Expansion through mergers and acquisitions (M&As) continues to be a viable international strategy utilised by industrial firms. A striking feature of this is that global…
Expansion through mergers and acquisitions (M&As) continues to be a viable international strategy utilised by industrial firms. A striking feature of this is that global giant firms lead the M&A wave and generate an unimaginable impact on relatively small and weak firms across sectors and even nations. There seems to be a kind of ‘cascade effect’ between the industrial consolidations in these areas. A combined cascade model developed in this paper explains that, the power imbalance caused by the degree of consolidation of the players within a firm's value system determines the movement and direction of the ‘cascade effect’. With the existence of such effect, M&A will be a mutually interdependent, dynamic, reversible and endless process among industries.
Nowadays, green supply chain (SC) management acts as an important strategic issue for the manufacturers. The effective SC design requires the development of analytical…
Nowadays, green supply chain (SC) management acts as an important strategic issue for the manufacturers. The effective SC design requires the development of analytical models and design tools. Because of the key role of steel in the infrastructure of industries, this metal is called the development metal. Despite the importance of this industry and its economic and environmental impacts through its SC, the SC structure of this industry has been less studied at the macro level. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to design the structure of a steel industry SC at three levels; and second, to find the most effective and efficient carbon dioxide emitted industry among the supplier industries of the steel industry SC in China as a case study.
In this paper, due to the relationships among different industries, DEMATEL as a multi-criteria decision-making method has been applied.
A SC structure for the steel industry has been designed at three levels. The results indicated that the industries that had the highest relationship with the steel industry are mine industry, electricity, water, and gas industry, and optical and electrical equipment industry, which were recognized as the first-level suppliers for the steel industry. On the other hand, considering the relationship among the embodied carbon dioxide emissions of various industries in China as a case study, it can be said that among the steel suppliers, the most important polluting industries, respectively, are mining industry, electricity, water, and gas industry, optical and electrical equipment industry, machinery industry, chemicals and chemical products industry and coke, refined petroleum and nuclear fuel industry.
The developed SC can help in providing the steel industries’ managers a basic model for their supplier selection problem at the macro level. This paper can also help the industrial managers to understand the causal relationships among the suppliers of their industries. Finally, this paper can help government and industries managers to discover the most polluted industrial suppliers in the steel industry.
The novelty of this study belongs to the usage of DEMATEL method based on the input-output table to discover the relationships among the industries as well as identifying the main raw material suppliers of the steel industry at three levels. Furthermore, this research discovers the relationships among the embedded carbon dioxide emission of various industries in steel SC to determine the most important polluting industries in steel SC.
This paper is part of a study which attempts to take a different approach to understanding the events which occurred in the U. S. steel industry during the period 1945 to…
This paper is part of a study which attempts to take a different approach to understanding the events which occurred in the U. S. steel industry during the period 1945 to 1985. In undertaking to provide a different form of explanation, this project was principally concerned with searching for an understanding of how those in the industry chose to act in the manner they did. The findings presented demonstrate the extent to which organizational and industry history influence managers′ interpretations of the world in which they exist, and the possibilities for action within that interpretation. Attributions about ones′ self, and others, are slow to change. The narratives which reflect those attributions are important to the organization and to the development of strategic actions. The manner in which steel industry managers chose to understand their role, and the role of others in the industry, had a long‐term impact on the strategies they developed.
The use of accounting to help apply the principles of scientific management to business affairs is associated with the adoption of standard costing and budgetary control…
The use of accounting to help apply the principles of scientific management to business affairs is associated with the adoption of standard costing and budgetary control. This first British industry‐based study of the implementation of these calculative techniques makes use of the case study research tool to interrogate archival data relating to leading iron and steel companies. We demonstrate the adoption of standard costing and budgetary control early on (during the inter‐war period) by a single economic unit, United Steel Companies Ltd, where innovation is attributed to the engineering and scientific background and US experiences of key personnel. Elsewhere, significant management accounting change occurred only with the collapse in iron and steel corporate profitability that began to become apparent in the late 1950s. The process of accounting change is addressed and the significance for our study of the notions of evolution and historical discontinuity is examined. The paper is contextualised through an assessment of initiatives from industry‐based regulatory bodies and consideration of the economic circumstances and business conditions within which management accounting practices were the subject of radical revision.
Iron and steel is an old industry. As a cyclical and a strategically important industry, it has long been subject to extensive government intervention in most countries…
Iron and steel is an old industry. As a cyclical and a strategically important industry, it has long been subject to extensive government intervention in most countries, including Britain. When Labour won the general election in 1945, it was already pledged to nationalise several industries, including coal and steel. But steel had a lower priority than coal; the labour movement had not agreed a plan for steel nationalisation, which became the most complex and bitterly contested of the post‐war nationalisations.
Based on empirical findings from three industries—steel, electric utility, and health care—reindustrialization should not be viewed as simply the investment of substantial…
Based on empirical findings from three industries—steel, electric utility, and health care—reindustrialization should not be viewed as simply the investment of substantial amounts of capital into stagnant or profit‐poor industries. Reindustrialization requires an analysis of the marketplace and an identification of what is necessary to meet customer needs on a competitive basis. The “bottom line” of a company's customer is THE “bottom line.”
Foreign competition has made the US steel and automobile industries effect decentralization operations to the middle south and west — to rural, low‐paid, non‐unionized…
Foreign competition has made the US steel and automobile industries effect decentralization operations to the middle south and west — to rural, low‐paid, non‐unionized labor, and thus maximising profits and increasing management control. All this has led to a reruralization of the US workforce and by selling off operations, profit levels can be enhanced.
The steel industry in the U.S. has been experiencing declining revenues and rising losses. Over half the steel mills have filed for bankruptcy. To remedy the situation, the industry asked the federal government for help with the retirees’ pensions and protection from steel imports. The government imposed tariffs of 8 to 30 per cent to last for three years. Reaction to the tariffs from U.S. trade partners has been negative. The government hopes the industry will take advantage of the break to modernize and become more efficient. The history of the industry, however, sheds doubt on the industry’s ability to overcome past inefficiencies.
Iron preceded steel in the history of the metal industry. It was used for over three thousand years, and when the British settled in North America, the first iron works…
Iron preceded steel in the history of the metal industry. It was used for over three thousand years, and when the British settled in North America, the first iron works was set up at James town, Virginia, in 1621. By the time of the American Revolution, the colonies were producing one‐seventh of the world’s supply of pig iron at thirty thousand tons. Steel is made by alloying iron with carbon to produce a hard, strong metal. It was expensive to manufacture and the United States imported most of its steel until after the Civil War. The steam age provided much growth to the iron industry in the 1800s, with enormous demand for iron rails. Pennsylvania, with its large deposits of anthracite coal, was the nation’s leading state in the iron industry. Aided by the great iron ore deposits in the Great Lakes area and cheap water transportation, the production of iron and steel drove the Industrial Revolution, and the Mid west became the centre of American heavy industry. Developments in steel processing during the mid 1800s lowered the cost of steel production and allowed the use of steel for rail roads, construction, and other industrial uses. By 1883, approximately twenty years after the Civil War, the United States produced nearly 115,000 tons of steel and the Iron Age disappeared. The American steel industry continued to grow rapidly and by 1910 it produced more than 24 million tons, which was the greatest of any country. One of the high lights of the steel industry was the establishment of United States Steel Corporation in 1901 led by J. Pierpont Morgan and Elbert H. Gary. The corporation was valued at $1.4 billion and controlled more than 60 percent of the US market. The strength of America’s steel industry continued after World War II and peaked in 1969 at 141,262,000 tons. At this time, competition from steel plants abroad with lower labour costs and newer mills started edging in on the US market. By 1975, US steel production declined to 89 million tons, but rebounded slightly in the late 1980s (Gordon). The American steel industry would not be central to the economy as it had for the previous 100 years.