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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Stanislav Ivanov and Veronika Achikgezyan

The purpose of this paper is to identify the attitudes of Bulgarians towards country’s historical monuments, communist heritage, communist heritage tourism and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the attitudes of Bulgarians towards country’s historical monuments, communist heritage, communist heritage tourism and their willingness to participate in communist heritage trips.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample includes 359 respondents recruited via an online survey. Mann-Whitney U-test is used to identify the differences in the respondents’ attitudes towards communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria on the basis of their age, gender, frequency of visit to historical monuments, attitudes towards country’s communist past, prior visit to, familiarity with and attitude towards communist monuments and identification of communist monuments with country’s heritage.

Findings

The respondents who visited historical monuments more frequently, had more positive attitudes towards communist past of the country and its communist monuments, those who had visited and were very familiar with the communist monuments were more supportive towards donating money for the restoration of communist monuments and their inclusion in tourism supply.

Practical implications

The paper reveals that domestic communist heritage tourism demand exists in Bulgaria and tour operators need to focus on including communist heritage in tourism supply.

Social implications

Communist heritage is controversial and different social groups perceive it differently, depending on their attitudes towards communism as a political, economic and social system.

Originality/value

The paper compares the attitudes towards historical and communist monuments and revealed that communist monuments received less support for inclusion in tourism supply than historical monuments; the respondents were less inclined to participate in trips to them and to donate money for their restoration.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Stanislav Ivanov

131

Abstract

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2022

Stanislav Hristov Ivanov

This paper aims to analyse three decision-making approaches that involve humans and artificial autonomous agents, namely, human “in the loop”, “on the loop” and “out of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse three decision-making approaches that involve humans and artificial autonomous agents, namely, human “in the loop”, “on the loop” and “out of the loop” and identifies the decision characteristics that determine the choice of a decision-making approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that analyses the relationships between the human and the artificial autonomous agents in the decision-making process from the perspectives of the agency theory, sustainability, legislation, economics and operations management.

Findings

The paper concludes that the human “out of the loop” approach is most suitable for quick, standardised, frequent decisions with low negative consequences of a wrong decision by the artificial intelligence taken within a well-defined context. Complex decisions with high outcome uncertainty that involve significant ethical issues require human participation in the form of a human “in the loop” or “on the loop” approach. Decisions that require high transparency need to be left to humans.

Originality/value

The paper evaluates the decision-making approaches from the perspectives of the agency theory, sustainability, legislation, economics and operations management and identifies the decision characteristics that determine the choice of a decision-making approach.

Details

foresight, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Craig Webster and Stanislav Ivanov

Future tourism will take place in a robonomic economy (aka robonomics). The massive introduction of robots, artificial intelligence and automation technologies which will…

871

Abstract

Purpose

Future tourism will take place in a robonomic economy (aka robonomics). The massive introduction of robots, artificial intelligence and automation technologies which will lead to the advent of an economy that will be qualitatively different from the current economy. The robonomic economy will have profound implications on the nature of work, level and sources of incomes, leisure time, politics, international trade and relations, ownership rights, etc., hence leading to major social, economic and political challenges and tension. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on how tourism will be in a robonomic society.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a perspective paper that shows how tourism will be in a robonomic society. This is a conceptual perspective article that shows how tourism will be in a robonomic society.

Findings

This paper elaborates on the tourism/hospitality implications of robonomics, the positive and negative impacts of robonomics on tourism and vice versa.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to discuss tourism implications of a future automated society.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 March 2020

Craig Webster and Stanislav Ivanov

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how demographic changes in developed countries will continue to drive the tourism and hospitality industries to adopt automation in…

4792

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how demographic changes in developed countries will continue to drive the tourism and hospitality industries to adopt automation in business operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is an analysis of the trends in human reproduction in the developed countries and a discussion of their implications for the travel, tourism and hospitality industries.

Findings

There are three major solutions to the demographic problem faced in developed countries and the replacement of human labour with automation is the most practical, immediate and has the fewest risks and negative externalities.

Practical implications

Industry has to adapt to the new demographic reality and embrace automation of services, educate their customers and have policies to deal with the resistance expected by labour.

Social implications

Society can expect that many of the tasks they commonly expect humans to be involved in will be done by machines and artificial intelligence in the near future, if demographic trends continue and massive immigration into developed countries is not a continuing phenomenon.

Originality/value

This links the relationship between demographic trends to the use of automation in the travel, tourism and hospitality industries.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Faruk Seyitoğlu and Stanislav Ivanov

The purpose of this study is to investigate the robotic restaurant experience of travellers around the world and understand the components of robotic restaurant experience.

4418

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the robotic restaurant experience of travellers around the world and understand the components of robotic restaurant experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Travellers who had experienced a robotic restaurant were purposefully selected as a sample group for the study. As the robotic restaurants are limited around the world, multiple case study method has been chosen to gather richer data. A user-generated content technique which is a form of qualitative case study method has been benefited to gather data from travellers’ reviews.

Findings

The results reveal a model of components of robotic restaurant experience that include six main themes: attraction for kids, robotic system, memorable experience, ambience related attributes, food related attributes (economic value and gastronomic aspects) and deficiencies (in robotic system, in ambience related attributes and in food related attributes).

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to investigate the robotic restaurant experience of travellers around the world. Moreover, it contributes to the research on restaurant experience and offers a model of components of the robotic restaurant experience.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Sheena Carlisle, Stanislav Ivanov and Corné Dijkmans

This paper aims to present the findings from a European study on the digital skills gaps in tourism and hospitality companies.

4885

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the findings from a European study on the digital skills gaps in tourism and hospitality companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods research was adopted. The sample includes 1,668 respondents (1,404 survey respondents and 264 interviewees) in 5 tourism sectors (accommodation establishments, tour operators and travel agents, food and beverage, visitor attractions and destination management organisations) in 8 European countries (UK, Italy, Ireland, Spain, Hungary, Germany, the Netherlands and Bulgaria).

Findings

The most important future digital skills include online marketing and communication skills, social media skills, MS Office skills, operating systems use skills and skills to monitor online reviews. The largest gaps between the current and the future skill levels were identified for artificial intelligence and robotics skills and augmented reality and virtual reality skills, but these skills, together with computer programming skills, were considered also as the least important digital skills. Three clusters were identified on the basis of their reported gaps between the current level and the future needs of digital skills. The country of registration, sector and size shape respondents’ answers regarding the current and future skills levels and the skills gap between them.

Originality/value

The paper discusses the digital skills gap of tourism and hospitality employees and identifies the most important digital skills they would need in the future.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Maya Ivanova and Stanislav Ivanov

1031

Abstract

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Francesc Fusté-Forné and Stanislav Ivanov

This research discusses the role of service robots in gastronomic and dining experiences in a post–coronavirus disease (COVID) world.

1387

Abstract

Purpose

This research discusses the role of service robots in gastronomic and dining experiences in a post–coronavirus disease (COVID) world.

Design/methodology/approach

The research note draws on secondary data to analyse the use of robots as an important mechanism to address the impacts of global disease outbreaks on the food industry, as related to hospitality and tourism.

Findings

Hospitality and tourism services are highly affected by the current travel bans, lockdowns and health-related rules that have emerged to manage the current pandemic (COVID-19). This research showcases the role of service robots in food encounters in hospitality and tourism as agents that contribute to safe and innovative experiences.

Originality/value

This research note explores how the use of robots in tourism futures will not only transform food experiences, but it is also critical to sustainable development of communities and destinations in a future that will continuously have to deal with disease outbreaks and pandemics with continued travel mobilities.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Stanislav Ivanov and Craig Webster

This paper aims to investigate potential consumers’ willingness to pay for robot-delivered services in travel, tourism and hospitality, and the factors that shape their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate potential consumers’ willingness to pay for robot-delivered services in travel, tourism and hospitality, and the factors that shape their willingness to pay.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey yielded a sample of 1,573 respondents from 99 countries. Independent samples t-test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster, factor and regression analyses were used.

Findings

Respondents expected to pay less for robot-delivered services than human-delivered services. Two clusters were identified: one cluster willing to pay nearly the same price for robotic services as for human-delivered services, whilst the other expected deep discounts for robotic services. The willingness-to-pay was positively associated with the attitudes towards robots in tourism, robotic service experience expectations, men and household size. It was negatively associated to travel frequency, age and education.

Research limitations/implications

The paper’s main limitation is its exploratory nature and the use of a hypothetical scenario in measuring respondents’ willingness to pay. The data were gathered prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and do not reflect the potential changes in perceptions of robots due to the pandemic.

Practical implications

Practitioners need to focus on improving the attitudes towards robots in tourism because they are strongly and positively related to the willingness to pay. The marketing messages need to form positive expectations about robotic services.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to investigate consumers’ willingness to pay for robot-delivered services in travel, tourism and hospitality and factors that shape their willingness to pay.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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