionable.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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