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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2018

Robert Bogue

This paper aims to provide technical details of the techniques used for the remote detection of chemical compounds in a number of applications and also to highlight key…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide technical details of the techniques used for the remote detection of chemical compounds in a number of applications and also to highlight key research themes.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a short introduction, this first considers remote gas detection using the DIAL technique. Remote gas cloud imaging is then discussed, and this is followed by a review of chemical warfare agent detection technologies. A selection of research activities and product developments aimed at remotely detecting explosives are considered and, finally, brief concluding comments are drawn.

Findings

Remote gas sensing is now a practical reality, and products are available which can remotely detect, identify, quantify and in some cases visualise a wide range of toxic and environmentally threatening gases. These satisfy numerous industrial, environmental and military applications. Remotely detecting explosives poses a significant technological challenge, and despite some commercialisation, it remains the topic of an extensive research effort, much involving LIBS and Raman techniques. Importantly, much of this work also has potential in non-military applications, with several developments being shown to detect various industrially important compounds.

Originality/value

This provides a technical insight into the techniques and products used in a range of remote chemical sensing applications.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1976

T.E. Ford

Making their first Farnborough appearance were two Grumman types among the many international newcomers. The E‐2C Hawkeye was in the static park equipped with five tons of…

Abstract

Making their first Farnborough appearance were two Grumman types among the many international newcomers. The E‐2C Hawkeye was in the static park equipped with five tons of electronic equipment that is capable of simultaneously detecting hundreds of targets over land or sea and guiding interceptors on to these targets. The Grumman F‐14A Tomcat two seat swing‐wing carrier‐based air superiority fighter gave daily flight demonstrations which hinted at its versatility. It is equipped with the AW‐9 weapons control system which is claimed to have exceptional detection ranges, standoff firing capabilities and attack modes. The Tomcat and Hawkeye are complementary and this capability was emphasised by the manufacturers, since both are in service with the US Navy and operate as a team with a high security voice and data communications system.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 48 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Roemi Fernández, Héctor Montes, Carlota Salinas, Pablo González de Santos and Manuel Armada

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design of a training tool intended to improve deminers' technique during close‐in detection tasks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design of a training tool intended to improve deminers' technique during close‐in detection tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction that highlights the impact of mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and the importance of training for enhancing the safety and the efficiency of the deminers, this paper considers the utilization of a sensory tracking system to study the skill of the hand‐held detector expert operators. With the compiled information, some critical performance variables can be extracted, assessed, and quantified, so that they can be used afterwards as reference values for the training task. In a second stage, the sensory tracking system is used for analysing the trainee skills. The experimentation phase aims to test the effectiveness of the elements that compose the sensory system to track the hand‐held detector during the training sessions.

Findings

The proposed training tool will be able to evaluate the deminers' efficiency during the scanning tasks and will provide important information for improving their competences.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the need of introducing emerging technologies for enhancing the current training techniques for deminers and proposes a sensory tracking system that can be successfully utilised for evaluating trainees' performance with hand‐held detectors.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Qianqian Zheng, Liangliang Chen, Luyao Lu and Xuesong Ye

Olfaction plays a very important role in daily life. The olfactory system has the ability to recognize, discriminate and identify thousands of odorant compounds with…

Abstract

Purpose

Olfaction plays a very important role in daily life. The olfactory system has the ability to recognize, discriminate and identify thousands of odorant compounds with extremely high sensitivity and specificity. The research on olfactory system has very important values in exploring the mechanisms of information processing in the other sensory nervous systems and brain. Recently, with the development of molecular biological and microelectronics technology research, the study of olfactory cell-based sensors has made great progress. The purpose of this paper is to provide details of recent developments in olfactory cell-based sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction, this paper first discusses some olfactory cell-based biosensors, which focus on the light-addressable potentiometric sensors and the microelectrode arrays. Second, surface modification, microfabrication and microfluidic technology which can improve the efficiency of cell immobilization will be summarized. The research trends of olfactory cell-based sensor in future will be proposed.

Findings

This paper shows that the biosensors’ performance is expected to be greatly improved due to the fast development of nanotechnology, optical technology and microelectronics. More and more emerging intelligent olfactory sensors will have a promising prospect in many application fields, including food quality and safety assessment, environmental monitor and human diseases detection.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed and timely review of the rapidly growing research in the olfactory cell-based sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Anto Arockia Rosaline R., Lalitha R., Hariharan G. and Lokesh N.

Because of the outbreak of Covid 19, the entire world is thinking of new strategies, preventive measures to safeguard the human life from the widespread of the pandemic…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the outbreak of Covid 19, the entire world is thinking of new strategies, preventive measures to safeguard the human life from the widespread of the pandemic. The areas where people are affected are marked as containment zones and people are not allowed to exit out of those areas. Similarly, new people are not allowed to enter inside those areas. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology to track the Covid zones, to enhance and tighten the security measures. A geo-fence is created for the containment zone. The person who enters or exits out of that particular zone will be monitored and alert message will be sent to that person’s mobile.

Design/methodology/approach

After tracking the location of a suspicious individual, the geo-fenced layer is mapped in the area and then the virtual perimeter is used for further trapping process. This geo-fenced layer can be viewed by the citizens as soon as it is updated by the Covid monitoring team. The geo-fencing is a concept of building a virtual perimeter area. This virtual perimeter monitoring system helps in monitoring the containment zones effectively. It reduces operational costs by using an automated system based on wireless infrastructure. It also alerts the authorities immediately to catch the violators. Thus, it helps to speed up the process of inspecting the containment zones and monitoring the individuals who violate the rules given by government.

Findings

The proposed methodologies will be an effective way to track the Covid’s communal spread. But the workflow of the system demands the required data sets and permission in legal manner to set up the environment that maintains the constitutional law and order in practice. The application developed was a prototype to display how it works if the required data sets are provided by the government. There are several tracking models that are released across the world such as Aarogya setu (India), Trace together (Singapore) and Hagmen (Israel). All these models are based on Bluetooth proximity identification; though Bluetooth proximity identification is helpful for high range in a short distance, the privacy concern is debatable one. Using modern technology, it is so easy to crack the individual gadgets and with Bluetooth enabling it makes things even worse. Thus, it is important to maintain the tracking a safer and secure one, and another issue with those Bluetooth-based applications is that tracking can be done only if the user enabled the Bluetooth option, if not the entire functioning would become a mess. The proposed methodology of tracking without Bluetooth will ensure data security also.

Originality/value

This was developed as a project by our third-year students of the Department of Information Technology of our college.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

James Trevelyan

There is a widespread belief that the global land‐mine problem can be solved using a combination of advanced robotics, sophisticated sensors and powerful computing…

Abstract

There is a widespread belief that the global land‐mine problem can be solved using a combination of advanced robotics, sophisticated sensors and powerful computing devices. Recent research results suggest that this confidence is misplaced. There is little likelihood of sensing improvements in the short‐term and all the proposed robotic solutions are too expensive to be practical for humanitarian demining operations in countries like Angola, Afghanistan and Cambodia. However, simple equipment improvements and low‐cost robotic devices might provide some useful improvements in safety and cost‐effectiveness in the short‐ to medium‐term. Reviews contributions in robotics and sensing technology, and proposes some practical directions for future work.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Michael J. Lippitz and Robert C. Wolcott

The case compares two U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) programs from the 1970s and 1980s: (1) “stealth” combat aircraft, capable of evading detection or engagement by…

Abstract

The case compares two U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) programs from the 1970s and 1980s: (1) “stealth” combat aircraft, capable of evading detection or engagement by anti-aircraft systems, and (2) precision attack of hardened ground vehicles from “standoff” distances, i.e., far behind the battle lines. Conceived at roughly the same time, motivated by the same strategic challenge, and initially driven by the same DoD organization, stealth combat aircraft progressed from idea to deployment in less than eight years---an astounding pace for a complex military system---while a demonstrated system for standoff precision strike against mobile ground targets was not fully implemented. The case highlights the critical role of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), part of the DoD, regarded as one of the most innovative entities in the U.S. federal government.

The case highlights factors that facilitate rapid, successful implementation of radically innovative or disruptive concepts. Students are introduced to the organizational realities facing such projects, including issues of strategic clarity, interdepartmental competition and cooperation, executive leadership, and timing. Comparing the differences in implementation of the two programs in the case reveals issues relevant to any large organization seeking to bring innovative concepts to fruition.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Aydin Shishegaran, Behnam Karami, Elham Safari Danalou, Hesam Varaee and Timon Rabczuk

The resistance of steel plate shear walls (SPSW) under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the conventional…

Abstract

Purpose

The resistance of steel plate shear walls (SPSW) under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the conventional weapons effect program (CONWEP) model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a multiple linear regression (MLR), multiple Ln equation regression (MLnER), gene expression programming (GEP), adaptive network-based fuzzy inference (ANFIS) and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Design/methodology/approach

The SPSW under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the CONWEP model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a MLR, MLnER, GEP, ANFIS and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Findings

The resistance of SPSW under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the CONWEP model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a MLR, MLnER, GEP, ANFIS and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Originality/value

The resistance of SPSW under explosive loads is evaluated using nonlinear FE analysis and surrogate methods. This study uses the CONWEP model for the explosive load and the Johnson-Cook model for the steel plate. Based on the Taguchi method, 25 samples out of 100 samples are selected for a parametric study where we predict the damaged zones and the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads. Then, this study uses a MLR, MLnER, GEP, ANFIS and an ensemble model to predict the maximum detection of SPSWs. Several statistical parameters and error terms are used to evaluate the accuracy of the different surrogate models. The results show that the cross-section in the y-direction and the plate thickness have the most significant effects on the maximum deflection of SPSWs. The results also show that the maximum deflection is related to the scaled distance, i.e. for a value of 0.383. The ensemble model performs better than all other models for predicting the maximum deflection of SPSWs under explosive loads.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

Kong Hui Lee, Rob Jukna, Jim Altpeter and Kantesh Doss

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and sensitivity of different cleanliness verification tests for post soldered printed circuit board…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and sensitivity of different cleanliness verification tests for post soldered printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) to provide an understanding of current industry practice for ionic contamination detection limits.

Design/methodology/approach

PCBAs were subjected to different flux residue cleaning dwell times and cleanliness levels were verified with resistivity of solvent extract, critical cleanliness control (C3) test, and ion chromatography analyses to provide results capable of differentiating different sensitivity levels for each test.

Findings

This study provides an understanding of current industry practice for ionic contamination detection using verification tests with different detection sensitivity levels. Some of the available cleanliness monitoring systems, particularly at critical areas of circuitry that are prone to product failure and residue entrapment, may have been overlooked.

Research limitations/implications

Only Sn/Pb, clean type flux residue was evaluated. Thus, the current study was not an all encompassing project that is representative of other chemistry‐based flux residues.

Practical implications

The paper provides a reference that can be used to determine the most suitable and effective verification test for the detection of ionic contamination on PCBAs.

Originality/value

Flux residue‐related problems have long existed in the industry. The findings presented in this paper give a basic understanding to PCBA manufacturers when they are trying to choose the most suitable and effective verification test for the detection of ionic contamination on their products. Hence, the negative impact of flux residue on the respective product's long‐term reliability and performance can be minimized and monitored effectively.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Sarel Lavy and Manish K. Dixit

The purpose of this paper is to identify key risks that are posed to the security of a site and building perimeters in the first and second lines of defense against…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify key risks that are posed to the security of a site and building perimeters in the first and second lines of defense against terrorism, and are relevant to facility managers.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach to the literature review was applied. This involved an extensive literature search of existing peer‐reviewed research papers, as well as state and federal reports to mark crucial issues relating to the security of a facility. Strategies to deal with the critical issues pertaining to the security of a facility were reviewed, based on the literature.

Findings

The paper identifies major security risks suggested by the literature and lists strategies to address those risks. The paper also proposes recommendations made by the literature; their implementation may provide a higher level of security to key areas located in the first and second lines of building defense.

Practical implications

The site and building perimeter areas that offer great potential for avoiding and deterring terror attacks are often neglected in terms of security planning, which seriously hampers efforts to provide an enhanced level of security to the facility. The paper points out these areas and major security issues related to them, so they can be taken care of by design professionals as well as facility managers.

Originality/value

The paper provides a comprehensive and detailed review of various aspects tied to the security level of critical areas of the building and site perimeters that could be useful to facility managers of critical facilities.

Details

Facilities, vol. 28 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

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