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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

Marc Michaud, Eduardo Segarra and Tim Dodd

This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry on the Texas economy by marketing channel. Survey data from the state's vineyards and…

Abstract

This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry on the Texas economy by marketing channel. Survey data from the state's vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input‐output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN. Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. Much of these core economic impacts were attributable to the retail and restaurant marketing channels.

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International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2016

Eduardo Sartelli and Marina Kabat

We aim to analyze the early trajectory of Argentine industry from the perspective of uneven and combined development. Argentine integration into the world market based on…

Abstract

We aim to analyze the early trajectory of Argentine industry from the perspective of uneven and combined development. Argentine integration into the world market based on the export of agricultural goods had not neglected industrial development. At first, Argentine industry benefited from its late emergence and rapidly followed the path of leading countries’ manufactures. But initial advantage soon turned into a liability. The emergence of large-scale industry required expanded markets that were already occupied by older and stronger competitors. The 1930 crisis and the impact of the Second World War aggravated this problem. Attempts to remedy the situation – an export-led industrialization scheme and an internal-market-oriented economy – failed successively. We study this process through the analysis of Argentine industrial chambers’ journals, reports from the United States Department of Foreign Trade and Argentine official government documents. We find that the export-led industrialization project failed because of the weakness of Argentine industries and not because of economic nationalism. That was the outcome of the previous failure of liberal projects and of the international constraints imposed by the Second World War and its aftermath. During this later period of internal-market-oriented economy, the gap between Argentine and international productivity widened. This paper presents an innovative interpretation that transcends liberal and nationalistic explanations and serves as a case study of the implications of uneven and combined development.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

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Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Roger J. Sandilands

Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor,survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to themodern neo‐classical writers. The

Abstract

Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor, survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to the modern neo‐classical writers. The focus throughout is on the conditions making for economic progress, with stress on the institutional developments that extend and are extended by the size of the market. Organisational changes that promote the division of labour and specialisation within and between firms and industries, and which promote competition and mobility, are seen as the vital factors in growth. In the absence of new markets, inventions as such play only a minor role. The economic system is an inter‐related whole, or a living “organon”. It is from this perspective that micro‐economic relations are analysed, and this helps expose certain fallacies of composition associated with the marginal productivity theory of production and distribution. Factors are paid not because they are productive but because they are scarce. Likewise he shows why Marshallian supply and demand schedules, based on the “one thing at a time” approach, cannot adequately describe the dynamic growth properties of the system. Supply and demand cannot be simply integrated to arrive at a picture of the whole economy. These notes are complemented by eleven articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica which were published shortly after Young′s sudden death in 1929.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Prasanta Kumar Roy, Mihir Kumar Pal and Purnendu Sekhar Das

The chapter examines the sources of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) of the 2-digit manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of Gujarat…

Abstract

The chapter examines the sources of total factor productivity growth (TFPG) of the 2-digit manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of Gujarat during the period from 1981–82 to 2010–11, using a stochastic frontier approach. The empirical finding clearly states that although factor accumulations as well as resource allocations in most of the 2-digit manufacturing industries of the state have been improved during the postreform period, technological progress (TP) and technical efficiency change (TEC) of the same have deteriorated in most industries of the state during that period. As a result TFPG in the major manufacturing industries as well as total manufacturing industry of the state have declined because the combined effect of their improvement in scale effect (SC) and allocation efficiency effect (AEC) could not offset the declining effect of both the TP and TEC of the same during that period. In this context, the government should take some policy initiatives to improve productive efficiency of the organized manufacturing industries in Gujarat. Once efficiency increases, it enhances competitiveness, thereby increasing productivity growth and its different sources of organized manufacturing industries of the state.

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Justice Williams, Frank Fugar and Emmanuel Adinyira

The degree to which accidents happen or are prevented in any organisation is the function of both the health and safety culture and the safety culture maturity level of the

Abstract

Purpose

The degree to which accidents happen or are prevented in any organisation is the function of both the health and safety culture and the safety culture maturity level of the organisation. Therefore, this paper aims to determine the state of health and safety culture in the construction industry in developing economies and to assess their category on the safety maturity ladder using the Ghanaian construction industry as an example. This is to help construction companies in developing countries become conscious of the state of health and safety in the industry so they can be motivated to improve along the ladder.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 250 contractors made up of 155 building contractor,s and 95 road contractors took part in the survey. The sample size was determined by Yamane’s (1967) formula with stratified simple random sampling technique adopted in selecting the companies in the survey. This paper also uses (Guttman Scale) Scalogram analysis to measure the state of health and safety culture in the Ghanaian construction industry.

Findings

The results show that health and safety culture of the Ghanaian construction industry is at the first level, the pathological stage. Even though Ghanaian contractors have health and safety policies and codes of conduct in place, safety is not seen as a key business risk. Consequently, management and most frontline staff do not emphasise the importance of integration of safety measures in the various activities on the site. Thus, safety is not seen as unavoidable and a part of the construction activity.

Practical implications

The findings of this study inform state authorities, consultants and contractors of areas that they need to focus more on improving health and safety culture in developing countries. This would go a long way in protecting construction workers in the industry.

Originality/value

This study, to the best of the authors’ current knowledge, is the first of its kind in the Ghanaian construction industry. The study brings to the fore the actual state of health and safety in the construction industry in developing countries such as Ghana. The value of the findings lies in the fact that it will provide the motivation for construction companies in developing countries to develop a commitment to safety, and to provide appropriate and effective safety improvement techniques to progress to the subsequent stages of the safety culture maturity ladder.

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Mika Toyota and Biao Xiang

This article aims to explain how a transnational “retirement industry” in Southeast Asia has emerged recently as a result of interplays between various national and…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explain how a transnational “retirement industry” in Southeast Asia has emerged recently as a result of interplays between various national and transnational forces, particularly in the domain of elderly care. “Retirement industry” refers to business operations related to the relocation of foreign retirees, primarily Japanese pensioners, who seek affordable social care and alternative retirement life.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on extensive documentary studies and multi‐sited ethnographic research from 2004 to date. In‐depth interviews with retirees and relevant agencies were carried out in Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia.

Findings

This article delineates how demographic and economic changes in Japan create demand for the transnational retirement industry, and how Southeast Asian countries actively promote the industry as a national development strategy. As such the boundaries between nation‐state and between the market and the state are simultaneously crossed. The industry opens new transnational routes and spaces and thus further complicates the transnationalization of elderly care in Asia.

Originality/value

Current research on social welfare remains dominated by methodological nationalism, and this article calls attention to the transnational dimension in understanding recent changes in social care. By engaging the predominant paradigm of “care diamond”, the article shows that how boundaries shift between various care providers within nation states is inextricably related to how borders are crossed between nation states.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 32 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Antti Salonen and Maheshwaran Gopalakrishnan

The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of the Swedish manufacturing industry to implement dynamic, data-driven preventive maintenance (PM) by identifying the

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of the Swedish manufacturing industry to implement dynamic, data-driven preventive maintenance (PM) by identifying the gap between the state of the art and the state of practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An embedded multiple case study was performed in which some of the largest companies in the discrete manufacturing industry, that is, mechanical engineering, were surveyed regarding the design of their PM programmes.

Findings

The studied manufacturing companies make limited use of the existing scientific state of the art when designing their PM programmes. They seem to be aware of the possibilities for improvement, but they also see obstacles to changing their practices according to future requirements.

Practical implications

The results of this study will benefit both industry professionals and academicians, setting the initial stage for the development of data-driven, diversified and dynamic PM programmes.

Originality/Value

First and foremost, this study maps the current state and practice in PM planning among some of the larger automotive manufacturing industries in Sweden. This work reveals a gap between the state of the art and the state of practice in the design of PM programmes. Insights regarding this gap show large improvement potentials which may prove important for academics as well as practitioners.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Andika Rachman and R.M. Chandima Ratnayake

A systematic literature review is performed to reveal the state-of-the-art in the implementation of lean principles in the petroleum industry. This paper aims to generate…

Abstract

Purpose

A systematic literature review is performed to reveal the state-of-the-art in the implementation of lean principles in the petroleum industry. This paper aims to generate a conceptual framework and reveal research gaps with respect to lean concept application in the petroleum industry.

Design/methodology/approach

After formulating research questions, the search strategy is generated, followed by data extraction, literature review and synthesis of the results. The search covers any studies in peer-reviewed scientific journals and conference proceedings in the period 1990-2017 that discuss the implementation of the lean concept in the petroleum industry.

Findings

The lean concept has been used to improve operational and technical aspects, contractor/supplier relationships, team organization and project management practice in the petroleum industry. Based on the literature review, a conceptual framework is generated comprising four main elements: leadership and commitment from management, employee involvement, cooperation and trust with contractors/suppliers and lean project management. These elements are the pillars that are founded on lean philosophy and principles to support technical/operational improvement in the organization. The types of literature identified indicate that the subject of the study is still immature.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses only on the upstream sector of the petroleum industry, which restricts the generalizability of the results to midstream and downstream businesses.

Practical implications

This paper provides knowledge and information regarding the current state of lean implementation in the petroleum industry. The developed conceptual framework provides general guidance for practitioners regarding lean implementation in the petroleum industry, and is also expected to support research on theory building.

Originality/value

Few studies have discussed the application of the lean concept in the petroleum industry. This paper contributes a platform for researchers and practitioners to comprehend how the lean concept has been applied in the petroleum industry, and provides a foundation for further studies on lean implementation in the petroleum industry.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1933

The recent history and present state of the canning industry in the United States make anything but cheerful reading. If growers and producers can derive any satisfaction…

Abstract

The recent history and present state of the canning industry in the United States make anything but cheerful reading. If growers and producers can derive any satisfaction by reflecting that all the other great industries are in much the same state of suspended animation, with no immediate prospect of “coming to,” they are certainly welcome to it, as under present conditions it is about the only satisfaction they will get, for the problems facing the trade and associated industries are as urgent as they seem insoluble. Prices of agricultural products have suffered an all‐round and very serious decline, and all exports are down. Packing‐house products have lessened by about one‐third in value and about one‐half in quantity when compared with those of 1930. The 1932 Year Book of Agriculture states that the exports of canned vegetables have declined by 33 per cent. in quantity and in value. The causes hardly need restating. Expansion as a result of war conditions and those immediately succeeding the war, and then restricted buying power in the home and foreign markets, has resulted in a futile attempt to market about twice as much as people were able to buy. A cursory inspection of the official figures relating to production in field and orchard, output in the factory, and export oversea, tell the tale with the dreadful eloquence of figures. The industry is fiscally well protected. The Tariff Act of 1930 shows that there is a duty on “ meat—prepared or preserved ” of six cents per lb., but not less than 20 per cent. ad valorem, unless it is otherwise specially provided for (paragraph 706). Fish prepared or preserved in any manner in oil or in oil and other substances 30 per cent. ad valorem (paragraph 718a), or prepared or preserved in any manner (except as in para. 718a) when packed in airtight containers weighing with their contents not more than 15 lbs. each, 25 per cent. ad valorem, and (paragraph 721c) fish sauce and fish paste 30 per cent. ad valorem. Apricots, berries, plums, peaches, pears, other fruits and all jellies, jams, marmalades and fruit butters, fruit pastes and fruit pulps have (paragraphs 735, 736, 745, 748, 749, 751, 752 and 775) a duty levied on them of 35 per cent. ad valorem. Apples—and the United States is by far the largest exporter of apples in the world—when dried, desiccated, or evaporated are subject to a duty of two cents per lb., and if otherwise prepared or preserved, and not specially provided for, 2½ cents per lb. Most assuredly all would be well with the industry if a tariff wall could do it. The home market is immense, and all fruits, temperate, tropical or semi‐tropical varieties, can be grown in the United States or its dependencies, and many of the fruits cannot be grown at all in countries that otherwise might be their competitors, or if grown are grown at disadvantages arising from either climate or limitation of area, late development of the industry, distance from the chief markets, insufficient means of transport, or want of development in technique, skill or knowledge. It has been said that the United States' packers spend twenty millions of money a year in advertising, and they make use, as is well known, of every device that modern science combined with the skill of specialists in this respect places at their disposal. It seems that for the past ten or fifteen years a growing competition has existed between canned and fresh fruits, or, to put it a little more accurately, between canners of fruit and growers of fruit. This would to some extent explain how it has come about that the powers of advertisement have been so strongly appealed to, as the figures just quoted show. The “ prejudice,” to use the official word, in favour of raw as opposed to canned fruit has by this means been partly overcome. We may remark in passing that the word “ prejudice ” is here not very happily chosen, as it seems to imply an unreasonable dislike on the part of the consumer. The preference, however, for the raw fruits of the earth is as old as the human race itself. No matter how skilfully canning may be carried out—and it is stated that no case of botulism due to commercially‐packed fruit has been encountered by the health authorities for the past two years—man, woman and especially the child will always in the future as in the past prefer freshly‐picked fruit to canned fruit, other things being equal. Good though it may be, canned fruit suffers from a deficiency of Vitamin C, and for that reason it can only be regarded as a substitute for the fresh stuff when this is not obtainable. No amount of propaganda will alter this. Not only, however, is there competition between the sellers of raw and the sellers of canned fruit, but there is competition between the canners themselves, and sharp competition may very easily in the long run lead to inferiority of product. Thus in an effort to stop “ some of the trade abuses which have grown up,” we are told that several trade organisations have been established, each one handling one particular product and to thereby control the orderly marketing of some lines of canned food. What exact form the implied disorderly marketing took we are not told, but we do know that some packers were marketing stuff which though not in conflict with the terms of the Food and Drugs Act was still of a quality distinctly inferior to the products which were being marketed by their competitors who paid more regard to the spirit of the law. A decided tendency was thereby created to lower the general standard of excellence of canned food products and thus injuriously to affect, if not to nullify, the good name of American canned foods. It is of little use to stand, so to speak, in the markets of the world and shout to gods and men to acknowledge the superior quality of your goods when it is only a question of time for the consumers to find out that they are not that which they are said to be. The man at home or abroad very naturally will not pay top prices for a tin of scraps or second‐rate stuff if he can help it. A compromise was then brought about to which exception might conceivably be taken on theoretical as well as on practical grounds by those whom we may call food purists, but the spirit of compromise has often been the saviour of Anglo‐Saxon civilisation and vested interests. It was so in this case. The Mc‐Nary Mapes Amendment to the Food and Drugs Act was at the instance of the more reputable packing houses applied to the trade of canned fruits and vege tables. By the terms of this amendment sub‐standard material may be marketed, but it must be clearly labelled as such in order that the consumer may at least receive a warning as to the real nature of the stuff he is buying. “ Below United Stales standard. Low quality, but not illegal.” Caveat emptor ! At first the canned fruit trade had not been affected by this amendment, which applied to other kinds of canned foods, but in July of 1931 the canning industry was given an official grading service under the Federal Government, the Department of Agriculture being made responsible for its administration. Grading offices are now being established in various parts of the States. A canner may on application to the Secretary of Agriculture submit samples either drawn by himself, or by an officer of the Department, or by an official sampler. The Department will then, after examination, issue a certificate of grade. This certificate has the important property of “ being admissible in all Courts of the United States as primâ facie evidence of the truth of the statements contained therein.” It is hardly necessary to point out how useful such a document proves in the case of legal actions, or to the wholesale buyer or agent. The canners, buyers and warehousemen, we are told, support the idea enthusiastically, and it seems that it is only a question of time before all canned fruits and vegetables will be officially standarised and graded. One result of the amendment is that before a grade certificate is issued the contents of the tin must be proved to be tender and well cooked. This in addition to quality in other respects and to fill of can. The apparatus used to determine this is essentially a mercury‐loaded steal plunger of given diameter working in a vertical collar. The point of the plunger is brought into contact with a specimen of the fruit to be tested. The plunger is loaded. The fruit being at length penetrated by the plunger. The combined weight of plunger, flask and mercury needed to bring this about being a measure of the tenderness of the fruit.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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