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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Charles Teye Amoatey, Yaa Asabea Ameyaw, Ebenezer Adaku and Samuel Famiyeh

– The purpose of this paper is to assess the causes and effects of delays in public sector housing projects in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the causes and effects of delays in public sector housing projects in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive sampling approach was used in selecting the respondents for the study. These were experts working on various state housing construction projects in Ghana.

Findings

Results from the study showed that the critical factors that contribute to project delays in Ghana are; delay in payment to contractor/supplier, inflation/price fluctuation, price increases in materials, inadequate funds from sponsors/clients, variation orders and poor financial/capital market. The critical effects of delays are cost overrun, time overrun, litigation, lack of continuity by client and arbitration.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to causes and effects of project delays in Ghana based on data collected from only one state institution. Due to geographic constraints the researchers were unable to sample state institutions across Ghana involved in various housing projects.

Practical implications

This paper has documented the critical state housing construction project delay factors in Ghana. The results will help project managers and policymakers appreciate the effects of these delays on project outcomes.

Social implications

Measures aimed at reducing cost of housing projects in Ghana can translate into significant benefits to the poor and support achievement of government objective of providing affordable housing to low income citizens.

Originality/value

This research focussed on the key factors and best practices that lead to the success of state housing projects within the Ghanaian context.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Christopher Feather

Emerging states confront staggering shortages in adequate housing stock. In response, governments have sought various supply-based solutions to mitigate growing housing

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging states confront staggering shortages in adequate housing stock. In response, governments have sought various supply-based solutions to mitigate growing housing deficits. While many of these mass housing efforts have not produced the desired outcome, the Republic of Korea’s Two Million Housing Drive (TMHD) was a comparatively successful intervention with its implementation from 1988 to 1992. The five-year initiative exceeded its objective with the construction of over 2.1 million units – of which two-thirds were built by the private sector. The purpose of this study is to analyse Korea’s relatively effective supply-based affordable housing approach and then extrapolate best practices and lessons learned with applications for real estate markets in the developing world. Comparative understanding of the TMHD can help promote greater access to adequate housing in the developing world, especially for the many who continue to live in impoverished conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses content-based and quantitative methods to analyze the case of the TMHD in Korea toward informing improvements in corresponding supply-based housing policies and programs in developing states.

Findings

While there were challenges with the TMHD, the program repositioned Korea’s urban housing market with greater access to affordable housing in cities for the lower-income and vulnerable. The TMHD enabled the subsequent effectiveness of demand-based housing policies.

Research limitations/implications

There are research limitations in fully understanding the complex relationships between mass housing programs, economic growth and government policies. The abductive reasoning used in this case study enables in-depth analysis of the TMHD with generalizable inferences for middle-range theories with applications for emerging markets.

Practical implications

The experience of the TMHD can promote policy harmonization by helping optimize corresponding mass housing efforts in the developing world with the potential to similarly close quantitative housing deficits and expand access to adequate housing for lower-income and vulnerable households.

Social implications

Deeper understanding of the TMHD can lead to reforms of other mass housing initiatives in emerging markets to make adequate housing more accessible and economical for the benefit of underserved segments of society.

Originality/value

The Korean experience with the TMHD can inform the optimization of other similar large-scale policies and programs seeking to sustainably overcome shortfalls in adequate housing that have become all too common in the developing world.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Charles Teye Amoatey and Betty Asantewaa Anson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of scope creep on project completion in the real estate development industry in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of scope creep on project completion in the real estate development industry in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Both simple random sampling and convenience sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents for the study. The respondents were experts working in the real estate development industry in Ghana.

Findings

Results from the study showed that the most critical factors that cause scope creep in the Ghanaian real estate development industry are client changes, unforeseen risks and unclear scope. Mitigating measures for addressing these factors were proposed.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to causes of scope creep in the real estate development industry in Ghana based on data collected from only real estate development firms in Accra. Due to geographic constraints, the researcher was unable to sample real estate development companies across the entire country. The finding of this study may not be generalised since causes of scope creep can be unique to individual country contexts.

Practical implication

This paper has documented the critical causes of scope creep and its major impacts on project completion in the real estate development industry in Ghana. The results will help project managers in the industry to appreciate the causes of scope creep and its effect on project completion as well as increase the quality of economics on real estate management and reduce the costs and risks of housing of delivery in the country.

Originality/value

The paper examined the causes and mitigation of project scope creep in the Ghanaian context.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Isaac Sakyi Damoah and Desmond Kwadjo Kumi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that cause government construction projects failure in a developing economy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that cause government construction projects failure in a developing economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the sequential data collection approach through an in-depth semi-structured interview (16 participants) and questionnaire survey (230 participants) to solicit their perceptions from project management practitioners (PMP), contractors and client (government officials) about the factors that lead to Ghanaian Government construction projects. The relative importance index was used to determine the relative importance of the factors identified. This was followed by Spearman rank correlation coefficient and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance to measure the degree of agreement among the participants on their perceptions.

Findings

In total, 34 factors were identified as the main factors that lead into Ghanaian Government construction projects failure. The top ten most important factors that cause Ghanaian Government construction projects failure are: political interferences, delays in payment, partisan politics, bureaucracy, corruption, poor supervision, lack of commitment by project leaders, poor planning, starting more projects than the government can fund and change in government. The failure factors were grouped into four main themes and found that the most important failure factors are leadership. This is followed by management and administrative practices, resources and external forces, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to only the public sector, and therefore the findings may not be applicable in the private sector.

Practical implications

Policy makers and construction PMP would be able to use the findings as a guide during the implementation of government projects in order to reduce and/or avoid government construction projects failure.

Originality/value

Construction projects failure in developing countries is high. Accordingly, the extant literature has been devoted to identifying the factors that lead to failure; however, they have mainly been discussed from a generic point of view or individual case studies. Researches that focus exclusively on government construction projects in developing countries are rare despite the dynamics in which these projects are implemented. This research extends the construction project management literature by focussing on government construction projects in a developing economy, where there are weak public institutional systems coupled with partisanship politics and bad cultural orientation towards government sector work inherited from a colonial rule.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Mustafa Jahangoshai Rezaee, Samuel Yousefi and Ripon K. Chakrabortty

Analyzing factors of delays in construction projects and determining their impact on project performance is necessary to better manage and control projects. Identification…

Abstract

Purpose

Analyzing factors of delays in construction projects and determining their impact on project performance is necessary to better manage and control projects. Identification of root factors which may lead to project delay and increased cost is vital at the early or planning stage. Better identification of delay factors at the early stage can help the practitioners to reduce their impacts over the long run. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to propose an intelligent method to analyze causal relationships between delay factors in construction projects. The proposed approach is further validated by a real case study of the construction projects in West Azerbaijan province in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

During the first phase, the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is drawn to indicate the causal relationships between the delay factors and the evaluation factors. For this purpose, the causal relationships between 20 delay factors and four evaluation factors are considered. Afterward, the effect of each factor on management goals is evaluated by using a hybrid learning algorithm. Delay factors are further prioritized by applying fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA). In the second phase, an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is employed to determine the root causes of delay factors.

Findings

Results of the first phase show that “supervision technical weaknesses for overcoming technical and executive workshop problems” and “Inaccurate estimation of workload, required equipment and project completion time” are the most significant delay factors. In contrary, “non-use of new engineering contracts” has the lowest impact on the management goals. Meanwhile, the results of the second phase conclude that factors like “Inaccurate estimation of workload, required equipment and project completion time” “weakness of laws and regulations related to job responsibilities” and “lack of foreseen of fines and encouragements in the contracts” are the most significant root factors of delay in construction projects.

Originality/value

This paper integrates three methods including FCM method, FDEA and ISM. In the first phase, FCM is drawn according to the experts’ opinions and concerning management goals and delay factors. Later, these factors are prioritized according to the results of running the algorithm and using the FDEA model. The second phase, the seven-step in the ISM methodology, is done to identify the root factors. To ensure that the root factors of the delay are at a lower level of hierarchical structure, delay factors are partitioned by drawing the ISM model.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Gabriel Nani, Isaac Mensah and Theophilus Adjei-Kumi

A major concern for construction professionals at the rural road agency in Ghana is the problem of fixing contract duration for bridge construction projects in rural…

Abstract

Purpose

A major concern for construction professionals at the rural road agency in Ghana is the problem of fixing contract duration for bridge construction projects in rural areas. The purpose of the study was to develop a tool for construction professionals to forecast duration for bridge projects.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 100 questionnaires were distributed to professionals at the Department of Feeder Roads to ascertain their views on the work items in a bill of quantities (BOQ) that impact significantly on the duration of bridge construction projects. Historical data for 30 completed bridge projects were also collected from the same Department. The data collected were executed work items in BOQ and actual durations used in completing the works. The qualitative data were analysed using the relative importance index and the quantitative data, processed and analysed using both the stepwise regression method and artificial neural network (ANN) technique.

Findings

The identified predictors, namely, in-situ concrete, weight of prefabricated steel components, gravel sub-base and haulage of aggregates, used as independent variables resulted in the development of a regression model with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 25 per cent and an ANN model with a feed forward back propagation algorithm with an MAPE of 26 per cent at the validation stage. The study has shown that both regression and ANN models are appropriate for predicting the duration of a new bridge construction project.

Research limitations/implications

The predictors used in the developed models are limited to work items in BOQs only of completed bridge construction projects as well as the small sample size.

Practical implications

The study has developed a working tool for practitioners at the agency to forecast contract duration for bridge projects prior to its commencement.

Originality value

The study has quantified the relationship between the work items in BOQs and the duration of bridge construction projects using the stepwise regression method and the ANN techniques.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Charles Teye Amoatey and Alfred Nii Okanta Ankrah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of road construction delays in Ghana and identify appropriate mitigation measures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of road construction delays in Ghana and identify appropriate mitigation measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The initial approach involved an empirical analysis of 48 road projects to quantify the extent of time. This was followed by a survey of the perception of road agency and donor partner officials of the critical causes of road project delays.

Findings

About 70 per cent of road projects experience delays and 52 per cent experience cost overruns. The average time overrun and cost overruns of road projects in Ghana was 17 months and US$1.15m (or 22.5 per cent), respectively. The five most critical causes of road construction delays were delay in finance and payment of completed work by owner (client-related); inadequate contractor experience (contractor-related); changes in scope by the owner during construction (client-related); delay to furnish and deliver the site to the contractor (client-related); and inflexible funding allocation for project items (donor-related).

Research limitations/implications

The most critical constraint of this study is the fact that findings are based on only the views of industry professional experts. It may be assumed that despite using broadly used terminology to refer to the causes of project delays, the interpretations by respondents may have differed from those intended. Further research could look at the correlation between time overrun and cost overrun using principle component analysis.

Practical implications

The identified delay factors are not unique to the road sector. From both academic and practical perspectives, the results emphasizes on the need for a holistic and integrated risk management model for the entire construction industry in Ghana.

Originality/value

The paper examined the causes of road project delays in the Ghanaian context and recommended remedial measures.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Richard Ohene Asiedu and Ebenezer Adaku

Cost overrun of construction projects has been a key concern for all stakeholders of projects for many decades now. Many studies have been done in the past and continue to…

Abstract

Purpose

Cost overrun of construction projects has been a key concern for all stakeholders of projects for many decades now. Many studies have been done in the past and continue to be done currently to understand the underlying causes of construction project cost overruns. However, the empirical evidence of the causes seem not be clear due to the silo approach in understanding the causes of construction project cost overruns. The purpose of this paper is to take the debate a step forward by providing an understanding of the causes of project cost overrun from a system’s perspective, especially from a less researched environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected and analysed from 131 respondents who were mainly involved in construction works in public procurement entities in Ghana. A two-staged approach was employed in collecting data from the respondents. The first stage involved an interview session with key informants in the construction industry in Ghana to ascertain the detailed causes of cost overrun of construction projects. The second stage focussed on the validation of these detailed factors by a wider stakeholder group through questionnaires. Factor analysis was employed to consolidate these detailed factors into major causes of construction project cost overruns.

Findings

The results show that there are primarily four major causes of most public sector construction projects cost overruns. These four major causes of cost overruns are poor contract planning and supervision; change orders; weak institutional and economic environment of projects and lack of effective coordination among the contracting parties.

Originality/value

The study provides more insights as to the critical and major factors that underpin public sector construction projects cost overruns and more importantly provides a basis for common treatment of the multiple risk factors engendering public sector construction projects cost overruns.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Suhaiza Zailani, Hazrina Aziz Md. Ariffin, Mohammad Iranmanesh, Soroush Moeinzadeh and Masoomeh Iranmanesh

This paper aims to explore the relationship between delay factors and construction project performance with respect to project risk mitigation strategies as moderators.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the relationship between delay factors and construction project performance with respect to project risk mitigation strategies as moderators.

Design/methodology/approach

Random sampling was used to select the sample of the study. Data were gathered through a survey of 204 Malaysian construction companies. The data were analysed using the partial least squares technique.

Findings

The results indicate that environmental, resource and coordination issues negatively affect construction project performance. Project visibility and flexibility can mitigate the negative effects of both resource and coordination issues on project performance. Furthermore, supplier development can mitigate the negative effects of coordination issues.

Practical implications

The findings of the study will be useful for construction firms to complete construction projects timely, within a scheduled budget and with only minor defects if adopted.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to empirically test the moderating role of risk mitigation strategies on the relationship between delay factors and project performance in the construction industry.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Charles Amoatey and Doreen Danquah

The purpose of this paper is to analyse project risks in Ghana’s real estate construction industry in terms of likelihood of occurrence, severity of impact and controllability.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse project risks in Ghana’s real estate construction industry in terms of likelihood of occurrence, severity of impact and controllability.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research approach was used in this study to address the research objective. The study population consisted project managers, architects, surveyors and contractors from 17 members of the Ghana Real Estate Developers Association (GREDA) in Ghana. Random stratified sampling technique was used to select 97 participants from these firms. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data, whereas descriptive statistics were used to present findings.

Findings

All risks identified have some level of likelihood of occurrence, extent of severity of impact and controllability. Market risks, technical risks and environmental risks are more likely to occur. Market risks, technical risks and environmental risks had the highest severity of impact. Financial risks, market risks, managerial risks and technical risks are the most controllable. Among all risks, environmental risks are the direst because they have high likelihood of occurrence and severity of impact but very low controllability. Real estate construction firms (developers) are therefore expected to prioritize remedy of environmental risks.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on self-reported perception of project parties on the likelihood, severity of impact and controllability of real estate project risk factors. Firms outside of GREDA were not included in the survey. Therefore, generalisation of these risk factors for the entire construction industry should be done with caution.

Practical implications

The research results show that Ghanaian real estate developers are aware of the existence of the risks which impact on the performance of the industry. To effectively and efficiently manage these risk factors, project parties must understand the likelihood of occurrence, severity of impact and controllability of the risk factors, as well as individual firm’s responsibilities and capabilities to manage them. Such knowledge helps project managers to prioritise risks in managing them in the face of scarce resources. From an academic research perspective, the paper contributes to a conceptual risk assessment framework for the real estate industry.

Originality/value

The paper’s main contributions relate to the introduction of real estate construction sector-specific factors to project risk management modelling.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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