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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Maurice Pillet

Traditionally, tolerances are defined by an interval [LSL; USL] which can lead to several ambiguous interpretations of conformity. This paper examines an alternative…

Abstract

Traditionally, tolerances are defined by an interval [LSL; USL] which can lead to several ambiguous interpretations of conformity. This paper examines an alternative method for setting specifications: “inertial tolerancing”. Inertial tolerancing consists of tolerancing the mean square deviation from the target rather than the distance. This alternative has numerous advantages over the traditional approach, particularly in the case of product assembly, mixed batches and conformity analysis. Coupled with a capability index Cpi, this alternative method leads to minimizing production costs for a specified level of quality. We propose to compare both approaches: traditional and inertial tolerancing.

Details

The TQM Magazine, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Chen Wu and Lijuan Wang

The purpose of this paper is to acquire doubly variable precision‐based knowledge rules from incomplete decision tables (IDTs) in the framework of pansystems methodology…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to acquire doubly variable precision‐based knowledge rules from incomplete decision tables (IDTs) in the framework of pansystems methodology. It suggests a new variable precision limited tolerance – a special pansystems relation – rough set model with precision inclusion and a reduct procedure in which it overcomes the non‐monotony in forming tolerance classes when reducing an attribute from attribute set.

Design/methodology/approach

Through introducing variable precision and limited tolerance relation in IDT, it constructs symmetric binary relation, dissimilar to non‐symmetric relation proposed by others, and then forms tolerance classes. It proposes a new reduction procedure with absolute value calculation to avoid tolerance classes being non‐monotone. Using variable inclusion, it obtains lower and upper approximations with noises.

Findings

Tolerance classes are not monotone with the reduction of attribute from attribute set in the proposed variable precision and limited tolerance relation, but it remains symmetry. Proposed reduction procedure with absolute value calculation is a new approach in adjudging whether a reduct equals to the original whole attribute set within a error range or not.

Practical implications

Using variable precision and limited rough set model with variable inclusion to mine deep knowledge from IDT is a paradise in knowledge discovery in dealing with non‐determinative and vague problems.

Originality/value

The formation of symmetric tolerance relation is natural. The reduction procedure with absolute value calculation is new and not similar to those existed in literatures.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 37 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Khakan Najaf, Ali Haj Khalifa, Shaher Mohammad Obaid, Abdulla Al Rashidi and Ahmed Ataya

This study aims to look at how financial technology (FinTech) companies adhere to sustainable standards in contrast to their counterparts. Following the validation of its…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to look at how financial technology (FinTech) companies adhere to sustainable standards in contrast to their counterparts. Following the validation of its new sustainability index, this study looks into the impact of sustainability on the stock performance of FinTech companies.

Design/methodology/approach

To efficiently test the hypotheses, sample has been collected from the Bloomberg of all FinTech and non-FinTech companies from the USA. The final sample comprises 1,712 company-year observations over the investigation period 2010–2019. The methodology entails ordinary least squares regressions and generalized panel methods of moments (GMM).

Findings

The results suggest that the developed sustainability index is a valid proxy for sustainability measures and directly relates to stock performance. Besides, the evidence indicates that non-FinTech companies display superior sustainability and stock performance compared to FinTech companies. The present results corroborate with stakeholder theory, which implies that quality sustainability performance will alleviate the agency issue and safeguard the shareholders’ interest.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the fact that it presents the limitation of not considering other dimensions of financial performance, this research is important as it highlights the sustainability practices by the FinTech and non-FinTech companies, offering insights to researchers, policymakers, regulators, financial reports users, investors, environmental union, employees, clients and society.

Originality/value

This paper is novel because it is unique in evaluating the sustainability practices in FinTech and non-FinTech firms.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Wichai Chattinnawat

The purpose of this paper is to apply the statistical tolerancing technique to analyze the dual responses of APFA arm height deviation with respect to next stage of disk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the statistical tolerancing technique to analyze the dual responses of APFA arm height deviation with respect to next stage of disk assembly process and simultaneously optimize and allocate the required tolerance of the responses onto its components at minimum cost of manufacturing and the quality loss.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationships between the dual responses of APFA heights and the geometric dimensions and tolerances of APFA components, and orientation of the assembled part with respect to disk assembly were first defined. The effects of the APFA orientation, and the component tolerances on the distributions and variations of the responses were derived and investigated in terms of resultant product/process performance, quality loss, and the cost of assembly. The tolerance cost-based objective function is then formulated as the combined manufacturing/assembly cost and the quality loss. Direct search method was used to find the best feasible tolerance solutions satisfying the required product performance at minimum cost.

Findings

The constructed relationship or transfer functions of the dual responses were probabilistic depending on the orientation of part with respect to the next assembly process. The Monte Carlo simulation is empirically suitable for the computation of the conditional distributions of the responses against the first-order linear approximation of component variances. The proposed solution of tolerance control plan increases the product performances, C pm , from 0.6 to be at least 1. The proposed tolerance allocation plans will reduce the amount of rework currently as high as 5 percent to at most 0.01 percent with minimally increased assembly cost.

Practical implications

This proposed methodology to design and allocate component tolerances is suitable and applicable to the APFA assembly process. The derived assembly functions of probabilistic type relating the responses to the process and component characteristics can represent the actual dynamic of assembled part better than a traditional single deterministic function developed under static concept. This presented methodology can be applied to other assembly cases where quality characteristic depends on the part dynamic.

Originality/value

This research simultaneously optimized the dual APFA height deviation responses with minimum cost of tolerance and quality loss using two different conditional distributions and transfer functions of the resultant deviations generated from dynamic of APFA with respect to disk.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar

The purpose of this paper is to explore the (in)tolerance level of accounting major students in Oman toward identified integrity destroying academic activities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the (in)tolerance level of accounting major students in Oman toward identified integrity destroying academic activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A triangulation approach was adopted whereby a questionnaire survey on academic fraud (AF) was administered to a group of Omani major accounting students. The descriptive statistical results were further analyzed and validated using in-depth interviews in exploring further the students’ tolerance decisions.

Findings

A conceivably low and non-disturbing tolerance level toward the myriads of integrity destroying academic activities was documented. The tolerance is, however, observed to be dynamic in nature as it is sensitive to fraud “severity” and “seriousness”, i.e. it increases as AF activities become less severe and serious. Minor free-ride is tolerated the most, followed by minor plagiarism and seldom forgery. These AF activities were tolerated most by female and academically weak students. The varying results suggest that demographic factors do play a role in shaping Omani future accountants’ AF tolerance. The interview results further point to the intertwined factors of academic, family and peers, as well as religion that primarily influence their AF tolerance levels.

Originality/value

The research fills the extremely scarce accounting education literature in Oman by documenting fresh evidence of AF (in)tolerance among future members of the country’s accountancy profession. As academic is the primary source of accountants’ accountability and integrity knowledge and training base, investigating accounting students’ tolerance toward integrity in the acute context of AF would effectively provide a reflection of the profession’s future integrity environment.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Chuanyuan Zhou, Zhenyu Liu, Chan Qiu and Jianrong Tan

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel mathematical model to present the three-dimensional tolerance of a discrete surface and to carry out an approach to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel mathematical model to present the three-dimensional tolerance of a discrete surface and to carry out an approach to analyze the tolerance of an assembly with a discrete surface structure. A discrete surface is a special structure of a large surface base with several discrete elements mounted on it, one, which is widely used in complex electromechanical products.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometric features of discrete surfaces are separated and characterized by small displacement torsors according to the spatial relationship of discrete elements. The torsor cluster model is established to characterize the integral feature variation of a discrete surface by integrating the torsor model. The influence and accumulation of the assembly tolerance of a discrete surface are determined by statistical tolerance analysis based on the unified Jacobian-Torsor method.

Findings

The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model in comprehensive tolerance characterization of discrete surfaces are successfully demonstrated by a case study of a phased array antenna. The tolerance is evidently and intuitively computed and expressed based on the torsor cluster model.

Research limitations/implications

The tolerance analysis method proposed requires much time and high computing performance for the calculation of the statistical simulation.

Practical implications

The torsor cluster model achieves the three-dimensional tolerance representation of the discrete surface. The tolerance analysis method based on this model predicts the accumulation of the tolerance of components before their physical assembly.

Originality/value

This paper proposes the torsor cluster as a novel mathematical model to interpret the tolerance of a discrete surface.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

Abdelmadjid Cheikh and Peter F. McGoldrick

Some studies concerned with the allocation of tolerances have been published, but only a few deal with both cost and function. In order to overcome this drawback, and to…

Abstract

Some studies concerned with the allocation of tolerances have been published, but only a few deal with both cost and function. In order to overcome this drawback, and to tighten the liaison between design and production, work has been carried out in the area of tolerance, with cost, function and process capability the main parameters in mind. Such work is discussed, where the problem covered is the manner of specifying the component tolerances of an assembly, so that the resulting functional variables of the assembly can meet their respective functional requirements, and the cost of manufacturing all the components to their respective tolerances is minimised. It shows that, when manufacturing cost information and process capability information are available, functionally correct design at minimum cost can be achieved. Furthermore, how statistical analyses of the manufacturing processes involved can lead to the relaxation in requirements, thus, promoting industrial harmony while, at the same time, maintaining the desired levels of product quality and reliability, is shown.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2019

Mohammad Khalilzadeh, Shiba Masoumi and Isa Masoumi

Identifying and prioritizing the risks are considered as critical issues in risk management; otherwise, non-considering the risks will lead to the problems such as delays…

Abstract

Purpose

Identifying and prioritizing the risks are considered as critical issues in risk management; otherwise, non-considering the risks will lead to the problems such as delays in project implementation, increased costs, loss of reputation, loss of clients, reduced revenue and liquidity and even bankruptcy. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the factors influencing the organization risk tolerance level were identified. Then, the factors increasing and decreasing the risk tolerance level were determined by a decision-making model. Finally, a comprehensive model was considered for risk measuring and preparing a risk failure structure chart, in order to determine the factors influencing it as well as the measurement criteria and then they were ranked using the taxonomy method. In this study, the size of the statistical population was 130 (six small and medium manufacturer and service provider companies). Based on Cochran’s sample size formula, 97 questionnaires containing 30 questions were randomly distributed among the population. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22.

Findings

Given the hypotheses of this study, the first hypothesis was rejected and the other hypotheses were accepted. The final ranking was done using the taxonomy method; the personality of the project manager was ranked at first; income, credit and capital were ranked second and the number of personnel was ranked third. Moreover, the TOPSIS method was used for ranking to compare the results.

Originality/value

In this research, the identification and ranking of these factors have taken place in several small- and medium-sized organizations; in addition, the rankings are conducted using the taxonomy decision-making method.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2021

Zehorit Dadon-Golan, Adrian Ziderman and Iris BenDavid-Hadar

A major justification for the state subsidy of university education at public institutions (and, in some countries, of private universities too) is the economic and social…

Abstract

Purpose

A major justification for the state subsidy of university education at public institutions (and, in some countries, of private universities too) is the economic and social benefits accruing to society as whole from a significantly university-educated workforce and citizenship. Based upon a broad range of research findings, a particular societal benefit emanating from higher education relates to good citizenship: that it leads to more open mindedness and tolerant political attitudes. We examined these issues using a representative sample of students from Israeli universities to clarify the extent to which these outcomes would be paralleled in the Israeli setting, where the university experience differs markedly from that found typically in the West.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a comparison of political tolerance levels between first- and final-year students enrolled in regular undergraduate study programs (of four days a week or more). However since a change in tolerance is likely to be contingent also on the amount of time that the student spends on campus during the study year, we introduce, as a control group, students enrolled in compressed study programs (of three days a week or less) and compare changes in their tolerance levels with tolerance changes of students enrolled in regular programs. Research questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate students at three universities from the three major districts in Israel–north, south and center. The achieved sample size was 329 students.

Findings

Using Difference-in-Differences techniques, we looked for any changes in students' general political tolerance, over the course of their studies. Surprisingly, we found no such effect on political tolerance attitudes. Israeli students are older and often married and though nominally full-time students, they often hold down a full-time job. Thus they come and go to attend lectures but do not otherwise spend much time on campus. Given the somewhat perfunctory nature of the university experience for most Israeli students, it does not to lead to more open-minded and tolerant political attitudes.

Practical implications

Some broader, practical applications of the research, beyond the Israeli case, are presented, particularly related to distance learning and to the impact of COVID-19. Attention is given to more recent “Cancel culture” developments on university campuses.

Originality/value

The results have wider implications, to other university setting in other countries. Changes in political attitudes may occur in university settings where campus life is well developed, with opportunities for student interaction, formally in extra-curricular events or through social mixing outside the lecture hall. Where the university experience is more minimally confined to attendance at lectures these desirable outcomes may not be forth coming. These findings are relevant to other university frameworks where campus attendance is marginal, such as in open university education and, even more explicitly, in purely internet-based higher education study.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Dewan Muktadir-Al-Mukit

The study attempts to assess the relationship between sociodemographic factors and the risk tolerance level of stock market investors reflected by their trading behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The study attempts to assess the relationship between sociodemographic factors and the risk tolerance level of stock market investors reflected by their trading behavior from the perspective of developing market economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collected data from a survey on capital market investors in Bangladesh. Portfolio beta has been used as a dependent variable to measure the risk tolerance level where total 11 sociodemographic factors have been used as independent variables.

Findings

Among all study variables, three sociodemographic factors are found to be significant in differentiating the risk tolerance level of the stock market investors. The author finds that the risk tolerance level of stock market investors significantly varies according to marital status, family size and financial responsibility.

Practical implications

As sociodemographic characteristics provide a basis in assessing the investor risk tolerance level in the context of developing market economies, the study suggests that stock market related policy and investment management planning process should be formulated by incorporating behavioral aspects of the retail investors.

Originality/value

This study has the potential to contribute to the behavioral finance literature by showing how and at what extent sociodemographic factors may influence the risk tolerance level of stock market investors in developing countries, where sociodemographic factors are considered to be more dominating than the normative portfolio selection procedure because of lacking in investors' financial literacy and due to the presence of a weak regulatory as well as institutional framework. Further, apart from identifying and comprehensively incorporating all possible sociodemographic factors, this study uses portfolio beta as a new objective measure for financial risk tolerance, which overcomes the problem of subjective and other risk tolerance measurement in the existing literature.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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