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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Rubina Romanello, Masoud Karami, Stephan Gerschewski, Natasha Evers and Cici Xiao He

The purpose of the study is to investigate the international opportunity development process of born global firms embedded in two different institutional contexts: China…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate the international opportunity development process of born global firms embedded in two different institutional contexts: China, an emerging economy and Italy, a developed country. Drawing on the entrepreneurial opportunity literature and institutional theory, this study explores and draws insights into how home country institutions of born globals can influence the international opportunity development process of the firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative case study approach with in-depth, semi-structured interviews of six born global companies from China and Italy. In doing so, this study uses a flexible pattern matching design, which is consistent with the qualitative research design of the paper.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that home institutions play an influential, yet differential role in the international opportunity development processes of Chinese and Italian born global firms. While the Italian firms shape their opportunities mainly through product innovation, their Chinese counterparts develop opportunities primarily through networks embedded in their home institutional context.

Originality/value

The key contributions of the paper relate to an integrated analysis of the international opportunity development process of born globals in China and Italy based on institutional theory, which has received limited attention in the international entrepreneurship literature. In addition, the study advances the similarities and differences in the international opportunity development process in two different countries, thus providing valuable insights for policymakers and practitioners to enter international markets successfully.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Stephan Gerschewski, Valerie J. Lindsay and Elizabeth Rose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is manifested in the context of born global firms. Specifically, the authors investigate the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is manifested in the context of born global firms. Specifically, the authors investigate the extent to which the EO dimensions of the influential Miller/Covin & Slevin scale are demonstrated in born globals. In addition, following calls in the literature, some as-yet unrecognised dimensions of EO in born globals are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a qualitative research approach by conducting semi-structured, in-depth interviews with eight born global firms from New Zealand and Australia.

Findings

The authors find that the EO dimensions of proactiveness and innovativeness are strongly prevalent in these firms. In contrast to the extant literature, the results also indicate that these born global firms generally display a relatively low level of risk-taking. The authors find strong empirical support for two additional emerging dimensions of EO: passion and perseverance.

Originality/value

The study provides two key contributions to the area of international entrepreneurship by investigating how EO is prevalent in the context of born globals and by proposing the new dimensions of passion and perseverance.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2013

Stephan Gerschewski

The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of the Kogut and Singh index to the psychic distance scales of Dow and Karunaratna. This is in response to recent…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of the Kogut and Singh index to the psychic distance scales of Dow and Karunaratna. This is in response to recent scholarly articles that have used the Kogut and Singh index in combination with the scales of Dow and Karunaratna in order to calculate composite psychic distance scores.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the literature on the measurement of psychic distance, in particular with regard to the empirical usage of the scales of Dow and Karunaratna. In addition, it develops a new approach to calculate aggregate psychic distance scores.

Findings

The findings indicate that the Kogut and Singh index is not appropriate to use in combination with the psychic distance scales of Dow and Karunaratna. The paper proposes an alternative methodology for calculating aggregate psychic distance scores which involves standardizing the raw scores of the psychic distance dimensions of Dow and Karunaratna and establishing summated scales.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by proposing an alternative methodology for the psychic distance scales of Dow and Karunaratna rather than the Kogut and Singh index. In light of the prominence of these two influential and widely-cited articles, this commentary challenges the notion of calculating psychic distance.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Carlos-Javier Prieto-Sánchez and Fernando Merino

The main purpose of this study is to analyze how factors such as innovation, entrepreneurial spirit and motivation, as well as various economic and environmental factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to analyze how factors such as innovation, entrepreneurial spirit and motivation, as well as various economic and environmental factors, affect the creation of born-global (BG) companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model was tested through logistic regression techniques to a sample obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data set for the period from 2007 to 2016.

Findings

Empirical findings suggest that innovation, entrepreneurial spirit and motivation, as well as government policies, contribute to a company’s likelihood of becoming BG.

Originality/value

Recent research has shown interest in the development of explanatory models of BG firms that allow the study of how context and institutions affect the development of international business activities. Following an integrative and a multidisciplinary approach with a temporal dimension, this study expands the literature by comparing countries with different income levels and analyzing macroeconomic aspects along with certain characteristics of the entrepreneur and the environment as possible determinants. This study provides a better understanding of the prevalence of the BG business phenomenon by paying attention to country characteristics and how they affect the traits of individuals.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Felipe Sánchez-Barría

How does state repression influence levels of mobilization in authoritarian regimes? This study argues that the relationship between repression and protest is temporally…

Abstract

How does state repression influence levels of mobilization in authoritarian regimes? This study argues that the relationship between repression and protest is temporally dynamic. Specifically, the short- and long-term effects of autocrats' coercive actions differ conditionally on each phase of the contentious cycle. This argument is tested taking advantage of an original database of protest events in Pinochet's Chile between 1982 and 1989. Using an Interrupted Time Series design, the results show that the State of Siege declarations issued in 1984 and again in 1986 had divergent short- and long-term influence. When the cycle was on an expansive stage, the State of Siege shows no immediate influence on the protests, followed by an increase in long-term mobilization. However, when the mobilization was declining, the State of Siege was associated with an immediate and prominent drop in mobilization, followed by a progressive decrease in the number of protests over the long term. This chapter contributes to the literature on the protest–repression nexus by providing new evidence on the dynamics shaping the relationship between state repression and civil disobedience in authoritarian regimes.

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2022

Ayça Kübra Hizarci, Nilay Bıçakcıoğlu-Peynirci and İlayda İpek

Building on the lack of adequate attention devoted to encapsulating the research on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in the export context, the main objective of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on the lack of adequate attention devoted to encapsulating the research on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in the export context, the main objective of this study is to quantitatively aggregate the empirical evidence as to the effect of export EO on its consequences. In addition, this meta-analytic study aims at exploring the act of possible contextual and measurement moderators in the proposed conceptual framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on a meta-analytic approach, prior empirical results were synthesized by 71 effects gathered from 5,815 firms.

Findings

The meta-analytic findings spotlight that export EO exerts the biggest influence on new product performance, and the magnitude of the relationship between export EO and its consequences is dependent upon cultural context, country’s economic development level, industry type and measurement treatment.

Originality/value

This meta-analysis is expected to provide fresh insights into the export EO literature by compiling previous empirical evidence on the export EO phenomenon, which has remained relatively untouched.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Edwin Alexander Henao García, Fabrice Galia and Juan Velez-Ocampo

This paper aims to assess what happens to a willingness to take entrepreneurial action when people experience low or high subjective well-being (SWB) in 12 emerging economies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess what happens to a willingness to take entrepreneurial action when people experience low or high subjective well-being (SWB) in 12 emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses principal component analysis (PCA) and logistic regressions with a data sample from the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) for emerging economies.

Findings

The main results suggest that SWB, measured as satisfaction with life (SWL) and job satisfaction (JOBS), increases the probability of a person becoming an entrepreneur.

Social implications

The findings of this research suggest that designing and implementing public policies that seek to promote the well-being of individuals might foster their entrepreneurial activities in emerging economies.

Originality/value

The literature on entrepreneurship, which assesses its relationship with SWB is still scarce. Most of the academic work has been carried out for developed countries, mainly analysing how entrepreneurial activity affects SWB in self-employees or entrepreneurs. This manuscript analyses these elements in the opposite direction, contributing to an underdeveloped discussion on how well-being affects the decision to be an entrepreneur.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Beatrice Zanellato Mayer and Dinora Eliete Floriani

This paper aims to analyse how the temporal dimension is conceptualised in studies of the internationalisation process of firms and its implications. Theoretical models…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse how the temporal dimension is conceptualised in studies of the internationalisation process of firms and its implications. Theoretical models such as U-Model and INV explain the process of internationalisation as dynamic; nonetheless, time is approached as an underlying aspect of the process. In this essay, time is brought to the spotlight since, despite its strategic relevance, it has been treated implicitly in studies of the internationalisation processes, except in those that address the speed of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a critical reassessment of the academic literature, the authors present theoretical arguments and highlight elements to be considered in the analysis of the temporal dimension throughout the internationalisation process of firms.

Findings

This essay focuses on expanding the comprehension of temporality in the internationalisation process, that underlies periods of changes, implied also in periods of stability. The paper discusses time dimension implications during the internationalisation process and reveals that there is an interaction between temporal verticality (context/events), subjective dimension of time (perception and interpretation of time) and objective dimension of time (stability and changes). Therefore, it sustains that these interactions compress past, present and future actions in the internationalisation process.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, this essay did not empirically apply the theoretical model and propositions. Therefore, future studies may empirically apply the propositions and use the temporal lens to look deeper at the temporality of internationalisation process and shed further light on the mechanisms that interlink the pre-and post-entry phases.

Practical implications

The argument helps entrepreneurs understand that actions throughout the internationalisation process are also influenced by the experience of time and not only governed by rational matters. Changes in the context can alter the perception of present time as being restricted, and in turn, may alter the flux of future internationalisation actions. However, if actions are conducted in a precipitated manner it can bring forth negative results for the firm. It is essential to recognise the importance of temporal verticality and subjective dimension of time as influencers of future actions of the objective dimension of time in the process of internationalisation.

Originality/value

While most research is restricted to understanding time as speed, this essay brings a theoretical model extending the knowledge of time in the literature of international business and international entrepreneurship, by including factors that imply temporality. By explaining the relationship between temporal aspects, it is argued that temporal verticality (events and context) influences temporal subjectivity (perception of the present and interpretation of the past) to direct future actions of the temporality of internationalisation (stability and changes).

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Alona Mykhaylenko, Brian V. Waehrens and Dmitrij Slepniov

The ability of an organisation’s headquarters (HQ) to bring value to and manage a globally dispersed multinational enterprise has been questioned in the existing…

Abstract

Purpose

The ability of an organisation’s headquarters (HQ) to bring value to and manage a globally dispersed multinational enterprise has been questioned in the existing literature. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that HQ-subsidiary distance is an important factor that affects such ability; this report also investigates the impact of distance on the HQ’s network management capabilities in the context of a global organisation’s evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a single company was chosen to take part in a retrospective, longitudinal case study that highlighted two embedded product cases. The concept of distance was viewed as a variety of distance dimensions existing between the HQ and its subsidiaries.

Findings

The results indicated that distance impacted the effectiveness of the HQ’s network management capabilities by affecting HQ-subsidiary interaction and, consequently, shaping HQ’s knowledgeability about the subsidiaries’ operations. Moreover, the results suggested that the impact of such distance may shift from positive to negative over the course of a global organisation’s evolution.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study was explorative, some generalisability to industrial-goods companies of Scandinavian origin that have transferred activities to their owned subsidiaries may be expected. Further replication of the study using multiple case companies across various industries and countries is desirable.

Originality/value

This work extends the understanding of technological distance, sheds light on the conditions necessary for the HQ of a globally networked organisation to engage in value creation in the context of its evolution and contributes to the overall appreciation of distance as a factor that comprises multiple dimensions.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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