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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Hengfen Huang

With the trend of adaptive reuse of old buildings and the continuous development of the sports industry in China, transforming stadiums that are no longer suitable has…

Abstract

With the trend of adaptive reuse of old buildings and the continuous development of the sports industry in China, transforming stadiums that are no longer suitable has become a pressing issue. Based on this, the basic problems of adaptive transformation of urban stadium were discussed, and the motivation and principles of stadium reconstruction were analyzed. From the sense of place context, the openness of the interface and the integrity and diversity of the environment space, the reconstruction of the exterior space of the stadium was planned. In the reconstruction of the interior space of the stadium, the use of the interior space of the stadium and the needs that should be satisfied were mainly planned. Taking Yubei stadium in Chongqing as an example, the analysis was carried out. The planning structure, functional requirements, transportation, environment, spatial integrity and diversity were studied, and the current development trend of the stadium was reflected from the planning of interior and exterior space of gymnasium. In conclusion, this study provides a theoretical basis for the adaptive transformation of the stadium, and it is of great significance.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Abhinav Alakshendra

American taxpayers heavily subsidize professional sports leagues and teams through direct and indirect public funding to build professional sports stadiums. Today, the…

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Abstract

Purpose

American taxpayers heavily subsidize professional sports leagues and teams through direct and indirect public funding to build professional sports stadiums. Today, the proportion of public funding to build professional sports stadiums is greater than private contribution. In last 20 years, almost all of the 100 professional stadiums opened have received some form of direct or indirect financial assistance from local, state and federal government. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates and documents most often used methods of stadium financing in recent years along with the historical shift from privately built stadiums to public funded stadiums in the span of 65 years. This paper also briefly reviews the literature evaluating the impacts of public spending for professional sports stadiums. The vast literature on the topic reveals that economists and city planners agree that public subsidy to build expensive professional sports stadiums cannot be justified on the grounds of perceived economic development.

Findings

Over the years, funding mix to build professional sports facilities has changed dramatically. Local government has been coming up with various financing strategies involving new and old instruments.

Originality/value

The findings also suggest that share of local and state government has gone up in recent years compare to federal government share.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 42 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2019

Jinao Chen, Aming Lu and Feng Zhai

In order to ensure the high-quality completion of the construction of stadiums and gymnasiums and the smooth holding of the Fourteenth National Games, through on-the-spot…

111

Abstract

In order to ensure the high-quality completion of the construction of stadiums and gymnasiums and the smooth holding of the Fourteenth National Games, through on-the-spot investigation and collation of relevant literature at home and abroad, lessons are drawn from the experience of the planning and construction of the stadiums and gymnasiums of the recent three National Games. According to the investigation of the stadiums and gymnasiums in Shaanxi Province, the number, characteristics, overall layout and construction methods of the required stadiums are specifically analyzed. Taking Xi'an Sports Center as an example, from the point of view of the construction requirements of the main stadium of the National Games and the sports construction technology, the functional orientation and construction standards of the competition facilities and training base facilities are put forward. Especially for the planning and design of sports construction facilities including “one stadium, two gymnasiums”, Tennis Center and outdoor sports stadium, the specific index analysis is made. The index analysis provides suggestions for the compilation of the planning and design task sheet of Xi'an Sports Center, and provides reference for the planning and construction of other stadiums and gymnasiums for the Fourteenth National Games.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Huawei Liang

In recent years, China has accelerated the modernization and renovation of the sports facilities, which greatly promoted the development of sports in China. However…

Abstract

In recent years, China has accelerated the modernization and renovation of the sports facilities, which greatly promoted the development of sports in China. However, adaptability and renovation experience in our country is lacking, moreover, the reconstruction of the stadium has certain blindness. In this study, the adaptability of the external and internal spaces of the stadium were analyzed and studied separately. The external transformation transformed the stadium into an open space to be combined with the surrounding environment. The internal transformation mainly expands and functions richly. The stadium can enhance the level of competition and the opening of the transformation through the case study of the adaptability of the Z stadium.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Xuemin Zhao and Xinbao Wang

At present, the evaluation methodology on the design innovation of the stadia is not complete. The degree of innovation of the design scheme of the stadia still cannot be…

Abstract

At present, the evaluation methodology on the design innovation of the stadia is not complete. The degree of innovation of the design scheme of the stadia still cannot be quantitatively estimated; this inability makes it difficult to guide the selection of a design scheme. To solve the problem of evaluation on the innovative design of the stadia, improve such design’s evaluation theory, and accurately direct the selection of the design scheme of the stadia, the Delphi method is used to select evaluation indexes. Moreover, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to determine the index weight in this study; based on this index weight, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to establish the model of the design innovation evaluation of the stadia. The model involves the comprehensive and simple selection of indexes and the high reliability of weight selection; the model can quantitatively calculate the comprehensive index evaluation value of the design innovation of the stadia in a relatively accurate and rapid way. In this study, Hunan People’s Stadium is taken as the example for design innovation evaluation; the procedure of design innovation evaluation is introduced in detail. The design innovation evaluation value of the stadia is 2.977 through analysis; this value indicates an ordinary degree of innovation. The innovation evaluation value of the shape is 3.425; this value shows a relatively high degree of innovation. The innovation evaluation value of the structure is 2.47; this value represents a relatively low degree of innovation. The model in this study is an accurate and prompt model that can conduct a comprehensive evaluation on the design innovation of the stadia based on quantitative calculation. This model directly and comprehensively finds the advantages and disadvantages of a design scheme. Thus, it is quite suitable for the design innovation evaluation of the stadia.

Details

Open House International, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Jackson Sears, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy B. Kellison

The usage of sport stadia for public service is increasingly common and may come in different forms. In the COVID-19 pandemic, this included sport entities hosting mass…

Abstract

Purpose

The usage of sport stadia for public service is increasingly common and may come in different forms. In the COVID-19 pandemic, this included sport entities hosting mass COVID-19 vaccinations at their stadiums. The purpose of this study was to examine the branding effects of a COVID-19 mass vaccination center as communicated by (1) a sport entity (i.e. stadium and its two teams) and (2) the public.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed the entity's social media messages related to the mass vaccination center for the three groups, the stadium and its two sports team tenants (N = 48) while comparing the public's social media content about the vaccination center (N = 187). An empirical material coding analysis was conducted.

Findings

The sport entity's posts revealed 12 codes, five categories and two themes communicated about their brand: In this together–community impact and showcasing brand attributes. The public posts analysis revealed 21 codes, eight categories and four themes, creating brand awareness, establishing/reaffirming brand attributes, affective response and in this together–community response.

Originality/value

The identification of the two organization themes and four public themes provided an initial examination of the mass vaccination efforts' impact on the sport entity's brand. With the rise of stadia being utilized as public service venues (e.g. voting centers and disaster shelters), the results of the study can provide guidance to communicating the host team's brand during these times. Results also suggest the public perception of such service reflected positive opportunities for brand exposure and subsequent effects for the teams.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Kyle S. Bunds, Christopher M. McLeod and Joshua I. Newman

The purpose of this chapter is to adopt and demonstrate the value of a political ecology approach in examining sport stadia, particularly stadia in the United States. We…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to adopt and demonstrate the value of a political ecology approach in examining sport stadia, particularly stadia in the United States. We attempt to highlight how in the development of stadia key decision-makers sometimes overlook questions of community and environmental health and security.

We took an ontological approach in considering what it means for the stadium to exist in the current political ideological time period. For us, this meant raising questions about how we understand the varying human and nonhuman components of the stadium, and how they connect and influence one another. From there, we outline why political ecology is a useful framework for examining the environmental costs of stadia and their development. We utilize the city of Detroit's decision to provide funding for Little Caesars Arena – home to professional basketball and hockey competitions – to argue that investment in sport stadia creates environmental opportunity costs to the “host” community.

In the case of Detroit, we argue that private economic gain took precedence over community and environmental health and security when decisions were made on infrastructure. Specifically, despite the city going through bankruptcy and locking citizens out of water, the decision was made to provide millions of dollars for the construction of Little Caesars Arena and the development of the land immediately surrounding the arena. Through this, we suggest the need to produce informed case studies surrounding the environmental consideration.

The focus on community and environmental health and security is lacking from the discourse of stadia development in the United States. This chapter seeks to bring this consideration to the forefront by offering a way to examine these issues from a political ecological standpoint, and we urge researchers to conduct case studies using a political ecological framework with a community focus.

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Tiberio Daddi, Francesco Rizzi, Gaia Pretner, Niccolò Todaro, Eleonora Annunziata, Marco Frey and Fabio Iraldo

The relation between sport and sustainability is a topic that has recently raised a lot of interest among both academics and practitioners. However, in the academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The relation between sport and sustainability is a topic that has recently raised a lot of interest among both academics and practitioners. However, in the academic literature, very few studies have investigated which solutions are implemented in football, despite its popularity, to reduce the environmental impact of its events. This study contributes to filling this gap by exploring how stadium managers tackle environmental issues for football events.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have analyzed 94 sustainability reports of major sports events and conducted 6 case studies in 6 different major league stadiums around Europe in the framework of research supported by UEFA and three EU National Football Associations.

Findings

The heterogeneity of practices and goals at both the governance and operational level denote that stadium managers pursue environmental objectives mainly voluntarily and under local pressures. Efforts toward environmental improvement appear to depend on an economic and efficiency rationale, which translates into the adoption of technologies and operational practices characterized by short-term economic returns (i.e. energy and resources savings). As a result, operational practices outnumber governance-level practices.

Practical implications

The analysis clearly highlights that the fragmentation of operational practices derives from a lack of maturity of governance structures, especially when multiple actors have different – yet mutually influencing – responsibilities on the infrastructures or the planning and staging of football events.

Originality/value

Building on the notion of the holistic approach to environmental sustainability in sport management the research differentiated environmental practices according to the operational and governance dimensions. While operational practices tackle environmental aspects directly associated with football events (e.g. waste, energy consumption, water usage, etc.), governance-level practices relate to the systemic allocation of environmental roles and responsibilities within the management structure underlying football events.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2022

Paul J. Kitchin, Juan Luis Paramio-Salcines, Simon Darcy and Geoff Walters

The aim of this paper is to synthesise existing literature on sports stadia, spectators with disabilities (SwD) and accessibility to identify themes and to highlight the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to synthesise existing literature on sports stadia, spectators with disabilities (SwD) and accessibility to identify themes and to highlight the gaps in the literature. This review subsequently develops two propositions that will enable research in this emerging area to further develop.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was guided by two research questions: First, what does the peer reviewed evidence tell us about SwD and the accessibility of sporting stadia?; Second, how can this information be used to develop a Stadium Accessibility Scale (SAS)? The authors conducted a rapid review of the literature across three databases that identified 34 papers for synthesis.

Findings

The synthesis revealed three research themes: a focus on legislative compliance, the need to enhance resources (both physical and human) and research that focusses on moving beyond the stadium experience. The latter can be subdivided into two streams – studies that look at accessibility as a social legacy of major events and studies that seek to understand the whole journey that SwD's must make to attend sport events.

Research limitations/implications

The study makes two key recommendations. The first is to encourage further research aligned to the HOPES framework (Paramio-Salcines et al., 2016) that explicitly recognises the importance of understanding the broader approach to the customer experience. The second is the need for the development and validation of a reliable SAS.

Originality/value

Greater accessibility provides a foundation for inclusive environments in sport. The findings are relevant for all stakeholders in sport as universal accessibility benefits more than people with disabilities.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Simon van Heck, Bart Valks and Alexandra Den Heijer

The objective of stadium owners is to attract visitors to their stadiums and by this optimally use their business potential. Stadiums face increasing competition from…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of stadium owners is to attract visitors to their stadiums and by this optimally use their business potential. Stadiums face increasing competition from home-viewing options, with which especially aging stadiums have trouble competing. This paper aims to study the concept of smart stadiums as a solution to this problem, adding the corona age as an additional challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

First, (smart) stadium literature and theories are reviewed. Then, a case study is conducted, consisting of document review, observations and semi-structured interviews with specialists. The case that is studied is the Johan Cruijff Arena in Amsterdam – the stadium has the ambition to be the most innovative stadium in 2020.

Findings

Nine different smart tools were identified in the case study, which supports the optimization of various processes in the stadium such as ticketing and crowd control. The findings from this case study showed the potential of the smart stadium concept and how it can add value for the stadium’s stakeholders. The use of smart tools can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of stadium operations, and it can be used to improve the visitors’ experience. However, concrete numbers of progress were difficult to obtain because the smart tools were only recently implemented.

Originality/value

As seen in the past few years, more and more stadiums are branding themselves as a smart stadium. However, research on this subject is still scarce: existing research focused on other types of real estate. By exploring the work done in theory and practice, the authors hope to increase research on the subject of smart stadiums.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate , vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

Keywords

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