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Article

Helen Bishop, Michael Bradbury and Tony van Zijl

We assess the impact of NZ IAS 32 on the financial reporting of convertible financial instruments by retrospective application of the standard to a sample of New Zealand…

Abstract

We assess the impact of NZ IAS 32 on the financial reporting of convertible financial instruments by retrospective application of the standard to a sample of New Zealand companies over the period 1988 ‐ 2003. NZ IAS 32 has a broader definition of liabilities than does the corresponding current standard (FRS‐31) and it does not permit convertibles to be reported under headings that are intermediate to debt and equity. The results of the study indicate that in comparison with the reported financial position and performance, the reporting of convertibles in accordance with NZ IAS 32 would result in higher amounts for liabilities and higher interest. Thus, analysts using financial statement information to assess risk of financial distress will need to revise the critical values of commonly used measures of risk and performance when companies report under NZ IAS

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article

Freddie L. Barnard and Dale W. Nordquist

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of preparing a statement of owner equity (SOE) and statement of cash flows (SOCF) for the agricultural sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of preparing a statement of owner equity (SOE) and statement of cash flows (SOCF) for the agricultural sector. Also, the use of the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) to collect data needed to supplement the US farm sector accounts to prepare a sector SOE and SOCF is discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

An SOE and SOCF for an individual producer was used to provide an example format for preparing an SOE and SOCF for the agricultural sector and to identify the data needed from the ARMS survey to supplement farm sector accounts.

Findings

The format and data needed to prepare a sector SOE and SOCF were identified and the feasibility of the collection of that data using current ERS/USDA survey collection methods would provide the data needed to prepare the statements. However, the use of two independent data collection authorities to collect the data would result in an agricultural sector SOE and SOCF that would not reconcile.

Originality/value

The paper initiates a dialog of possible alternatives available to the ERS/USDA and researchers concerning data needed and data sources available to prepare an agricultural sector SOE and SOCF, as well as the shortfalls and inaccuracies that would result.

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Book part

David N. Bibby

This study explores the relationship between brand image and brand equity in the context of sports sponsorship. Keller's (1993, 2003) customer-based brand equity models…

Abstract

This study explores the relationship between brand image and brand equity in the context of sports sponsorship. Keller's (1993, 2003) customer-based brand equity models are the conceptual inspiration for the research, with Faircloth, Capella, and Alford's (2001) conceptual model – adapted from the work of Aaker (1991) and Keller (1993) – the primary conceptual model. The study focuses on the sponsorship relationship between the New Zealand All Blacks and their major sponsor and co-branding partner, adidas. The sporting context for the study was the 2003 Rugby World Cup held in Australia. Data were collected from two independent samples of 200 respondents, utilizing simple random sampling procedures. A bivariate correlation analysis was undertaken to test whether there was any correlation between changes in adidas' brand image and adidas' brand equity as a result of the All Blacks' performance in the 2003 Rugby World Cup. Results support the view that Keller (1993, 2003) proposes that brand image is antecedent to the brand equity construct. Results are also consistent with the findings of Faircloth et al. (2001) that brand image directly impacts brand equity.

Details

Perspectives on Cross-Cultural, Ethnographic, Brand Image, Storytelling, Unconscious Needs, and Hospitality Guest Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-604-5

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Article

Sergey Komissarov

The purpose of this paper is to address two questions: did adoption of Statements of Financial Accounting Standards No. 132(R) and No. 158 affect neutrality of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address two questions: did adoption of Statements of Financial Accounting Standards No. 132(R) and No. 158 affect neutrality of the financial reporting with regard to the disclosed expected rate of return (ERR) on pension assets assumptions, and did pension asset allocations change in response to the new recognition and disclosure requirements?

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses several measures of association between reported expected return and pension assets allocations to assess neutrality of the reported ERR. The series of tests explores changes in correlations between asset allocations and expected rates of return and changes in the implied risk premiums following adoption of Statements No. 132(R) and No. 158. Granger causality analysis is used to explore the second research question: did pension asset allocations change in response to the new recognition and disclosure requirements?

Findings

The empirical results are consistent with improved neutrality of financial reporting following adoption of Standard No. 132(R). There were no detectable changes in neutrality following adoption of Standard No. 158. While the data are consistent with portfolio allocations changing to a greater degree than did expected rates of return following Statement No. 132(R) adoption, the effect appears short-lived.

Originality/value

The overall results are consistent with Standard 132(R) having a positive effect on the neutrality of the reported ERR. Also, there is no evidence of persistent and systematic structuring of transactions around preferred financial reporting outcomes.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article

Kamran Ahmed, A. John Goodwin and Kim R. Sawyer

This study examines the value relevance of recognised and disclosed revaluations of land and buildings for a large sample of Australian firms from 1993 through 1997. In

Abstract

This study examines the value relevance of recognised and disclosed revaluations of land and buildings for a large sample of Australian firms from 1993 through 1997. In contrast to prior research, we control for risk and cyclical effects and find no difference between recognised and disclosed revaluations, using yearly‐cross‐sectional and pooled regressions and using both market and non‐market dependent variables. We also find only weak evidence that revaluations of recognised and disclosed land and buildings are value relevant.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

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Article

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous…

Abstract

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous updating basis rather than as a monthly routine affair.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Richard Dobbins

Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to helpmanagers and potential managers to make sensible investment andfinancing decisions. Acknowledges that…

Abstract

Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to help managers and potential managers to make sensible investment and financing decisions. Acknowledges that financial theory teaches that investment and financing decisions should be based on cash flow and risk. Provides information on payback period; return on capital employed, earnings per share effect, working capital, profit planning, standard costing, financial statement planning and ratio analysis. Seeks to combine the practical rules of thumb of the traditionalists with the ideas of the financial theorists to form a balanced approach to practical financial management for MBA students, financial managers and undergraduates.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Content available
Article

Lindon J. Robison and Peter J. Barry

This paper demonstrates that present value (PV) models can be viewed as multiperiod extensions of accrual income statements (AISs). Failure to include AIS details in PV…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper demonstrates that present value (PV) models can be viewed as multiperiod extensions of accrual income statements (AISs). Failure to include AIS details in PV models may lead to inaccurate estimates of earnings and rates of return on assets and equity and inconsistent rankings of mutually exclusive investments. Finally, this paper points out that rankings based on assets and equity earnings and rates of return need not be consistent, requiring financial managers to consider carefully the questions they expect PV models to answer.

Design/methodology/approach

AISs are used to guide the construction of PV models. Numerical examples illustrate the results. Deductions from AIS definitions demonstrate the potential conflict between asset and equity earnings and rates of return.

Findings

PV models can be viewed as multiperiod extensions of AISs. Mutually exclusive rankings based on assets and equity earnings and rates of return need not be consistent.

Research limitations/implications

PV models are sometimes constructed without the details included in AISs. The result of this simplified approach to PV model construction is that earnings and rates of return may be miscalculated and rankings based as asset and equity earnings and rates of return are inconsistent. Tax adjustments for asset and equity earnings may be miscalculated in applied models.

Practical implications

This paper provides guidelines for properly constructing PV models consistent with AISs.

Social implications

PV models are especially important for small to medium size firms that characterize much of agricultural. Providing a model consistent with AIS construction principles should help financial managers view the linkage between building financial statements and investment analysis.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to develop the idea that the PV model can be viewed as a multiperiod extension of an AIS.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Saerona Kim and Haeyoung Ryu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of adoption of the mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the cost of equity capital in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of adoption of the mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the cost of equity capital in a unique Korean setting. In Korea, individual financial statements were taken as primary financial statements. Before the adoption of IFRS, consolidated financial statements were taken as supplementary financial statements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors measure the cost of equity using the average estimates from the implied cost of capital models proposed by Claus and Thomas (2001), Gebhardt et al. (2001), Easton (2004) and Ohlson and Juettner-Nauroth (2005), using it as the primary dependent variable. Mandatory IFRS adoption, the independent variable in this study, is assigned a value of 1 for the post-adoption period and 0 otherwise.

Findings

Using a sample of listed Korean companies during the period from 2000 to 2013, the authors find evidence of a significant reduction in the cost of equity capital in Korean listed companies after mandatory adoption of the IFRS in 2011, after controlling for a set of market variables.

Originality/value

This study is one of a growing body of literature on the relations between mandatory IFRS adoption and the cost of equity capital (Easley and O’Hara 2004; Covrig et al. 2007; Lambert et al. 2007; Daske et al. 2008). According to the results of this study, increased financial disclosure and enhanced information comparability, along with changes in legal and institutional enforcement, seem to have had a joint effect on the cost of equity capital, leading to a large decrease in expected equity returns.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Book part

Zhan Furner, Keith Walker and Jon Durrant

Krull (2004) finds that US multinational corporations (MNCs) increase amounts designated as permanently reinvested earnings (PRE) to maximize reported after-tax earnings…

Abstract

Krull (2004) finds that US multinational corporations (MNCs) increase amounts designated as permanently reinvested earnings (PRE) to maximize reported after-tax earnings and meet earnings targets. We extend this research by examining the relationship between executive equity compensation and the opportunistic use of PRE by US MNCs, and the market reaction to earnings management using PRE designations. Firms use equity compensation to incentivize executives to strive for maximum shareholder wealth. One unintended consequence is that executives may engage in earnings management activities to increase their equity compensation. In this study, we examine whether the equity incentives of management are associated with an increased use of PRE. We predict and find strong evidence that the changes in PRE are positively associated with the portion of top managers' compensation that is tied to stock performance. In addition, we find this relationship to be strongest for firms that meet or beat forecasts, but only with the use of PRE to inflate income, suggesting that equity compensation incentivizes managers to opportunistically use PRE, especially to meet analyst forecasts.

Further, we provide evidence that investors react negatively to beating analysts' forecasts with the use of PRE, suggesting that investors find this behavior opportunistic and not fully convincing. This chapter makes an important contribution to what we know about the joint effects of tax policy, generally accepted accounting principles, and incentive compensation on the earnings reporting process.

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