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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Florian Königstorfer and Stefan Thalmann

Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently one of the most disruptive technologies and can be applied in many different use cases. However, applying AI in regulated…

Abstract

Purpose

Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently one of the most disruptive technologies and can be applied in many different use cases. However, applying AI in regulated environments is challenging, as it is currently not clear how to achieve and assess the fairness, accountability and transparency (FAT) of AI. Documentation is one promising governance mechanism to ensure that AI is FAT when it is applied in practice. However, due to the nature of AI, documentation standards from software engineering are not suitable to collect the required evidence. Even though FAT AI is called for by lawmakers, academics and practitioners, suitable guidelines on how to document AI are not available. This interview study aims to investigate the requirements for AI documentations.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 16 interviews were conducted with senior employees from companies in the banking and IT industry as well as with consultants. The interviews were then analyzed using an informed-inductive coding approach.

Findings

The authors found five requirements for AI documentation, taking the specific nature of AI into account. The interviews show that documenting AI is not a purely technical task, but also requires engineers to present information on how the AI is understandably integrated into the business process.

Originality/value

This paper benefits from the unique insights of senior employees into the documentation of AI.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Rene Kaiser, Stefan Thalmann and Viktoria Pammer-Schindler

This paper aims to report an interview study investigating knowledge protection practices in a collaborative research and innovation project centred around the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report an interview study investigating knowledge protection practices in a collaborative research and innovation project centred around the semi-conductor industry. The authors explore which and how knowledge protection practices are applied and zoom in on a particular one to investigate the perspective of three stakeholders which collaborate: the SUPPLIER of a specialised machine, the APPLIER of this machine and a SCHOLAR who collaborates with both, in an effort to develop a grey-box model of the machine and its operation.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 33 interviews have been conducted in two rounds: 30 interviews explore knowledge protection practices applied across a large project. Qualitative content analysis is applied to determine practices not well covered by the research community. A total of three follow-up interviews inspect one specific collaboration case of three partners. Quotes from all interviews are used to illustrate the participants’ viewpoints and motivation.

Findings

SCHOLAR and APPLIER communicate using a data-centric knowledge protection practice, in that concrete parameter values are sensitive and hidden by communicating data within a wider parameter range. This practice balances the benefit that all three stakeholders have from communicating about specifics of machine design and operations. The grey-box model combines engineering knowledge of both SUPPLIER and APPLIER.

Practical implications

The line of thought described in this study is applicable to comparable collaboration constellations of a SUPPLIER of a machine, an APPLIER of a machine and a SCHOLAR who analyses and draws insights out of data.

Originality/value

The paper fills a research gap by reporting on applied knowledge protection practices and characterising a data-centric knowledge protection practice around a grey-box model.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Markus Manhart and Stefan Thalmann

The purpose of this paper is to investigate pertinent knowledge protection literature. At the same time, however, knowledge protection is often a neglected or…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate pertinent knowledge protection literature. At the same time, however, knowledge protection is often a neglected or underdeveloped area. This is all the more concerning as knowledge protection plays an essential part in preserving an organization’s competitive advantage. Despite the recognition of this issue by scholars, the knowledge management literature has so far tended to concentrate on the facilitation of knowledge sharing rather than on knowledge protection.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors present the results of a structured literature review undertaken to investigate the current state of research on knowledge protection. The paper identifies core domains in knowledge protection literature, discusses theoretical perspectives and research methods, sheds light on the role of the information technology (IT) artefact in knowledge protection research and develops a portfolio of knowledge protection measures.

Findings

In this paper, 48 papers were analyzed by taking five analytical dimensions into account: research domains, research methods and models, the role of the IT artefact, theoretical views and measures to enforce knowledge protection. Based on the discussion of the results, promising avenues for further research were identified and a research agenda was proposed. The authors argued for more research on the protection of tacit knowledge, more in-depth empirical investigations, more research on IT support and a stronger consideration of theories in knowledge protection research, as well as research on how organizations could build a strategy of knowledge protection.

Research limitations/implications

Tacit knowledge, as well as informal alliances or (social) networks, is under-researched so far. Knowledge protection phenomena need to be investigated in depth to test the assumptions stated in many conceptual papers. IT artefacts should be developed and evaluated. More theory-based research and overarching frameworks or strategies for knowledge protection need to be developed.

Practical implications

In this paper, a portfolio of knowledge protection measures was developed, which might be of particular interest for practitioners. Further, the paper provides a good overview of the current state of practice regarding knowledge protection.

Originality/value

So far, there is no structured literature available focussing on the topic of knowledge protection.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Daniel Bachlechner, Stefan Thalmann and Markus Manhart

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the particular information needs of external auditors performing information technology (IT) audits at service providers in…

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2333

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the particular information needs of external auditors performing information technology (IT) audits at service providers in cross-organizational settings and to promote a software-based approach towards their satisfaction. The approach is intended to supplement the manual approaches currently adopted by auditors to procure information in such settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed data collected by means of a series of 16 interviews and four think-aloud sessions with experienced professionals.

Findings

Information procurement is perceived as tedious by auditors and largely relies on repeat interviews and perusal of documents. Given the growing complexity of cross-organizational settings, manual approaches to information procurement are reaching their limits. A considerable portion of the information required is often stored by service providers using software that is inaccessible to auditors. The authors argue that a software-based approach providing an interface for auditors to access relevant information held by such software presents an avenue worth exploring.

Practical implications

The authors outline how the information stored by service providers using software can be made accessible with reasonable effort. Complementing manual approaches to information procurement with an audit interface would reduce workload and increase quality.

Originality/value

The concept of an audit interface represents a novel and promising approach to meeting the information needs of auditors performing IT audits in cross-organizational settings more effectively. Both auditors and service providers would benefit from its implementation.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

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99

Abstract

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Femi Emmanuel Ayo, Olusegun Folorunso and Sakinat Oluwabukonla Folorunso

Over the past decade, the cost of product development has increased drastically, and this is due to the inability of most enterprises to locate suitable and optimal…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade, the cost of product development has increased drastically, and this is due to the inability of most enterprises to locate suitable and optimal collaborators for knowledge sharing. Nevertheless, knowledge sharing is a mechanism that helps people find the best collaborators with relevant knowledge. Hence, a new approach for locating optimal collaborators with relevant knowledge is needed, which could help enterprise in reducing cost and time in a knowledge-sharing environment. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

One unique challenge in the domain of knowledge sharing is that collaborators do not possess the same number of events resident in the knowledge available for sharing. In this paper, the authors present a new approach for locating optimal collaborators in knowledge-sharing environment using the combinatorial algorithm (CA-KSE).

Findings

The proposed pattern-matching approach implemented in Java is considered efficient for solving the issue peculiar to collaboration in knowledge-sharing domain. The authors benchmarked the proposed approach with its semi-global pairwise alignment and global alignment counterparts through scores comparison and the receiver operating characteristic curve. The results obtained from the comparisons showed that CA-KSE is a perfect test having an area under curve of 0.9659, compared to the other approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The paper has proposed an efficient algorithm, which is considered better than related methods, for matching several collaborators (more than two) in KS environment. The method could be deployed in medical field for gene analysis, software organizations for distributed development and academics for knowledge sharing.

Originality/value

One sign of strength of this approach, compared to most sequence alignment approaches that can only match two collaborators at a time, is that it can match several collaborators at a faster rate.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Kerem Elibal and Eren Özceylan

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review for industry 4.0 maturity modeling research studies to obtain a clear view of the current…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review for industry 4.0 maturity modeling research studies to obtain a clear view of the current state-of-the-art. Identifying characteristics of the studies; gaps, limitations and highlighted features has been aimed to guide future research studies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study includes a systematic literature review conducted on Scopus, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases and 90 publications have been reviewed. A novel qualitative taxonomy has been constructed which aims to reduce the cognitive load of the readers.

Findings

While industry 4.0 maturity modeling is an emerging concept and taking researchers’ attraction, review studies are still in infancy. Current review papers are inadequate in getting a clear idea about the concept, especially from the perspective of guiding future researchers. By the conducted approach of classification conducted in this paper, it has been seen that there are some challenges for improving the industry 4.0 maturity modeling.

Research limitations/implications

Findings represented in this study can serve academicians and practitioners to develop and/or improve industry 4.0 maturity models.

Originality/value

The study includes a novel classification for the reviewed papers. Constructed taxonomy is among the first and tabular representations instead of prose analogy that aims to simplify the review of papers.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Yan Pang, Andrew Y.C. Nee, Soh Khim Ong, Miaolong Yuan and Kamal Youcef‐Toumi

This paper aims to apply the augmented reality (AR) technology to assembly design in the early design stage. A proof‐of‐concept system with AR interface is developed.

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1927

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to apply the augmented reality (AR) technology to assembly design in the early design stage. A proof‐of‐concept system with AR interface is developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Through AR interface, designers can design the assembly on the real assembly platform. The system helps users to design the assembly features to provide proper part‐part constraints in the early design stage. The virtual assembly features are rendered on the real assembly platform using AR registration techniques. The new evaluated assembly parts can be generated in the AR interface and assembled to assembly platform through assembly features. The model‐based collision detection technique is implemented for assembly constraint evaluation.

Findings

With AR interface, it would be possible to combine some of the benefits of both physical and virtual prototyping (VP). The AR environment can save a lot of computation resource compared to a totally virtual environment. Working on real assembly platform, designers have more realistic feel and the ability to design an assembly in a more intuitive way.

Research limitations/implications

More interaction tools need to be developed to support the complex assembly design efficiently.

Practical implications

The presented system encourages designers to consider the assembly issues in the early design stage. The primitive 3D models of assembly parts with proper part‐part constraints are generated using the system before doing detailed geometry design.

Originality/value

A new markerless registration approach for AR system is presented. This generic approach can be also used for other AR applications.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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