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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2016

Julie A. Kmec, C. Elizabeth Hirsh and Sheryl Skaggs

This study investigates how federal and state-level laws designed to reduce workplace sexual harassment relate to the content of sexual harassment training programs in a…

Abstract

This study investigates how federal and state-level laws designed to reduce workplace sexual harassment relate to the content of sexual harassment training programs in a sample of private U.S. companies. To gauge the effect of the law on the regulation of sexual harassment, we draw on unique data containing information on federal and state-level legal environments, formal discrimination charges filed with the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and establishment-level sexual harassment training initiatives. State-level legal regulation of sexual harassment at work is linked to more elaborate sexual harassment training programs, even when federal legal regulations are not. Our findings underscore the importance of state-level legal regimes in the workplace regulation of gender-based rights and provide an example for future studies of work inequality and the law.

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Research in the Sociology of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-405-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2011

Christopher Marquis, Zhi Huang and Juan Almandoz

This chapter examines the transition in the US banking industry from a community to a national logic, developing a general model to explain how and when shifts in…

Abstract

This chapter examines the transition in the US banking industry from a community to a national logic, developing a general model to explain how and when shifts in institutional logics occur. Based on qualitative historical evidence and discrete-time event history analysis predicting the introduction of legislation favoring the national logic, this chapter proposes that dramatic exogenous events such as the Great Depression or more gradual processes such as modernization favored the industry's transition to the national logic, but that such exogenous events had a greater influence in areas where strategic actors could capitalize on them. The qualitative evidence presented here suggests that struggles involving organizational identity and “legitimacy politics” played an important role in the shift in logics. Our theorizing focuses on how, when the environment changes in an incremental fashion, actors are primed with new possibilities, which may shift their collective identities, but when environmental changes are discontinuous, they provide actors strategic opportunities to alter the balance of logics in the environment.

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Communities and Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-284-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Abstract

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Indu Khurana, Dmitriy Krichevskiy, Gregory Dempster and Sean Stimpson

This paper aims to examine how economic freedom impacts the initial choice of legal structure for startup firms. The authors do this by first exploring whether economic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how economic freedom impacts the initial choice of legal structure for startup firms. The authors do this by first exploring whether economic freedom is an essential determinant of the initial legal form of organization (LFO). The authors then explore the impact of economic freedom on firms' choice of changing their initial legal structure over time and how this change impacts their survival rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ a multinomial logistic regression model to measure the initial determinants of LFO by utilizing an eight-year panel data set of 4,928 startups in the USA through the Kauffman firm survey and merge it with the Economic Freedom in North American index from the Fraser Institute. The authors then employ a logistic regression model to examine the determinants facilitating a change in legal structure over time.

Findings

The results show that economic freedom is a significant determinant in the choice of legal structure. The findings also report that the majority of startups do not change their legal form, but of those that do change the legal structure show a higher survival rate.

Research limitations/implications

Major limitations are the size of the data and the nature of somewhat limited economic freedom differences with the USA. More nuanced measures of economic freedom would be highly desirable.

Practical implications

Policymakers should take note that limited red tape, smoothly working labor markets and straightforward processes for changes of legal structures of organizations would improve survival and growth odds for entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

Drawing on the theory of institutions, the authors attempt to bridge a gap in the literature by explicitly analyzing the determinants of the legal structure in startups in light of economic freedom. Institutional factors do not work in isolation; therefore, the authors also employ traditional entrepreneur-specific variables that affect the choice of legal structure in addition to the institutional framework.

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Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Minyoung Noh

This study aims to examine the effect of state culture on the readability of narrative disclosures in annual reports based on firms located in all 50 states of the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of state culture on the readability of narrative disclosures in annual reports based on firms located in all 50 states of the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses the cultural tightness and looseness (Harrington and Gelfand 2014) index at the state level and the BOG index (Bonsall and Miller, 2017) as the primary measures of annual report readability.

Findings

Using US data from 1994 to 2019, this study finds that the state level of cultural tightness in which firms are located positively affects firms’ annual report readability. In addition, the study finds that the positive effect of cultural tightness on annual report readability is pronounced in subgroups with high litigation risk while the result does not hold with subgroups that have low litigation risk. The results are robust when alternative proxies for annual report readability are used and historical location and the states in which firms are incorporated are considered.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing literature on the determinants of readability in annual report because firms’ narrative disclosure in annual report varies depending on the information environment, litigation risk, embedded in each state culture where firms are located.

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International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2009

Alissa Pollitz Worden and Andrew Lucas Blaize Davies

Most criminal justice scholars agree that the past three decades have witnessed a punitive shift in criminal justice policy, public opinion, and political rhetoric. Have…

Abstract

Most criminal justice scholars agree that the past three decades have witnessed a punitive shift in criminal justice policy, public opinion, and political rhetoric. Have these political trends also left their mark on policy approaches to due process rights? The provision of counsel to indigent defendants is a signature issue in debates over due process rights. The Supreme Court expanded dramatically the circumstances under which states were required to provide counsel in the 1960s and 1970s, though decisions about the implementation of this mandate were left to individual states. We examine the evolution of indigent defense policy, at the state and local level, over the past three decades, and ask two questions: First, did policies evolve in the directions expected by reform advocates? Second, to the extent that policies developed differently across states, how can we account for those differences? We find that refomers' optimistic projections about structure and funding have not been realized, and that adoption of progressive policies has been uneven across states. Most importantly, we find evidence that the politics of ideology and racial conflict have played a significant role in states' indigent defense policy over the past three decades.

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Special Issue New Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-653-9

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Rachel Kappler and Arduizur Carli Richie-Zavaleta

Human trafficking (HT) is a local, national and international problem with a range of human rights, public health and policy implications. Victims of HT face atrocious…

Abstract

Purpose

Human trafficking (HT) is a local, national and international problem with a range of human rights, public health and policy implications. Victims of HT face atrocious abuses that negatively impact their health outcomes. When a state lacks protective laws, such as Safe Harbor laws, victims of HT tend to be seen as criminals. This paper aims to highlight the legal present gaps within Missouri’s anti-trafficking legislation and delineates recommendations for the legal protection of victims of HT and betterment of services needed for their reintegration and healing.

Design/methodology/approach

This case-study is based on a policy analysis of current Missouri’s HT laws. This analysis was conducted through examining current rankings systems created by nationally and internationally recognized non-governmental organizations as well as governmental reports. Additionally, other state’s best practice and law passage of Safe Harbor legislations were examined. The recommendations were based on human rights and public health frameworks.

Findings

Missouri is a state that has yet to upgrade its laws lately to reflect Safe Harbor laws. Constant upgrades and evaluations of current efforts are necessary to protect and address HT at the state and local levels. Public health and human rights principles can assist in the upgrading of current laws as well as other states’ best-practice and integration of protective legislation and diversion programs to both youth and adult victims of HT.

Research limitations/implications

Laws are continually being updated at the state level; therefore, there might be some upgrades that have taken place after the analysis of this case study was conducted. Also, the findings and recommendations of this case study are limited to countries that are similar to the USA in terms of the state-level autonomy to pass laws independently from federal law.

Practical implications

If Safe Harbor laws are well designed, they have greater potential to protect, support and assist victims of HT in their process from victimization into survivorship as well as to paving the way for societal reintegration. The creation and enforcement of Safe Harbor laws is a way to ensure the decriminalization process. Additionally, this legal protection also ensures that the universal human rights of victims are protected. Consequently, these legal processes and updates could assist in creating healthier communities in the long run in the USA and around the world.

Social implications

From a public health and human rights perspectives, communities in the USA and around the world cannot provide complete protection to victims of HT until their anti-trafficking laws reflect Safe Harbor laws.

Originality/value

This case study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is a unique analysis that dismantles the discrepancies of Missouri’s current HT laws. This work is valuable to those who create policies at the state level and advocate for the protection of victims and anti-trafficking efforts.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Zoë Plakias, Margaret Jodlowski, Taylor Giamo, Parisa Kavousi and Keith Taylor

Despite 2016 legalization of recreational cannabis cultivation and sale in California with the passage of Proposition 64, many cannabis businesses operate without…

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Abstract

Purpose

Despite 2016 legalization of recreational cannabis cultivation and sale in California with the passage of Proposition 64, many cannabis businesses operate without licenses. Furthermore, federal regulations disincentivize financial institutions from banking and lending to licensed cannabis businesses. The authors explore the impact of legal cannabis business activity on California financial institutions, the barriers to banking faced by cannabis businesses, and the nontraditional sources of financing used by the industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a mixed methods approach. The authors utilize call data for banks and credit unions headquartered in California and state cannabis licensing data to estimate the impact of the extensive and intensive margins of licensed cannabis activity on key banking indicators using difference-and-difference and fixed effects regressions. The qualitative data come from interviews with industry stakeholders in northern California's “Emerald Triangle” and add important context.

Findings

The quantitative results show economically and statistically significant impacts of licensed cannabis activity on banking indicators, suggesting both direct and spillover effects from cannabis activity to the financial sector. However, cannabis businesses report substantial barriers to accessing basic financial services and credit, leading to nontraditional financing arrangements.

Practical implications

The results suggest opportunities for cannabis businesses and financial institutions if regulations are eased and important avenues for further study.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the nascent literature on cannabis economics and the literature on banking regulation and nontraditional finance.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Omer Unsal

In this paper, the author utilizes a unique hand-collected dataset of workplace lawsuits, violations and allegations to test the relation between employee mistreatment and…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the author utilizes a unique hand-collected dataset of workplace lawsuits, violations and allegations to test the relation between employee mistreatment and information asymmetry.

Design/methodology/approach

The author tests the impact of employee treatment on firms' information environment by utilizing the S&P 1500 firms of 17,663 firm-year observations, which include 2,992 unique firms and 5,987 unique CEOs between 2000 and 2016. These methods include panel fixed effects, as well as alternative measures of information asymmetry, event study and matched samples for further robustness tests.

Findings

The author finds that employee disputes exacerbate the information flow between insiders and outsiders. Further, the author reports that case characteristics, such as case outcome and case duration, aggravate that problem. The author documents that the positive relationship between employee mistreatment and information asymmetry is stronger for small firms and firms with smaller market power, as well as firms with a high level of equity risk.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate how employee relations influence a firm's information asymmetry. The author aims to contribute to the literature by studying (1) the relation between information asymmetry and employee mistreatment, (2) how firm characteristics affect the path from employee disputes to information asymmetry and (3) the influence of various other types of evidence of employee mistreatment beyond litigation on the information environment.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Candace A. Martinez and Christopher Williams

In this chapter, we examine and expand institutional theory. While acknowledging that actors and organizations interrelate in an institutional (legal, political and…

Abstract

In this chapter, we examine and expand institutional theory. While acknowledging that actors and organizations interrelate in an institutional (legal, political and socio-economic) framework and that this interaction between them shapes economic activities (North, 1990; Scott, 1995), we argue that the boundaries of today's institutional environments have significantly evolved. They encompass not only the traditional domains of micro (individual/organization) and macro (nation-state) levels as well as of a co-located physical environment captured by received institutional theory but also an added dimension that transcends physical space. This new dimension includes a dispersed, borderless environment that invisibly cuts across nation-states. We discuss the implications of this extended view of institutional domains for theory and practice.

Details

Institutional Theory in International Business and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-909-7

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