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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Hilde Hetland, Jørn Hetland, Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Ståle Pallesen and Guy Notelaers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and a transactional leadership component (management by exception‐active), and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and a transactional leadership component (management by exception‐active), and fulfillment of the basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on cross sectional data from 661 employees who completed validated questionnaires such as the the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) and the basic need satisfaction at work (BNSW). The data were analysed using structural equation modeling in AMOS 18.0.

Findings

The results show that both transformational leadership and the transactional behavior management by exception active are significantly related to fulfillment of the basic needs. Significant regression weights of 0.50 (p<0.01) 0.46 (p<0.01), and 0.21 (p<0.01) from transformational leadership to relatedness, autonomy and competence were also found. Negative and smaller paths were revealed from management by exception to relatedness (=−0.12, p<0.01), competence (=−0.12, p<0.05), and autonomy (=−0.18, p<0.01). Squared multiple correlations (R2) for relatedness, competence and autonomy were 0.28, 0.06, and 0.27, respectively.

Originality/value

The paper empirically addresses the theoretically suggested link between transformational leadership and need fulfillment.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Ronald J. Burke, Stig Berge Matthiesen and Stale Pallesen

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of individual difference personality characteristics (Big Five, generalized self‐efficacy), workaholism components and…

2198

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of individual difference personality characteristics (Big Five, generalized self‐efficacy), workaholism components and work life factors on measures of job satisfaction, burnout and health complaints.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 496 nursing staff caring for terminally ill patients in five health care facilities in Norway using questionnaires.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for personal demographic and work setting characteristics, indicated strong relationships of particular Big Five personality factors, workaholism components and work life factors with both job satisfaction and burnout; health complaints were only predicted by personality factors.

Practical implications

Future research must examine the generalizability of these findings to other samples in different countries. Implications for management and organizations are offered.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the understanding of personality factors to workaholics in work outcomes and well‐being.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Åge Diseth, Ståle Pallesen, Anders Hovland and Svein Larsen

The present study seeks to compare scores on factors from the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) with scores on an abbreviated version of the Approaches and Study Skills…

3740

Abstract

Purpose

The present study seeks to compare scores on factors from the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) with scores on an abbreviated version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) and examination grade among undergraduate psychology students. The purpose is to investigate the relationship between course experience and approaches to learning, and to examine their relative importance as predictors of academic achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modelling were utilised in order to find measurement models for each of the constructs and to test hypothesised structural relations between these constructs.

Findings

The original CEQ and ASSIST factors were reproduced. A model in which course experience factors predicted SAL was supported, but the same model did not provide evidence for any indirect or mediator effect between course experience, approaches to learning and academic achievement. Indirect empirical support for a hypothesised causal link between course experience and approaches to learning was found.

Research limitations/implications

Weak relations between the predictor variables (course experience/approaches to learning) and academic achievement limited the possibility of identifying mediator effects, and future research should address this issue.

Practical implications

Lecturers and course designers should take into account that students' approaches to learning are influenced by course experience, especially with respect to the adoption of a surface approach to learning.

Originality/value

This paper included a comparison between course experience, approaches to learning, and academic achievement, whereas most previous research has not included academic achievement. The utilisation of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling gave a stronger test of construct validity than exploratory analyses, and it facilitated the testing of hypothesised structural models.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Jørn Hetland and Ståle Pallesen

Although the concept of workaholism has existed in the academic literature for decades, exploration of its measurements seems to lag behind. The purpose of this study is to…

2238

Abstract

Purpose

Although the concept of workaholism has existed in the academic literature for decades, exploration of its measurements seems to lag behind. The purpose of this study is to present an investigation of the three most commonly used workaholism measures; the Workaholism Battery (WorkBAT), the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART) and the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS) in terms of their cross-validation, their temporal stability and their factor structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The three measures were administered to 661 cross-occupational Norwegian workers. A total of 368 of these completed the same measures 24-30 months later.

Findings

The cross-validation showed that the correlations between the scores of the different instruments were too low to conclude that they measure the same construct. The 24-30 month test-retest reliability coefficients for the measures revealed that the scores were quite stable over time. None of the previously suggested factor solutions for the three measures had a good fit with the data. Explorative factor analyses supported a four-factor solution for the WorkBAT and for the WART. A two-factor solution for the DUWAS was found.

Research limitations/implications

All the data are based on self-report, which might bias the results.

Practical implications

Different workaholism measures cannot be used interchangeably.

Originality/value

This is the first study that cross-validates the three most used workaholism measures and which investigates the reliability of these instruments over a long-term period (24-30 months).

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Jørn Hetland, Hilde Hetland, Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Cecilie S. Andreassen and Ståle Pallesen

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee job attitudes (job…

2326

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee job attitudes (job satisfaction and dedication).

Design/methodology/approach

The two samples include both cross-sectional and diary data. The cross-sectional sample (sample 1) consisted of 661 employees from various organizations. In the diary study (sample 2), 65 employees completed a daily questionnaire on five consecutive working days, yielding 325 measurement points in total. The authors analyzed the data using structural equation modeling (Mplus 5) and multilevel analyses (MLwiN 2.20).

Findings

As hypothesized, support for full mediation of the relationship between transformational leadership and positive job attitudes through the fulfilment of psychological needs were found both on a general level and on a daily basis.

Originality/value

The paper is based on a multi study approach and empirically addresses the link between transformational leadership and positive job attitudes, and the role of basic need fulfilment in this relationship on both a general and daily level.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2023

Line Lervik-Olsen, Tor Wallin Andreassen and Bob M. Fennis

Compulsive social media use has the potential to reduce well-being. In this study, the authors propose that there are two main paths to compulsive social media consumption. One is…

Abstract

Purpose

Compulsive social media use has the potential to reduce well-being. In this study, the authors propose that there are two main paths to compulsive social media consumption. One is behavioral and based on habit; the other is motivational and rooted in the fear of missing out. This study aims to test the antecedents of these two drivers as well as their consequences for the tendency to engage in compulsive social media consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied a quantitative research design and collected data through a survey of 600 respondents from a representative sample. The authors used structural equation modeling to test their conceptual model and hypotheses. Gender and age were included as moderators to investigate the model’s boundary conditions.

Findings

The authors found support for all the suggested relationships in the conceptual model. The findings indicate two main manifestations of compulsive social media use – always being logged in (i.e. the frequency of social media consumption) and excessive use (the intensity of consumption) – that in turn spurred a reinforcer of compulsivity: disconnection anxiety. The findings also indicate two main paths to compulsive social media consumption. One path is behavioral, based on habit, and the other is motivational, based on fear of missing out. Moreover, the authors identified the key antecedents of both paths. Habit formation was observed to be a function of situational cues (technological nudges in the online sphere) and consumer engagement. Fear of missing out was shaped by both injunctive norms (a consumer norm to be online) and descriptive norms (social proof).

Research limitations/implications

Although the antecedents of compulsive social media consumption suggested in this study have a strong and significant effect, the explained variance in the dependent variables being always logged in and excessive social media use indicates that there might be other drivers as well. These should be explored along with moderators other than gender and age to identify the potential boundary conditions of the model.

Practical implications

The main implications of the present work point to the “ease” with which typical or normal social media use may spiral out of control and become compulsive, with adverse implications for consumer health and well-being.

Originality/value

The behavioral and motivational paths to compulsive social media consumption have been less explored and have not yet been studied in conjunction, nor have their antecedents and consequences. Thus, this is a novel approach to understanding how social media use can potentially lead to reduced control and well-being.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 58 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2017

Lars Glasø, Anders Skogstad, Guy Notelaers and Ståle Einarsen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which emotional experiences mediate the relationships between employees’ perception of considerate and/or tyrannical…

2150

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which emotional experiences mediate the relationships between employees’ perception of considerate and/or tyrannical leadership behaviors and their work engagement and intention to leave the organization. The notion of symmetric and asymmetric relationships between specific kinds of leadership behavior, emotional reactions, and followers’ attitudinal outcomes is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Employing a survey design, the variables were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 312 employees.

Findings

The study confirmed the notion of symmetric relationships between specific kinds of leadership behavior, emotional reactions, and followers’ attitudinal outcomes. Contrary to the general notion that “bad is stronger than good,” the results indicated that positive emotions were equal or stronger mediators than the negative ones regarding the two outcomes measured in the present study.

Originality/value

The paper is, to the authors’ knowledge, the first paper which examines simultaneously how constructive and destructive leadership styles, and positive and negative affects, are related to employee attitudes outcomes, and evokes a discussion when bad is stronger than good or vice versa regarding leadership outcomes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Iselin Reknes, Mats Glambek and Ståle Valvatne Einarsen

Intention to leave as an outcome of exposure to workplace bullying is well documented in previous studies, yet, research on explanatory conditions for such an association is…

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Abstract

Purpose

Intention to leave as an outcome of exposure to workplace bullying is well documented in previous studies, yet, research on explanatory conditions for such an association is lacking.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study investigates the relationship between injustice perceptions, exposure to bullying behaviors and turnover intention, employing a moderated mediation analysis based on a reanalysis and extension of data gathered among a sample of Norwegian bus drivers (N = 1, 024).

Findings

As hypothesized, injustice perceptions were indirectly related to intention to leave via workplace bullying, however, only under conditions of higher perceived injustice levels.

Practical implications

The results underscore the importance of preventing workplace bullying and of maintaining ample levels of justice at work, where employees are treated with fairness and respect.

Originality/value

The study adds important knowledge to the bullying literature by focusing on the role of mechanisms and moderators in bullying situations, investigating how the combination of workplace bullying and injustice perceptions is reflected in employees' intention to leave the organization.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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