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Traffic incidents vary considerably in their severity, and the dispatch categories assigned during emergency ambulance calls aim to identify those incidents in greatest…
Traffic incidents vary considerably in their severity, and the dispatch categories assigned during emergency ambulance calls aim to identify those incidents in greatest need of a lights and sirens (L&S) response. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dispatch categories could discriminate between those traffic incidents that do/do not require an L&S response.
A retrospective cohort study of ambulance records was conducted. The predictor variable was the Traffic/Transportation dispatch categories assigned by call-takers. The outcome variable was whether each incident required an L&S response. Possible thresholds for identifying dispatch categories that require an L&S response were developed. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each threshold.
There were 17,099 patients in 13,325 traffic incidents dispatched as Traffic/Transportation over the study period. “Possible death at scene” ‘had the highest odds (OR 22.07, 95% CI 1.06–461.46) and “no injuries” the lowest odds (OR 0.28 95% CI 0.14–0.58) of requiring an L&S response compared to the referent group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.65, 95% CI [0.64, 0.67]. It was found that Traffic/Transportation dispatch categories allocated during emergency ambulance calls had limited ability to discriminate those incidents that do/do not require an L&S response to the scene of a crash.
This research makes a unique contribution, as it considers traffic incidents not as a single entity but rather as a number of dispatch categories which has practical implications for those emergency medical services dispatching ambulances to the scene.
This manuscript compares active with passive learning models. It supports active learning as more appropriate for professional sales education. The conceptual support is…
This manuscript compares active with passive learning models. It supports active learning as more appropriate for professional sales education. The conceptual support is explained and justified within the context of behavioral modeling and social learning theory. Further, interactive video, an active learning pedagogy that utilizes behavioral modeling, is described and discussed as a viable alternative for business schools seeking active learning tools for professional selling courses. Following this general discussion of interactive video, two specific interactive video systems currently being utilized in college selling classes are described and compared.
This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09596119610126121. When citing the article, please cite: Stephen Ball, (1996), “Whither the small independent take-away?”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 5, pp. 25 - 29.
With new urgency, governments, private corporations and institutions and private citizens are demanding sustainable new construction, regenerative neighborhoods and building adaptation rather than demolition. These demands are voiced in respect to both immediate and long−term community and individual values and aspirations.
This chapter provides an ethnographic look at higher education strategic planning through the lens of Williams College’s 2018–2020 effort to develop a 20-year plan for the…
This chapter provides an ethnographic look at higher education strategic planning through the lens of Williams College’s 2018–2020 effort to develop a 20-year plan for the institution. The critical analysis of Williams’ multi-community engagement contributes to studies of higher education and to literature in the sociocultural anthropological field of “policy as a practice of power” by applying core tenets of the field to strategic planning analysis. Drawing on 12 months of participation-observation and documentary research, the investigation brings into focus Williams’ heterarchical leadership structure and the negotiation practices that contributed to establish the legitimacy and appropriation of William’s strategic plan values. The chapter also shifts toward a contextualized perspective of strategic planning, highlighting campus community divides and the practices that contributed to bridge these fault lines and foster trust during the Fall 2019 campus-wide outreach process. Through the chapter, the analysis re-interprets beliefs of strategic planning and implementation as a top-down, normative imposition, and brings an ethnographic lens to reveal practices of negotiation, convergence, and value appropriation.
This chapter offers a contemporary overview of philanthropy in education as an emerging research field. Although the education sector has traditionally been a popular…
This chapter offers a contemporary overview of philanthropy in education as an emerging research field. Although the education sector has traditionally been a popular recipient of philanthropic investment, the scale and scope of funding and policy involvement on the part of philanthropy are growing. In addition, and potentially amplified by COVID-19, big- and in particular tech-philanthropies are emerging as increasingly influential players in national, regional, and global educational contexts. This chapter describes how most existing education research on philanthropy is mainly US- and higher education-focused which has resulted in a narrow geographic and thematic scope whereby contemporary developments remain either overlooked or under-researched. It discusses venture philanthropy inside and outside of the United States, a greater diversity of geographic perspectives, and an increasing dependence of academia on philanthropic funding as emerging research areas that bear great potential to being explored further.
Teaching students of architecture an open building way of designing in a studio setting can be fruitful. To be even more fruitful, however, “warming - up” exercises are…
Teaching students of architecture an open building way of designing in a studio setting can be fruitful. To be even more fruitful, however, “warming - up” exercises are useful, but take time to do properly and are not an easy fit in the studio setting. This paper offers some examples of both open building studio projects and “warming-up” exercises given in the studio setting. It also offers comments on lessons learned over the years in teaching in such a way in architectural studios and argues for the development of courses specifically focused on “warming-up” design exercises, not only in support of open building but more generally. These may be most helpful if offered outside but supportive of the design studio. But such opportunities are rare, because “design skill” courses do not exist in architectural curricula.
The anthropological and sociological purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of humour within hospitality and, in particular, licensed retail management. With the aid of a number of examples and with the results of some field studies it seeks to conduct a preliminary analysis of the use of humour in a licensed retail context. The aim is to illustrate that within this context, humour is not just a trivialising process. It has other functions and benefits. It also has its limitations. The intention is to show that humour can be, amongst other things, a form of human and organisational communication that is as serious and as subtle as any other. As such it is an appropriate subject for management attention, particularly in this context. Making money and making jokes are compatible activities in licensed retailing, as many publicans will testify.