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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Xuan Wu and Wing Kit Chan

Before the turn of the century, taking overseas students was more about a diplomatic issue dominated by the state in China, for which reason this section is relatively…

Abstract

Purpose

Before the turn of the century, taking overseas students was more about a diplomatic issue dominated by the state in China, for which reason this section is relatively independent within the higher education system. However, evidence from a series of new policy documents and their impacts suggests that international student mobility (ISM) has been intensively shaped by the central government in the desire to promote its national strategy, namely the belt and road initiative. ISM policy, although with a significant proportion marketized, was introduced for a clear purpose of cultural diplomacy. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Looking beyond the debate of market-driven vs state-dominated, this paper attempts to provide a thorough understanding of this changing pattern based on examination of key changes of policy statements along with official data analysis.

Findings

This paper argues that the new pattern must be understood against a context of a hierarchy of higher education institutes in contemporary China: a sector led by a small number of prestigious universities generously funded by the central government with a large number of ordinary universities underfunded and eager to generate income. Prestigious institutes enroll international students to satisfy performance indicators listed by policies like “Double First-rate”; other universities, benefiting from the reputation and momentum generated by the top ones, take self-funded students for profit.

Originality/value

By making good use of both performance indicators and market motives, the country managed to move a state-dominated ISM policy in the twentieth century into the existing state-steering marketization model and made China a major destination for overseas study.

Details

Higher Education Evaluation and Development, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-5789

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Bhimaraya A. Metri

Given the widespread lack of proper mechanism for disaster management, this paper aims to develop a disaster mitigation framework using quality circle (QC) – a bottom‐up approach.

Abstract

Purpose

Given the widespread lack of proper mechanism for disaster management, this paper aims to develop a disaster mitigation framework using quality circle (QC) – a bottom‐up approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers QC and discussing the utility of the concept with respect to disaster management. Discusses the process of systematically building a disaster mitigation framework.

Findings

By having the proposed framework, the disasters that occur can be tackled speedily. Owing to the direct involvement of public (key stakeholders), the proposed framework strengthens the knowledge and awareness on disaster management, which in turn helps towards disaster preparedness and disaster mitigation effectively.

Practical implications

The current efforts at disaster mitigation are not successful. The proposed framework provides proactive collaboration among all players including central, state governments and local people to examine risks and vulnerability to all hazards and to implement measures to reduce the damage to a minimum. The application of a framework will help to make plans more functional and relevant and will ensure successful disaster mitigation.

Originality/value

As no systematic frameworks exist in disaster management and planning, this paper offers to provide a comprehensive framework, which involves all the stakeholders. The value of the paper is largely in the area of bringing new possibilities to the attention of the government, public and research and practitioner communities dealing with disaster management.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Frans A. van Vught, Marijk C. van der Wende and Don F. Westerheijden

In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about…

Abstract

In this chapter, we argue from a theoretical perspective that globalisation has impacted differentiation within higher education systems. The three propositions about mechanisms affecting diversity distinguished by van Vught (environmental conditions, competition for resources and academic norms) remain the same, but the initial conditions have changed. Governmental policy, in particular, affects the degree of openness of higher education systems (positively or negatively), either through (de-)regulation or by affecting higher education institutions’ strategies for internationalisation. Thus, we add as a fourth proposition that increasing institutional autonomy increases system diversity in the context of globalisation.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-277-0

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Leigh Lawrence and Jian Wu

This study analyzed Chinese higher education (HE) governance policies during the first four months of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, providing insight into HE management…

Abstract

Purpose

This study analyzed Chinese higher education (HE) governance policies during the first four months of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, providing insight into HE management, policymaking and governance. This study also illuminates Chinese student experiences and real-time policy impact, providing insight into the effectiveness of HE crisis management.

Design/methodology/approach

Using frameworks of real-time policy evaluation, this paper analyzed theoretical and realized policy impacts through the theoretical framing of temporality. Using real-time evaluation methods, this paper first identified HE policy priorities and then used a mixed-methods approach of “policy as discourse” analysis and a quantitative survey from Chinese HE students to assess the theoretical and realized impact of policies.

Findings

An analysis of HE policies identified three priorities: pastoral care, graduate employment and ideological education. Discourse analysis revealed each priority of HE policies was intrinsically linked to mitigating societal, economic and political consequences of the epidemic. Survey data revealed the perceived effectiveness of policies mirrored China's top-down government structure. Additionally, students expressed strong support in the central government's crisis management, despite relatively little realized policy impact.

Originality/value

This paper presents a timely review of HE governance during a global pandemic by offering a snapshot of HE crisis management and contributing to the literature surrounding China's ongoing HE centralization. This paper also provides unique insight into HE's role in state development, variations between prescriptive and realized policy impact and the “crisis as opportunity” paradox in a contemporary setting.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2013

Ross J. Benbow

This chapter explores how neoliberal higher education reforms in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT) during the 1990s and 2000s were shaped by the history of governance…

Abstract

This chapter explores how neoliberal higher education reforms in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT) during the 1990s and 2000s were shaped by the history of governance, schooling, and foreign donor involvement in the country following its independence in 1961. Against this backdrop, I examine how concepts of private versus public leadership, individualism, competition, and education’s place in the overall development scheme shifted over time, and the influence these changing conceptualizations had on the role of universities in Tanzania by the end of the first decade of the 21st century. In an international environment in which powerful funding agencies see neoliberal higher education policies and “knowledge societies” as the key to increased national competitiveness and poverty eradication in sub-Saharan Africa, this chapter shows how changes embedded in recent market-centered university reforms – in which the state is said to “steer” rather than “row” – have influenced the quest for equitable development.

Details

The Development of Higher Education in Africa: Prospects and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-699-6

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Brent Burmester, Snejina Michailova and Christina Stringer

Modern slavery is a problem that international business (IB) research can no longer ignore. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are often contributors to the persistence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern slavery is a problem that international business (IB) research can no longer ignore. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are often contributors to the persistence of modern slavery, by virtue of the regulatory challenge they pose to states and their insufficient oversight of supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to show that governance inadequacies with respect to modern slavery will be lessened if IB scholars give more attention to MNEs’ governing role within and beyond global value chains.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of arguments is presented in support of intensified effort in IB research with respect to studying the role of MNEs in transnational labour governance. The paper draws inspiration from IB theory and the conceptualisation of the MNE in neighbouring disciplines that regard it as a bearer of duties toward labour, consistent with its role in multilevel governance. Insights from the literature on global and multi-level governance are utilised.

Findings

The paper construes modern slavery as a multi-level governance challenge and argues that MNE capabilities and responsibilities with respect to labour governance and the deterrence of slavery exceed those identified on the margins of IB literature. MNEs are underappreciated as governors within the multilevel transnational labour governance system. The IB discipline is in a strong position to develop our understanding of the MNE’s different roles in governance and thereby contribute to the reduced incidence of modern slavery.

Originality/value

This paper represents an attempt to mobilise the IB academy to help eliminate slavery from workplaces that rely on MNE patronage or where labour rights abuses are made possible by MNE diversion of governance resources. It places particular emphasis on the use and abuse of MNEs’ governance capabilities in the sphere of international relations and calls attention to over-simplification of the MNE, IB’s primary unit of analysis.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Wenhao Wang, Rujing Shi, Wei Zhang, Haibin Sun, Xiaolu Ge and Chengfeng Li

The purpose of this paper is to improve the generation efficiency of singlet oxygen of methylene blue molecules through finely controlling their aggregation states in drug…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the generation efficiency of singlet oxygen of methylene blue molecules through finely controlling their aggregation states in drug carriers.

Design/methodology/approach

As a photosensitiser in photodynamic therapy, methylene blue (MB) was loaded on citrate-modified hydroxyapatite (HAp) through an electrostatic interaction and followed by encapsulation of coordination complexes of tannic acid (TA) and Fe(III) ions. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum of the supernatant after incubation of samples was recorded at certain time interval to investigate the release behaviour of MB. Photodynamic activity of MB was determined by the oxidation reaction of uric acid by singlet oxygen generated by MB under illumination.

Findings

Almost all MB molecules were immediately released from HAp-MB, whilst an initial burst release of MB from HAp-MB@TA was followed by a sustainable and pH-sensitised release. In comparison with HAp-MB, photocatalystic reduction of HAp-MB@TA by titanium dioxide hardly occurred under illumination, indicating the stability against reduction to leukomethylene blue in vitro. Generation efficiency of singlet oxygen by MB released from HAp-MB@TA was significantly higher than that from HAp-MB because of the control of TA and Fe(III) ions complexes on molecular structures of released MB.

Originality/value

A facile method was herein demonstrated to optimise the generation efficiency of singlet oxygen by controlling aggregation states of PS molecules and improve PDT efficiency to damage tumour tissues.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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