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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Jaywant Singh, Paurav Shukla and Stavros P. Kalafatis

While trade shows remain an important customer relationship management (CRM) tool, recent advancements in information technology (IT) have raised concerns about the future…

Abstract

Purpose

While trade shows remain an important customer relationship management (CRM) tool, recent advancements in information technology (IT) have raised concerns about the future of trade shows. This study aims to examine the antecedents and consequences of IT integration into trade shows.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a questionnaire-based survey with senior and middle managers in the aviation services, resulting in 135 valid responses from industry professionals. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings demonstrate differential but significant impact of perceptions toward website design and firm motivations toward the integration IT in the three stages of trade shows marketing. The results also show significant impact of IT usage on the perceptions toward the accomplishment of trade show objectives. Further, the results vary according to the levels of experience of the professionals.

Research limitations/implications

This study did not account for the differences in perceptions toward IT implementation across personnel from different departments, such as IT, finance and operations management. In addition, it did not examine situational factors and individual characteristics as additional antecedents of IT usage in trade shows, including pricing, return on investment, convenience and the social media.

Practical implications

Exhibitors are advised to integrate IT in supporting pre-trade show activities to approach potential customers. Exhibitors should integrate electronic interactions and personal communications during the show to reduce the amount of unanswered customer queries, focusing on timeliness and accuracy of information content, ease of navigation and graphic attractiveness of corporate websites, as effective CRM tools.

Originality/value

This paper offers novel insights into hitherto unknown aspects of trade show performance. The results have managerial implications for adopting IT as a CRM tool for effective trade show management.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Stavros P. Kalafatis, Charles Blankson, Marvyn Luxly Boatswain and Markos H. Tsogas

Grounded in regulatory mode theory (RMT), this study aims to investigate the impact of managers’ orientation for action (locomotion and assessment) in business-to-business…

Abstract

Purpose

Grounded in regulatory mode theory (RMT), this study aims to investigate the impact of managers’ orientation for action (locomotion and assessment) in business-to-business positioning decision-making.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected using a scenario-based experimental design. Study 1 examines whether interest and involvement in recommending a positioning strategy depends on a manager’s regulatory mode orientation. The impact of such orientations on the likelihood of changing a recommended positioning strategy is the focus of Study 2. The moderating effects of task motivation (expected rewards resulting from a recommendation), market feedback and the line manager’s leadership style are examined.

Findings

Both assessment and locomotion are significant determinants of involvement in recommending a positioning strategy. The introduction of motivation as a moderator helps explain differences in level of interest in positioning decision-making. Locomotion, but not assessment, affects the likelihood of changing a recommended positioning strategy. Assessment amplifies the impact of locomotion, while none of the interaction effects between regulatory mode orientation and contextual factors is a significant determinant of changing a positioning strategy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first application of RMT on positioning decision-making. Results from two experiments provide novel insights into the predictive relevance of managers’ preference in terms of involvement with the decision-making process and the likelihood of altering positioning.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Charles Blankson, Stavros P. Kalafatis, Stanley Coffie and Markos H. Tsogas

The purpose of this paper is to undertake a comparative examination of the media types used in projecting positioning strategies of service brands, and to establish…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to undertake a comparative examination of the media types used in projecting positioning strategies of service brands, and to establish whether there is evidence of congruence/fit between managerial decisions, adopted communications and target audience perceptions of positioning strategies of the brands. The relative congruence among intended, conveyed and perceived brand positions is an important research task. Also, how to ensure such synergy and minimize incongruence is an important research question both to theory and to practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Following extensive review of the literature, triangulation research method (face-to-face long interviews, survey and content analysis) characterized this study.

Findings

The findings reveal that overall parity between the three media (TV; newspaper; and pamphlets, leaflets, brochures and billboards) is evident in terms of failure to translate managerial decisions into corresponding positioning messages. The findings also show that fit or congruence between managerial decision and communicated message fails to deliver the desired message in 19 per cent of the observations. Further 23 per cent of the adopted strategies are neither present in communications nor perceived by the target audience. Irrespective of a positioning strategy being adopted or not, there is total congruence/fit between messages in newspapers and target audience’s perceptions, while the corresponding results for TV and other media are moderate. Moreover, channels for positioning offerings can be multifaceted and they do not strictly have to occur via communications. Only “brand name” positioning strategy demonstrates total fit, while “top of the range” shows high frequency of failure to translate managerial decisions into appropriate communication messages.

Originality/value

This paper offers useful insights into the overall differences between the three media (TV; newspaper; and pamphlets, leaflets, brochures and billboards) in the positioning of service brands. The study is a step forward in the diagnosis of the congruence/fit or coherence in the positioning activities between managers, firm practices and consumers’ perceptions. Without this knowledge, executives may encounter difficulties and challenges in their efforts at establishing, maintaining or reframing market “positions” for their offerings.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2014

Jaywant Singh, Stavros P. Kalafatis and Lesley Ledden

Cobranding is increasingly popular as a strategy for commercial success. Brand positioning strategies are central to marketing, yet the impact of perceptions of parent…

Abstract

Purpose

Cobranding is increasingly popular as a strategy for commercial success. Brand positioning strategies are central to marketing, yet the impact of perceptions of parent brands’ positioning on consumers’ perceptions of cobrand positioning has not been investigated. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing a quasi-experimental design, the authors create cobranding scenarios in three product categories (tablet computers, cosmetics, and smart phones). The data are collected via structured questionnaires resulting in 160 valid responses. The data are analyzed employing Partial Least Squares-based Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), and consumer evaluation of cobrands is tested in relationship to the prior positioning of the parent brands, product fit and brand fit, along with post-alliance positioning perceptions of the partner brands.

Findings

The results confirm brand positioning as a robust indicator of consumer evaluation of cobrands. Positioning perceptions of partner brands are positively related to cobrand positioning perceptions. In addition, pre-alliance positioning significantly relate to post-alliance positioning, confirming cobranding as a viable strategy for partner brands.

Research limitations/implications

The paper recommends research that could reveal the impact of differential brand equities of partner brands, such as, between a high-equity brand and a low/moderate-equity brand, mixed brand alliances – product/service; service/service, and at different levels of partner brand familiarity.

Practical implications

Managers should design cobrand positioning based on existing positioning perceptions of the partner brands, rather than focussing on product fit and brand fit.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates the focal role of positioning strategies of partner brands in consumer evaluation of cobrands.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Charles Blankson and Stavros P. Kalafatis

This article aims to examine positioning strategies of international and multicultural‐oriented service brands.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine positioning strategies of international and multicultural‐oriented service brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Following review of the literature and pilot study, three main populations (executives and experts, companies' marketing communications, and the target group of consumers) were examined. The methodology concerned triangulation research involving face‐to‐face long interviews, secondary data, content analysis and mail survey.

Findings

The paper highlights that while no single positioning strategy is significant across the four card brands (Visa, MasterCard, Amex and Diners Club), “the brand name” positioning strategy appears to be the most preferred among Visa, MasterCard and Amex and not Diners Club. The findings also show that “top of the range” positioning strategy is favored among Amex and Diners Club card brands. However, “country of origin” positioning strategy is incompatible within the study setting.

Research limitations/implications

Apart from the low response rate from survey of the general public, another limitation of this study is the concentration on a single sector of the services industry. The latter poses difficulties for generalization across all service brands.

Practical implications

Service managers now have an insight into the positioning activities of the plastic card brand sector. These serve as building blocks and benchmarks for appreciating and operationalizing the concept of positioning – a research issue that is missing in the extant literature.

Originality/value

This study is a step forward in the operationalization of the concept of positioning. The research also provides diagnosis of the congruence between management's presumed positioning strategies, firm's actual positioning practices and target group's perceptions of the positioning strategies. Without such knowledge, managers cannot expect to choose the best competitive options to defend or enhance their positions in the market place.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Stavros P. Kalafatis, Markos H. Tsogas and Charles Blankson

Tests the relevance of positioning within the domain of business marketing through the application of a new typology of positioning strategies. The proposed typology is…

Abstract

Tests the relevance of positioning within the domain of business marketing through the application of a new typology of positioning strategies. The proposed typology is tested in a well‐established market sector which is characterised by commodity products and consequently the research deals with positioning as applied to actual companies rather than specific brands. Our results offer strong support as to the stability of the proposed typology and the relevance of the concept of positioning in business markets. The authors suggest that although business positioning is predominantly determined by hard criteria (e.g. product quality) and relationship building factors (e.g. personal contact), other considerations such as company structures (i.e. geographical coverage), breadth of offerings and degree of integration (i.e. location in the distribution chain), also play an important part. Finally, we offer support to the claim that, level of familiarity with a specific company is a contributing factor to perceptions of the pursued positioning strategies.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Annik Hogg, Stavros P. Kalafatis and Charles Blankson

Deals with some issues associated with relationship‐forming patterns within the UK trade of rice. In particular examines the importance of 16 variables, through a…

Abstract

Deals with some issues associated with relationship‐forming patterns within the UK trade of rice. In particular examines the importance of 16 variables, through a telephone survey, at three levels of the distribution chain, millers/ importers, manufacturers and retailers. The results indicate an overall uniformity in the importance of the variables between the channel intermediaries. In relative terms, finds soft/ personal variables to be perceived as less important than hard/product‐related variables. Furthermore, consistent with existing literature, identifies the following relationship‐forming groups of variables: interpersonal or intanintegrative criteria, relationship monitoring criteria, price criteria and product criteria.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Graham Whittaker, Lesley Ledden and Stavros P. Kalafatis

The objectives of this paper are twofold: to add to the debate regarding conceptualisation and operationalisation of value within a professional service domain, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The objectives of this paper are twofold: to add to the debate regarding conceptualisation and operationalisation of value within a professional service domain, and to contribute to the relatively sparse literature dealing with the functional relationship between determinants and outcomes of value with specific emphasis on the value to satisfaction and intention to re‐purchase relationship in professional services.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretically grounded model has been developed that comprises three antecedents of value (conceptualised as a higher order construct of six dimensions) and satisfaction both of which impact on intention. The model has been tested, using partial least squares, on 78 responses obtained through an email survey carried out amongst executives of the top 300 UK‐based companies listed in the Times 1,000.

Findings

The results indicate that although perceived value is a multi‐dimensional construct treating value as a unified construct may lead to confounding effects. Although further research is needed it is suggested that different dimensions of value act at different levels of the value hierarchy and differentially reflect process and outcome value creation forces in professional services.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the debate surrounding conceptualisations of the value construct by offering empirical support as to its formative nature. Furthermore, this is the first attempt to examine differences in the nomological relationships of value when it is treated as a single higher order construct and when the higher order structure of value is relaxed allowing its dimensions to directly interact with antecedents and consequences.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Susanne Goller, Annik Hogg and Stavros P. Kalafatis

Since its conception over 60 years ago by Frederick in 1934, the concept of segmentation has gained increasing importance, in both the consumer and the business domains…

Abstract

Since its conception over 60 years ago by Frederick in 1934, the concept of segmentation has gained increasing importance, in both the consumer and the business domains. Examination of research within the latter domain indicates that, although considerable amounts of research have been carried out, these efforts appear to focus on sub‐areas of segmentation such as the development of segmentation bases and models, at the expense of a more strategic view. This not only has resulted in a diffused understanding of the subject‐matter but also is posited to have slowed the progress of theory development and research in business segmentation. Presents a comprehensive conceptualisation of business segmentation in the form of an integrating framework of business segmentation, aimed at raising new research agendas which could lead to a better understanding of existing gaps between theory and implementation and better recommendations to practitioners and assisting further development of theory in business segmentation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Stavros P. Kalafatis, Michael Pollard, Robert East and Markos H. Tsogas

Examines the determinants that influence consumers’ intention to buy environmentally friendly products. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour (TPB) provides the conceptual…

Abstract

Examines the determinants that influence consumers’ intention to buy environmentally friendly products. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour (TPB) provides the conceptual framework of the research and the appropriateness of the theory and is tested in two distinct market conditions (UK and Greece). Although the findings offer considerable support for the robustness of the TPB in explaining intention in both samples, there is some indication that the theory is more appropriate in well established markets that are characterised by clearly formulated behavioural patterns (i.e. the model fitting elements of the UK sample are superior to the corresponding ones obtained from the Greek sample). The results are consistent with previous research on moral behaviour.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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