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The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to measure and compare the efficiency change of French, German, Italian, Spanish and UK banking groups in a context of…
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to measure and compare the efficiency change of French, German, Italian, Spanish and UK banking groups in a context of financial crisis, over the period 2006-2010; second, it attempts to analyse the internal and environmental determinants of banking groups efficiency.
In this paper the efficiency is estimated by a two-stage semi-parametric procedure. In the first stage, we build a common production frontier across countries using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) (Debreu, 1951; Farrell, 1957). To further analyse the efficiency changes over years we use the Malmquist total factor productivity index, based on DEA technique. In the second stage, in order to determine the factors that impact on bank efficiency, the authors perform a bootstrapped truncated regression model with discretionary inputs as independent variables, following Simar and Wilson (2007).
The empirical results show that overall the “large” banking groups are more efficient than the “small” ones. However the Malmquist total factor productivity analysis highlights that during the crisis, in particular between 2007 and 2009, unless Britain, in all countries the small banks show a better cost performance than the larger ones. In general, the authors find a moderate efficiency convergence between countries and between large and small banking groups. As regards the determinants of banking groups efficiency, we find that more liquid, less capitalized banking groups and those more oriented towards the traditional activity of lending are more efficient.
The authors find a positive and high statistically significant relationship between both long- and short-term liquidity degree and the cost efficiency of the banking groups. The policy implication of this result is very significative also in the light of the new banking regulation introduced by Basel III that imposes new rules to strengthen the liquidity risk management.
The authors find that the macroeconomic environment variables have some impact on efficiency: the higher the debt and the GDP per capita of the country the lower the bank’s efficiency.
Unlike the most literature on this topic, that usually considers individual banks even if they belong to the same financial conglomerate, the authors analyse only banking groups. In particular, the authors consider all banking groups belonging to the most industrialized European countries in a context of financial crisis and cross-border aggregation movements. Furhermore the authors compare cross-country cost performance of small and large groups, considering the loan loss provisions as an additional input in order to correct the efficiency score for credit risk.
The purpose of this research is to contribute to the development of an effective incentive policy implementation model, through an in-depth analysis of the stock option…
The purpose of this research is to contribute to the development of an effective incentive policy implementation model, through an in-depth analysis of the stock option and/or stock grant schemes adopted by the major Italian banking groups.
Out of the 77 banking groups operating in Italy on 30 June 2011, The paper selected 12 banking institutions that implemented either stock option or stock grant plans over the years 2007-2010. The documentary analysis was carried out on 22 stock option and/or stock grant schemes and based on the examination of corporate governance reports, as well as information memoranda on incentive plans.
The results show a limited implementation of equity-based incentive plans in the Italian banking sector during the investigation period (2007-2010) and clearly demonstrates that, as far as these types of incentives are concerned, there is ample room for improvement as well as substantial adjustments.
The research covers a limited period of time. Therefore, further extending the scope of its survey will definitely be of great academic interest in the light of the latest regulatory changes made to the banking sector remuneration regime.
By giving a clear indication of the critical points that should be addressed to improve the policies in force, this research study aims to provide greater knowledge about the remuneration practices adopted by Italian banks, in terms of equity-based incentive plans.