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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Maria Kakarika

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following question: how should start‐ups be staffed and how should they manage issues of team diversity?

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3355

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to answer the following question: how should start‐ups be staffed and how should they manage issues of team diversity?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper approaches diverse entrepreneurial teams in terms of three meaningful types, each with different assumptions, thus suggesting that their effects are complex.

Findings

The article concludes that entrepreneurs need to consider three key dimensions of diversity and form teams that are: moderate in diversity of opinions; high in diversity of expertise; and low in diversity of power.

Originality/value

The paper offers a set of practical recommendations to entrepreneurs, outlining how they can compose their teams and manage different dimensions of diversity; and to venture capitalists, suggesting how to assess team diversity as a critical factor in entrepreneurial teams.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Florian Kirschenhofer and Christian Lechner

This paper aims to focus on the role of team and entrepreneurial experience for firm performance of serial entrepreneurs in the multi‐media industry.

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3361

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the role of team and entrepreneurial experience for firm performance of serial entrepreneurs in the multi‐media industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The research assumes that serial entrepreneurs have certain advantages over novice entrepreneurs, such as the development of effective start‐up teams and entrepreneurial experience effects. Disadvantages, however, are also mentioned in the literature, and these are assumed to out‐balance the advantages, leading to mixed research findings. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of 52 European multimedia companies.

Findings

The results show a positive impact of relevant entrepreneurial experience and evidence both team advantages as well as disadvantages. Team diversity had a positive impact on performance while the extent of repeated partnerships (or relative team stability) had a negative impact on performance. Moreover, entrepreneurial experience helps to build better diverse teams but has no impact on repeated partnerships.

Research limitations/implications

The degree of experience of serial entrepreneurs in the same industry matters, and suggests that more experience is better. The findings challenge a general assumption about serial entrepreneurs: that the building of superior teams creates performance differences. Team diversity drives performance and the study could also show that habitual entrepreneurs are better in building diverse teams (through a positive moderation of team diversity by entrepreneurial experience). However, relying heavily on previous partners is counter‐productive. Limitations of this study are due to self‐reported data, small sample size and survivor bias.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs need to focus on opportunities and resource needs linked to these opportunities, and use their experience to build stronger teams but to resist the temptation of replicating perceived past success formula by over‐relying on previous partners. The latter is also important for stakeholders in the entrepreneurial venture.

Originality/value

This paper tests various assumptions and propositions about serial entrepreneurship that are rarely based on sound evidence. The role of entrepreneurial experience to build better diverse teams and the role of repeated partnerships constitute an original contribution to habitual entrepreneurship research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2010

Natalia Weisz, Roberto S. Vassolo, Luiz Mesquita and Arnold C. Cooper

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of team member diversity and internal social capital on project performance within the context of business plan…

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1167

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of team member diversity and internal social capital on project performance within the context of business plan competitions (BPCs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses survey data on 95 nascent entrepreneurial teams enrolled in an open‐to‐the‐public BPCs. It assumes that higher levels of functional diversity as well as higher levels of internal social capital enhance the performance of nascent entrepreneurial teams in the crafting of their business plans (BPs).

Findings

Under this particular context, where the needs for information processing and decision‐making requirements are so high, teams having higher levels of functional diversity attained better performance. Inversely, teams with higher levels of internal social capital did not show a significant advantage in the development of the BP.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations are associated with the exclusion of external social capital measures and not considering demographic faultlines, which might have some impact on the results. Besides, this paper has the limitation of basing its analysis upon teams within a BP contest. Theoretical implications stress that under contexts maximizing the difference between potential upside gains and downside losses, team diversity is expected to play a larger role for BP effectiveness and success than team members' internal social capital.

Practical implications

Recognizing team prevalence and the impact of social dynamics amongst team members within entrepreneurial settings.

Originality/value

The paper contributes with the impact of social dynamic processes on nascent entrepreneurial teams.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2009

Myleen M. Leary and Michael L. DeVaughn

The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics of an entrepreneurial team that influence the likelihood a new venture will successfully launch.

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2926

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics of an entrepreneurial team that influence the likelihood a new venture will successfully launch.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a sample of prospective start‐up banks that applied for a charter application in Florida between 1996 and 2005. Logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Analysis suggests that entrepreneurial teams where: the CEO is strongly embedded into the team; no team member holds 10 per cent or more of the firm's total equity; team members have less rather than more industry experience; and more team members have prior founding experience, all point to a successful new venture launch.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on start‐up success in a single industry and thus may not be generalizable to other research contexts.

Practical implications

Results suggest that bank regulators in charge approving new bank charters would be well advised to revisit their guidelines and recommendations for prospective new bank founders.

Originality/value

Given the unique regulatory requirements of the US banking industry, the successful as well as failed efforts to launch a new bank can be identified and the “success bias” present in many entrepreneurship studies can be averted.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2005

Joel Schoening

Existing research on businesses that are both owned and managed by their workers suggests that these firms have one of two kinds of effects for their participants. They…

Abstract

Existing research on businesses that are both owned and managed by their workers suggests that these firms have one of two kinds of effects for their participants. They either learn to be better citizens of democratic society through daily democratic practice, or they become better capitalists through the daily practice of business ownership. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation, I argue that cooperative participants learn both things. Furthermore, participants in cooperatives develop a spirit of Cooperative Entrepreneurialism that allows them to engage in free enterprise, while also adhering to the cooperative values of equality and democracy.

Details

Worker Participation: Current Research and Future Trends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-202-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Valerie O'Connor, Angela Hamouda, Helen McKeon, Colette Henry and Kate Johnston

The purpose of this research is to discuss the nature of co‐entrepreneurs (i.e. those companies that have a mixture of male and female founding members) within the ICT…

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1456

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to discuss the nature of co‐entrepreneurs (i.e. those companies that have a mixture of male and female founding members) within the ICT sector in Ireland. For the purposes of this paper, the term “co‐entrepreneurship” is used to describe male and female business partnerships. The characteristics of co‐entrepreneurs; their educational, skills and family backgrounds; their current role in the company, and the nature of the team founder structure are examined. A discussion on why the team approach was selected is also included. Other issues explored in the paper include the shareholding percentage of the co‐entrepreneurs and the extent to which the business has a lead entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2003 the authors compiled a database of 1,026 indigenous ICT companies, which were electronically surveyed for information regarding software production, ownership of company and gender of founding members. A total of 24 per cent (81) of the responding companies from this survey indicated that there was a mixture of male and female founding members. These companies were subsequently sent another survey designed to gather information on company background, profiles of co‐entrepreneurs, co‐entrepreneurs' motivational factors and co‐entrepreneurs' roles. A total of 34 (43 per cent) of the companies responded, of which 23 were suitable for the research.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that the family business or spouse/partner structure represents a major component of mixed gender companies in the ICT sector in Ireland, and that such companies tend to be small, with well‐educated and experienced founders.

Originality/value

A particularly interesting contribution of this paper is the provision of insights into the co‐entrepreneurial partnership through identifying the key differences between the male and female co‐founders. A key conclusion of the study is that there would appear to be a recognition among co‐entrepreneurs that complementary skills and knowledge are critically important in the exploitation of new business opportunities, especially in the IT industry.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Om P. Kharbanda and Ernest A. Stallworthy

The concept of company culture is now playingan ever‐increasing role in the continuing endeavourto work towards ever better companymanagement, particularly in the…

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2562

Abstract

The concept of company culture is now playing an ever‐increasing role in the continuing endeavour to work towards ever better company management, particularly in the industrial field. This monograph reviews the history and development of both national and company cultures, and then goes on to demonstrate the significance of a culture to proper company management. Well‐managed companies will have both a “quality culture” and a “safety culture” as well as a cultural history. However, it has to be recognised that the company culture is subject to change, and effecting this can be very difficult. Of the many national cultures, that of Japan is considered to be the most effective, as is demonstrated by the present dominance of Japan on the industrial scene. Many industrialised nations now seek to emulate the Japanese style of management, but it is not possible to copy or acquire Japan′s cultural heritage. The text is illustrated by a large number of practical examples from real life, illustrating the way in which the company culture works and can be used by management to improve company performance.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Jin‐ichiro Yamada

This paper attempts to synthesise the theoretical research on entrepreneurship and social capital undertaken in previous studies, and presents a multi‐dimensional view of…

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3411

Abstract

This paper attempts to synthesise the theoretical research on entrepreneurship and social capital undertaken in previous studies, and presents a multi‐dimensional view of entrepreneurship. In examining overviews of past single perspective entrepreneurship research, this study shows that the primary role of entrepreneurs in organisation emergence is to acquire knowledge and create social capital properly. This process is necessarily accompanied by creation of knowledge communities to establish the domain consensus of new organisations among various stakeholders paying particular attention to the fragility and dysfunctional side of entrepreneurship and social capital. The paper concludes with a hypothesis and suggestions towards a future research agenda. It is hoped that, as a result of this theoretical development, this paper will help to focus greater attention on the concept of entrepreneurship in studies of management development.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Rita Klapper and Silke Tegtmeier

This paper – one of only a few examples – aims to conduct a cross‐national research into innovative teaching approaches in entrepreneurship in France and Germany.

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1889

Abstract

Purpose

This paper – one of only a few examples – aims to conduct a cross‐national research into innovative teaching approaches in entrepreneurship in France and Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on two cross‐cultural cases and reflects on the experiences of two innovative teaching approaches in two European settings. The underlying aim of this investigation is to identify commonalities and differences between the approaches, establish learning between the different Higher Education institutions as well as to investigate the transferability of such approaches to other cultural environments.

Findings

This research has highlighted the importance of interdisciplinary learning in entrepreneurship research. Whereas, in the German case, management and other disciplines work together to create the example of the “practice firm”, in the French case entrepreneurship theories, network theories and cognitive science are brought together to create a new approach to learning about entrepreneurship. Both approaches highlight the importance of the personal development of the course participants by empowering the student to be proactive.

Research limitations/implications

The paper builds on the early experiences with both the concept of the “practice firm” and the application of repertory grids in entrepreneurial pedagogy, which justifies the highly exploratory character of this research. More research is necessary to establish students' opinion about such innovative approaches, also on a cross‐national level.

Practical implications

The paper provides examples of effective practices for encouraging entrepreneurial thinking in the classroom. More such comparative work is necessary on a European, but also on a wider international, scale to encourage learning, in particular for those involved in teaching entrepreneurship, but also for policy makers who are looking for new ways to stimulate entrepreneurial thinking.

Originality/value

The paper is innovative as it compares and contrasts two innovative approaches to teaching entrepreneurship in two European countries and hence fills a gap in the literature.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Ulla Hytti, Pekka Stenholm, Jarna Heinonen and Jaana Seikkula‐Leino

This paper aims to address the impact of a person's motivation to study entrepreneurship on their subsequent levels of performance in terms of the generation of business…

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6638

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the impact of a person's motivation to study entrepreneurship on their subsequent levels of performance in terms of the generation of business ideas, while taking into account the effect of student team behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper hypothesises that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as team behaviour influence the learning outcome and that team behaviour moderates the relationship between motivation and learning outcomes. A survey was used to generate data. A total of 117 students, who participated in pre‐programme, and post‐programme surveys, provided the sample data. First, explorative factor analyses were employed to examine the latent variables. Second, hierarchical lineal regression analyses were carried out to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

It was found that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect on the learning outcome while extrinsic motivation had a positive one. However, the team (and in particular the resources that become available) positively moderates the relationship between the intrinsic motivation and the outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to the evaluation and research practices of different entrepreneurship education initiatives. The data are derived solely from business students, a factor that may cause bias in the results. In addition, the paper relied on self‐assessed perceptions of learning outcomes, since the stakeholder evaluations were team‐level measurements.

Practical implications

Students on entrepreneurship education programmes have different forms of motivation for studying entrepreneurship, and those tend to affect their satisfaction with the outcome of their studies. Using teams on an entrepreneurship course seems to generate more positive outcomes for students with both low and high intrinsic motivation, but particularly among the latter group. Ultimately, the results suggest the need for greater flexibility in course design.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial learning outcomes are affected by student motivation and team behaviour. It makes an original contribution in distinguishing between an extrinsic and an intrinsic motivation to study entrepreneurship, and highlights the effect on learning outcomes of resources acquired through team behaviour. It also illustrates an opportunity to study the impact of entrepreneurship education, particularly when the creation of a new venture is not an immediate objective of the course.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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