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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Deena A. Isom Scott

This chapter has two central goals: (1) to present a foundational argument for status dissonance theory and (2) to apply its central propositions to understanding why some…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter has two central goals: (1) to present a foundational argument for status dissonance theory and (2) to apply its central propositions to understanding why some White Americans perceive anti-White bias. Building upon status construction theory, status dissonance theory generally posits that one’s overall status value determined by their combined status characteristics influences the degree they internalize normative referential structures. The salience of normative referential structures frames one’s justice perceptions, which creates status dissonance that manifests as a positional lens through which individuals perceive and interact with the social world. In an application of this framework, it is hypothesized that among Whites, one’s gender and class will impact one’s perceptions of resource reallocation (i.e., racial equality), which in turn impacts the likelihood one perceives anti-White bias generally and personally.

Design

Using the Pew Research Center’s Racial Attitudes in America III Survey, this study employs logistic and ordered probit regressions on a nationally representative sample of White Americans to assess the above propositions.

Findings

Among Whites, males, those whom self-identified as lower class, and the least educated have the highest odds of perceiving resource re-allocation, and in turn all of these factors increased the odds of perceiving anti-White bias generally in society as well as perceiving personal encounters of “reverse” discrimination.

Implications

The findings and theoretical propositions provide a foundation for additional investigations into understanding the causes and consequences of within and between group variation in perceptions and responses to social inequality as well as mechanisms to counter status hierarchies.

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Mehlika Saraç, Bilçin Meydan and Ismail Efil

Most employee attitudes and behaviors are determined by both personal and situational characteristics. Studies on person–organization fit (POF), which is defined as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Most employee attitudes and behaviors are determined by both personal and situational characteristics. Studies on person–organization fit (POF), which is defined as the congruence between individual and organizational values, also support this assumption. Employees who perceive high POF have high positive work attitudes and low intention to leave. However, this study assumes that the relationship between perceived POF and work attitudes may be different with respect to employees’ status and aims to investigate how perceived POF may differ in consequences among blue-collar and white-collar employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple group analysis of structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to test the moderation effect of employee status on the relationship between perceived POF and work attitudes.

Findings

Results indicated that the relationship between perceived POF and organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational identification and intention to leave differ with respect to individual’s status (blue-collar–white collar). As the status of the individuals increases, the relationship between POF and work attitudes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organization identification) becomes weaker.

Originality/value

Rather than just focusing results of POF, this study focuses on moderating variables that differentiate the relationship between POF and outcomes by considering individual differences caused by different motivation and abilities.

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Robert Oxoby

The purpose of this paper is to delineate the concepts of social inclusion, social cohesion, and social capital.

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10334

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to delineate the concepts of social inclusion, social cohesion, and social capital.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the existing literature and uses the ideas of Amartya Sen to develop a research and policy approach to these concepts.

Findings

Specifically, the paper uses Sen's concepts of commodities and capabilities to develop a framework for understanding the related concepts of social capital, social cohesion, and inclusion.

Research limitations/implications

While the approach is largely theoretical, the paper bases the analysis on existing empirical research on the social motivations of behavior and the importance on social inclusion in institutional design.

Practical implications

Practically, it is hoped that the framework provides a platform for empirical research on social inclusion and cohesion, two concepts that have largely been ignored in the research on social capital.

Originality/value

As such, this paper can serve as a guide to empirical researchers and policy makers interested in issues of poverty, unemployment, and social exclusion.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Jacques Nel and Christo Boshoff

Shopping statistics indicate that online shoppers prefer purchasing products using the desktop website of the retailer, rather than using the mobile website on a mobile…

Abstract

Purpose

Shopping statistics indicate that online shoppers prefer purchasing products using the desktop website of the retailer, rather than using the mobile website on a mobile phone to purchase products (mobile website purchasing). Therefore, using status quo bias theory, this study aims to investigate mobile website purchasing resistance of those customers using only desktop website purchasing.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the conceptual model an online questionnaire was used to collect data from customers purchasing products using only the desktop website on a computer (n = 484) and not the retailer’s mobile website.

Findings

Due to cognitive dissonance, customers using only desktop purchasing trivialize mobile website purchasing perceived attractiveness while perceiving more cognitive effort in mobile website purchasing to maintain consonance with their inertia. Further, relative advantage perceptions of mobile website purchasing lead to more trivialization of mobile website purchasing attractiveness perceptions. Desktop purchasing inertia enhances resistance through alternative attractiveness and cognitive effort perceptions, respectively, and cognitive effort and alternative attractiveness perceptions in serial. Desktop purchasing habit has the strongest positive influence on desktop purchasing inertia.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a high-involvement product context. Replication in a low-involvement product context is necessary to confirm the robustness of the results.

Practical implications

Retailers can use the findings to develop strategies to lower mobile website purchasing resistance in an online-mobile concurrent channel environment.

Originality/value

The study provides novel insights into mobile website purchasing resistance in an online-mobile concurrent channel environment. Further, the study addresses the gap in research on inertia and switching costs in the adoption of concurrent channels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Shuai Qin

For the developed economies in Europe, to which refugees move, and as refugees’ enterprising expectations evolve, emerging cognitive factors have become closely…

Abstract

Purpose

For the developed economies in Europe, to which refugees move, and as refugees’ enterprising expectations evolve, emerging cognitive factors have become closely intertwined with their post-arrival encounters. However, the link between refugees’ social cognition and entrepreneurship commitment tends to be overlooked. This paper aims to join the international debates regarding cognitions of refugee entrepreneurship and explain the bewildering effects of refugees’ social cognitive dissonance on refugee business support.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the extant knowledge of refugee entrepreneurship and refugee business support. It synthesizes the literature on cognitive dissonance, multiple embeddedness and hospitality to inform a conceptual model and explain the ramifications of refugees’ entrepreneurial cognition on refugee business support and how public attitudes in the destination transform accordingly.

Findings

This paper illustrates the prevalent imbalance between the provision of support and refugees’ anticipations in developed economies. A conceptual toolkit is framed to disclose the succeeding influence of cognitive dissonance on the performances of refugee business support. This framework indicates that the cognitive dissonance could elicit heterogeneous aftermath of refugee business support service, resulting in a deteriorated/ameliorated hospitality context.

Originality/value

This conceptual toolkit unfolds cognitive ingredients in the refugee entrepreneurship journey, providing a framework for understanding refugee business support and the formation of hospitality under cognitive dissonance. Practically, it is conducive to policymakers nurturing rational refugee anticipation, enacting inclusive business support and enhancing hospitality in the host country.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Nicole H.W. Civettini

Purpose – The aim of this research was to test whether the motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification act independently and simultaneously, specifically in the…

Abstract

Purpose – The aim of this research was to test whether the motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification act independently and simultaneously, specifically in the context of the impostor phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach – Using both self-report measures and salivary cortisol levels, I conducted a 2×2 experiment (N=106) in which status (high or low) was crossed with competition outcome (win or lose). The “low-status winner” condition served as a simulation of the impostor phenomenon.

Findings – Winners reported greater positive affect and less negative affect, indicating self-enhancement, but salivary cortisol levels were higher in participants whose status was disconsonant with the competition outcome (high-status losers and low-status winners), reflecting self-verification.

Research limitations/implications – A potential limitation was the omission of nicotine use as a control variable.

Practical implications – Results illuminate the dual public and private nature of the impostor phenomenon, in which normative expressions of happiness overlie deeper feelings of anxiety. A better understanding would benefit educators, employers, counselors, and therapists who work with high-achieving women and minorities as well as the women and minorities they serve.

Social implications – Findings suggest that efforts should be made to bolster the confidence of promising young women and minorities, with the understanding that, despite high levels of achievement, self-confidence and a sense of deservedness may be lacking.

Originality/value – Methodological advancements included the first laboratory simulation of the impostor phenomenon and the use of both self-report and physiological measures of responses to status situations. This was the first study capable of observing the motivations to self-enhance and self-verify simultaneously and independently of one another.

Details

Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2021

Mohit Jamwal and Sita Mishra

The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence and profile consumer segments based on dissonance in Indian apparel fashion retail market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence and profile consumer segments based on dissonance in Indian apparel fashion retail market.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on cognitive dissonance theory (CDT) and analyses data using cluster and discriminant analysis on a sample (n = 354) from India.

Findings

The findings revealed three dissonance segments among consumers based on the intensity of dissonance experienced. This study also validated the clusters and profiled each segment. In doing so, the three clusters exhibited unique differences with respect to purchase and socio-demographic characteristics. Moreover, high dissonance segments were found to inversely impact customer’s satisfaction, loyalty and overall perceived value and positively impact tendency to switch.

Practical implications

Understanding the existence of cognitive dissonance (CD) patterns among consumers is critical for fashion apparel retailers. This paper offers unique insights into the specialties of each dissonance segment that assists the marketers to frame appropriate strategies to target them.

Originality/value

This paper advances knowledge on consumer behavior by highlighting the significance of CD.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Carolyn M. Axtell, Karin S. Moser and Janet McGoldrick

Status is a central aspect of teamwork relationships and successful collaboration in teams, both online and offline. Status group membership and status perception shape…

Abstract

Purpose

Status is a central aspect of teamwork relationships and successful collaboration in teams, both online and offline. Status group membership and status perception shape behavioural expectations and norm perceptions of what is appropriate, but despite their importance have been neglected in previous research. Status effects are of special interest in online collaboration, e.g. via email, where no immediate feedback or non-verbal/paraverbal communication and direct observation is possible. The purpose of this study is to address this gap in research.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental scenario study with two different professional status groups (lecturers and students) tested status effects on causal attributions, intergroup bias and emotional and collaborative responses to perceived norm violations in emails.

Findings

Results overall showed three key findings: a “black-sheep-effect” with harsher negative attributions for same status members, more aggression and less cooperation towards lower status senders and stronger (negative) emotional reactions towards high status senders.

Originality/value

The findings are important for managing professional online communication because negative personal attributions, strong emotions and aggressive behaviours can increase team conflict, lead to mistakes and generally undermine performance.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-013-4

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Rudi Coetzer, Emma Carroll and Jean A. Ruddle

In addition to physical, behavioural and cognitive impairment, emotional difficulties such as anxiety and depression are also common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and…

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625

Abstract

Purpose

In addition to physical, behavioural and cognitive impairment, emotional difficulties such as anxiety and depression are also common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can contribute to chronic disability. Understanding more about the relationship between emotional problems and social factors such as employment status after TBI can potentially help to inform rehabilitation practice to improve long‐term outcomes. This study attempts to determine if depression and/or anxiety after TBI are associated with being unemployed.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study considered the associations between depression, anxiety and employment status in people with TBI. The participants were 62 adults with a history of TBI, on average 99 months post‐injury, and attending community‐based rehabilitation. Data regarding anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS as well as employment status were collected and analyzed for potential associations between these variables.

Findings

A statistically significant association between the presence of depression and not being in employment was revealed by this study. The same association, however, was not found for anxiety and employment status. The relationship between depression and employment may be complex and should also be considered within for example the societal context, including actual availability of opportunities for employment, legislation and statutory initiatives to facilitate return to work initiatives. The employment of disabled persons, including as a result of TBI, should be viewed within the wider context of societal discrimination against disabled people.

Research limitations/implications

There are several limitations to be considered when interpreting the findings from this study, including modest sample size, a broad range in time since injury, the wide age range of the participants, as well as the use of only questionnaires to confirm the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms after TBI.

Practical implications

Practitioners should be aware of the potential adverse effect of depression and anxiety on outcome after TBI. Where limited opportunity exists for successful employment outcome after TBI, practitioners should work towards preventing repeated failure in persons with TBI trying to get back to work. Specialist case management may have a valuable role to play in this area.

Originality/value

This study confirms an association between unemployment and depression in people with TBI.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

Keywords

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