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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Peter Farrell and Eric Emerson

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Stéphanie Looser and Walter Wehrmeyer

This paper aims to investigate, using stakeholder map methodology, showing power, urgency, legitimacy and concerns of different actors, the current state of corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate, using stakeholder map methodology, showing power, urgency, legitimacy and concerns of different actors, the current state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Switzerland. Previous research on CSR in Europe has made few attempts to identify stakeholders and their contribution to this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

To derive this map, publicly available documents were explored, augmented by 27 interviews with key stakeholders (consumers, media, government, trade unions, non-profit organisations [NPOs], banks, certifiers and consultants) and management of different companies (multinational enterprises [MNEs], small- and medium-sized enterprises [SMEs] and large national companies). Using MAXQDA, the quantified codes given for power, legitimacy and urgency were triangulated between self-reporting, external assessments and statements from publicly available documents and subsequently transferred into stakeholder priorities or, in other words, into positions in the map. Further, the codes given in the interviews for different CSR interests and the results from the document analysis were linked between stakeholders. The identified concerns and priorities were quantitatively analysed in regard to centrality and salience using VennMaker.

Findings

The paper identified SMEs, MNEs and cooperating NPOs as being the most significant stakeholders, in that order. CSR is, therefore, not driven primarily by regulators, market pressure or customers. Further network parameters substantiated the importance of SMEs while following an unconventionally informal and idiosyncratic CSR approach. Hence, insights into these ethics-driven, unformalised business models that pursue broader responsibility based on trust, traditional values, regional anchors and the willingness to “give something back” were formed. Examples of this strong CSR habit include democratic decisions and abolished hierarchies, handshake instead of formal contracts and transparency in all respects (e.g. performance indicators, salaries and bonuses).

Research limitations/implications

In total, 27 interviews as primary data that supplements publicly available documents are clearly only indicative.

Practical implications

The research found an innovative, vibrant and practical CSR model that is emerging for reasons other than conventional CSR agendas that are supposed to evolve. In fact, the stakeholder map and the CSR practices may point at a very different role businesses have adopted in Switzerland. Such models offer a useful, heuristic evaluation of the contribution of formal management systems (e.g. as could be found in MNEs) in comparison to the unformalised SME business conduct.

Originality/value

A rarely reported and astonishing feature of many of the very radical SME practices found in this study is that their link to commercial strategies was, in most cases, not seen. However, SMEs are neither the “poor relative” nor the abridged version of CSR, but are manifesting CSR as a Swiss set of values that fits the societal culture and the visionary goals of SME owners/managers and governs how a sustainably responsible company should behave. Hence, as a new stance and argument within CSR-related research, this paper concludes that “informal” does not mean “weak”. This paper covers a myriad of management fields, e.g. CSR as strategic tool in business ethics; stakeholder and network management; decision-making; and further theoretical frameworks, such as transaction cost and social capital theory. In other words, this research closes scientific gaps by at once applying quantitative as well as qualitative methods and by merging, for the first time, network methodology with CSR and stakeholder research.

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Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Stephanie Pane Haden, Brandon Randolph-Seng, Md. Kamrul Hasan, Alex Williams and Mario Hayek

Although green management has gained legitimacy as a sustainable business practice, little is known about the elements that will lead to the long-term success of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Although green management has gained legitimacy as a sustainable business practice, little is known about the elements that will lead to the long-term success of the movement. To identify these elements, this study aims to review the existing literature on social movements and analyzes archival data from a specific social undertaking, the Hispanic Civil Rights movement in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A historiographical approach was used in which systematic combining used abductive logic to developed a provisional framework based on the interpretation of secondary sources of data concerning the Hispanic Civil Rights movement. Subsequently, an ethnomethodologically informed interpretation of primary data based on the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) archives refined the provisional framework.

Findings

The authors identified common elements that are critical to the success of social movements, as supported by both secondary data on the Hispanic Civil Rights movement and primary data based on the LULAC archives. These elements consist of: ideology, identity, mobilization, goals, leadership and integration. Using these results, a pseudo-gap analysis approach was completed by systematically comparing the interpretive data with current knowledge of the green management movement to identify the missing gaps and to offer guidance for further development of green management as a contemporary movement.

Social implications

Applying the lessons learned from social movements will help the development and prosperity of the green movement in current business organizations. Such applications are important, given that local and global environmental crises can have profound implications on ecosystems, economics and social systems.

Originality/value

Social movements are an important means by which societal concerns such as injustices are addressed. By identifying the important elements needed for the green management movement to be successful in the long term, managers will know where to put their efforts. Such actions may help environmental awareness in business organizations to become more than a fad or marketing tool.

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Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Stéphanie Looser and Walter Wehrmeyer

Despite the increased recognition and emphasis on corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a topic and highly formalised CSR control systems, numerous well-publicised…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increased recognition and emphasis on corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a topic and highly formalised CSR control systems, numerous well-publicised problems and scandals often involving multinational enterprises (MNEs) continue to emerge. These companies are mostly extrinsically motivated in CSR. They operate with highly formalised CSR systems that, in many cases, miss the prevention of anti-social and illegal behaviour. This might reflect the failure of extrinsic CSR to integrate the ethical dimension and/or the failure of intrinsic CSR to formalise and thus benefit from economies of scale. Currently, the conviction is growing that if CSR is to have a meaningful impact, it should be a matter of intrinsic motives, morale and ethical values rather than a formalised management tool. This research aims to focus on a sample of small and large companies in Switzerland, aiming at a comparison of key motives for CSR related to actual CSR implementation, performance and company size.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examined two groups: seven owner-managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and seven managers of MNEs. Each group met for two focus group discussions that were qualitatively and visually analysed using MAXQDA.

Findings

The results show that CSR implementation in the examined Swiss SMEs is more related to moral commitment than to profit maximisation. These companies are often driven by soft assets, such as networks, by the nexus of mission and value set; by a system of initiatives and integrated behaviour; by proximity and informal, flat organisational structures; by the aspiration and ambition of craftsmanship or excellent service (instead of profit); by community involvement; by recruiting from the local community; by the willingness to grow slowly and steadily; by the avoidance of atomic markets; and finally, by the mental set up and sociological tradition of the stewardship concept. This contrasts with the extrinsically motivated approach of the MNEs under research. While MNEs follow their approach of “ethics for the firm that must pay”, the findings here identified potential transition cases of “ethics in the firm” and “ethics of the firm” within Swiss SMEs. This is consistent with others, resembling the need of this dichotomy to be revised.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectorial approach limits the degree to which motives can clearly be attributed to actual CSR performance or company size.

Practical implications

The results imply that policymakers, public institutions, scientific community, etc. should be careful when establishing systems that favour financial returns from CSR engagement, because, first, other research showed that a behaviour attributed to extrinsic motives is mostly perceived as dishonest and misleading, for instance, consumers. Second, extrinsic motivation might crowd out morale and paying lead actors for behaving altruistically or philanthropically might decline their intrinsic motivation. Notably, the crowding out of intrinsic motivation by extrinsic incentives is a phenomenon well-researched not only in regard to CSR but in various other areas linked to human behaviour. This has important implications for nearly every business operation, especially for mergers and acquisitions, as well as for the growth of businesses.

Social implications

It seems unsuitable to support social goods in intrinsic CSR by the implementation of a system of financial incentives (or consequences). Thus, an economic cost-benefit is inappropriate where CSR needs an ethical stand. The difference between extrinsic and intrinsic CSR is very difficult to bridge – both have powerful incentives and drivers preventing a potential cross-over.

Originality/value

In sum, this study showed that CSR is meaningful and justifiable even if it is not profitable in the first place or implemented in and managed through formalised systems. This leads to two conclusions: first, care should be taken when emphasising the extrinsic approach in relation to social goods and second, the cost of a possible mismatch in a climate of ethical principles might be substantial for societies’ moral inclination.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Asoke K Talukder and Debabrata Das

Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spywares have been effective for quite sometime in the domain of digital computers. These malicious software cause millions of dollars of…

Abstract

Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spywares have been effective for quite sometime in the domain of digital computers. These malicious software cause millions of dollars of loss in assets, revenue, opportunity, cleanup cost, and lost productivity. To stop virus attacks, organizations frame up different security policies. These policies work only within the limited domain of the organization’s network. However, the emergence of wireless technologies, and the seamless mobility features of the wireless devices from one network to the other have created a challenge to uphold the security policies of a particular network. Hence, in this digital society, while mobile devices roam in foreign networks, they get infected through viruses in the foreign network. Anti‐virus software is not so effective for novel viruses. There have been no reports of mobile‐phone viruses in the wild as yet. However, with the emergence of execution environments on mobile phones, it will be possible to write viruses and worms for mobile devices in cellular networks. We should be prepared to fight against viruses in the cellular networks. All the technologies available to fight against viruses are specific to virus signatures. We propose that this fight needs to be multilayered. In this paper the authors have proposed a novel philosophy in cellular network called Artificial Hygiene (AH), which is virus neutral and will work at the class level. With this process a device and the network will take the necessary steps to keep the digital environment safe.

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Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 8 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2011

Alison E. Adams and Thomas E. Shriver

Existing research indicates that collective identity is critical in sustaining social movements, especially in the face of significant opposition. We extend this…

Abstract

Existing research indicates that collective identity is critical in sustaining social movements, especially in the face of significant opposition. We extend this literature by analyzing the ways collective identity evolves and develops over time to combat external barriers and obstacles. Drawing from a unique dataset on activists in the post-communist Czech environmental movement, we analyze how women rallied around their gendered identity to protest against nuclear power. Our analysis focuses on the case of the South Bohemian Mothers (Jihočeské matky), an organization that rallied specifically around the protection of children and healthy communities. The activists faced extensive obstacles including: post-communist patriarchal institutions and sexism; the South Bohemian Daddies, a male-dominated pro-nuclear countermovement; and pervasive anti-environmentalist sentiments. Our results highlight the complex and evolutionary nature of collective identity and the role it can play in sustaining activism in the face of external challenges.

Details

Critical Aspects of Gender in Conflict Resolution, Peacebuilding, and Social Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-913-5

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Jean Bosco Byukusenge, Eva Adomako, Stephanie Lukas, Cyprien Mugarura, Josette Umucyo, Sophie Mukagatare, Odette Ahishakiye, Clotilde Nyirangondo and Rex Wong

Complete health documentation during childbirth can reduce complications and improve maternal and foetal outcomes. One such document is the partograph which allows health…

Abstract

Purpose

Complete health documentation during childbirth can reduce complications and improve maternal and foetal outcomes. One such document is the partograph which allows health workers to record and follow the labour progress. However, the completion rates of partograph remain low in some hospitals. This study describes the implementation of a quality improvement project to increase the completion rate of partograph in a district hospital in Rwanda.

Design/methodology/approach

The project team tackled the root cause of partograph incompletion by implementing a labour monitoring guideline, assigning patients and duties to midwives and by providing support and supervision.

Findings

The intervention successfully increased overall partograph completion rates from 11 to 61 per cent, p < 0.001. This study also showed that completeness of the partograph was statistically associated with a decrease in foetal deaths and higher Apgar score with p < 0.001 for both.

Practical implications

This study describes the establishment of a quality improvement project following the strategic problem solving approach to increase the completion rate of partograph documentation. The intervention was simple, data-driven and cost-neutral. The team achieved its objectives by integrating staff input, obtaining commitment from the multidisciplinary team and applying leadership skills.

Originality/value

The results are useful for hospitals in limited resources settings wishing to improve overall partograph completion and improve foetal and maternal outcomes during labour, in an efficient and cost-neutral way.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Marko Sarstedt, Manfred Schwaiger and Charles R. Taylor

“Garbage in, garbage out” is a common expression that academics and practitioners use to emphasize that empirical analysis is only as good as the basis on which it relies…

Abstract

“Garbage in, garbage out” is a common expression that academics and practitioners use to emphasize that empirical analysis is only as good as the basis on which it relies. Although the importance of sound data and valid measures has long been acknowledged, it is nevertheless often problematic to follow required quality standards in concrete research situations. Potential sources of error are usually unknown, methods to ensure data quality are unavailable, and existing methods for scale development, index construction, data collection, and data analysis are insufficient or erroneously applied. This is especially true of international marketing research, which often makes great demands on the data and measures used, as well as on the research methodology applied. Against this background, this volume addresses issues pertaining to measurement and research methodology in an international marketing context. Thanks to the efforts of authors and reviewers, we are pleased to present nine articles that deal with cutting-edge topics such as formative measurement, response-bias in cross-cultural research, marketing efficiency measurement, and segmentation methods.

Details

Measurement and Research Methods in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-095-7

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Reinhard Schumacher and Scott Scheall

During the last years of his life, the mathematician Karl Menger worked on a biography of his father, the economist and founder of the Austrian School of Economics, Carl…

Abstract

During the last years of his life, the mathematician Karl Menger worked on a biography of his father, the economist and founder of the Austrian School of Economics, Carl Menger. The younger Menger never finished the work. While working in the Menger collections at Duke University’s David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, we discovered draft chapters of the biography, a valuable source of information given that relatively little is known about Carl Menger’s life nearly a hundred years after his death. The unfinished biography covers Carl Menger’s family background and his life through early 1889. In this chapter, the authors discuss the biography and the most valuable new insights it provides into Carl Menger’s life, including Carl Menger’s family, his childhood, his student years, his time working as a journalist and newspaper editor, his early scientific career, and his relationship with Crown Prince Rudolf.

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Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Economists and Authoritarian Regimes in the 20th Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-703-9

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