Steady progress has been achieved with implementing legislated public sector equal employment opportunities (EEO) policies and programs to fulfil the aim of increasing the…
Steady progress has been achieved with implementing legislated public sector equal employment opportunities (EEO) policies and programs to fulfil the aim of increasing the representation of EEO groups in public employment. However, there remain areas of significant gender differences in the public sector labour market. One of the most persistent problems has been segregation by gender and this characteristic employment pattern can be discerned across industry, occupation, firm and type of employment contract. This research compares and contrasts the effect of gender domination on the gender composition of tiers of management and numbers in the Senior Executive Service across a state government public service in Australia. The career progression of males and females in female‐dominated and male‐dominated agencies are examined to determine whether different career outcomes can be discerned under conditions of significantly greater numbers of one gender being employed. Findings indicate that men in female‐dominated agencies have different employment profiles and career patterns to those of women in male‐dominated agencies.
This article presents the results of an exploratory study of wage outcomes in the West Australian public sector. The research aimed to determine the effect of gender…
This article presents the results of an exploratory study of wage outcomes in the West Australian public sector. The research aimed to determine the effect of gender segregation on pay bargaining outcomes in a deregulated industrial relations regime. In the first part of the article, public sector employment relations are discussed and analysed. The second part provides a synopsis of the changes in the legislative and industrial relations environment in Western Australia. The final part examines the effect of gender segregation on bargaining outcomes in the Western Australian public sector.
This chapter explores religion and spirituality as a form and source of demographic differences relevant to the study of occupational stress and well-being. The purpose of…
This chapter explores religion and spirituality as a form and source of demographic differences relevant to the study of occupational stress and well-being. The purpose of the chapter is to provide a resource and starting point to occupational health and stress researchers who may be interested in religion/spirituality. A review of critical religion/spirituality concepts is provided, along with a discussion of how religion/spirituality can be integrated into common occupational stress theories and reconciled with commonly studied variables within this domain. A series of future research directions involving religion/spirituality and occupational health and stress are ultimately presented.
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This article presents a General Theory of Social Systems. This general theory proposes a model and method for the design, behaviour, and development of social systems. The model advanced is an exposition of the universal composition of social systems in three‐dimensions. The accompanying prescribed method offers dissection and analysis of past, present, and planned systems from Micro to Meta scales in isolation and relation to external systems.
Multi‐layer surface finish, from the bottom to top, of electroless Ni, electroless Pd, and immersion Au (Ni/Pd/Au) have been introduced in the printed circuit board (PCB…
Multi‐layer surface finish, from the bottom to top, of electroless Ni, electroless Pd, and immersion Au (Ni/Pd/Au) have been introduced in the printed circuit board (PCB) industry recently. This paper reports an evaluation of this surface finish from the perspective of solder joint attachment reliability, especially to see if the Ni/Pd/Au could be immune from the brittle interfacial fracture of PBGA on electroless Ni/immersion Au, recently observed and reported by us. PCBs with Ni/Pd/Au finishes, made from two vendors with varied Pd layer thickness were attached with PBGA packages, and tested in four‐point bending. When joint strength is strong, bending tests resulted in peeling off the PCB pads; otherwise, brittle fractures occurred at the interface between solder balls and PCB pads. After aging, solder joints on all Ni/Pd/Au and reference metal finishes failed by the same brittle fracture at the interface between Ni‐Sn and Au‐Sn intermetallic compounds. It is concluded that the interfacial fracture was controlled by something other than the Pd, and the existence of the Pd did not prevent the interfacial fracture. Also, the presence of Pd could not prevent the Au migration and subsequent fracture.
My early life was punctuated by turning points and transformations that gradually led to a surprising and late-blooming academic career – my first “real” sociology…
My early life was punctuated by turning points and transformations that gradually led to a surprising and late-blooming academic career – my first “real” sociology position began when I was 44. Here I trace six different trajectories of scholarly work which have compelled me: feminist women's health and technoscience studies; social worlds/arenas and the disciplinary emergence of reproductive sciences; the sociology of work and scientific practices; biomedicalization studies; grounded theory and situational analysis as qualitative research methods; and symbolic interaction-ists and -isms. I have circled back across them multiple times. Instead of seeing a beautifully folded origami of a life, it feels more like a crumpled wad of newspapers from various times. Upon opening and holding them up to the light in different ways, stories may be slowly discerned. I try to capture here some of the sweetness and fragility of these moments toward the end of an initially stuttering but later wondrously gratifying career.
The purpose of this paper is to define a typology of strategic segmentation accounting for antecedents (potentially conscious or subconscious) that influence marketing…
The purpose of this paper is to define a typology of strategic segmentation accounting for antecedents (potentially conscious or subconscious) that influence marketing managers’ practice of strategic segmentation, thereby formulating a new theoretical basis to bridge the current theory–practice literature gap in strategic segmentation.
Based on the resource-advantage theory, this paper defines a typology of strategic segmentation that depicts how a firm’s access to imperfectly mobile resources relates to the marketing manager’s assumed heterogeneity of the market and to the manager’s approach to the market.
The authors postulate a typology of firms’ strategic segmentation and approach to the market that is heavily influenced, and potentially limited, by the firm’s available resources to effectively segment and address the market.
The typology suggests that resource availability affects a manager’s view and approach to the market. Therefore, testing of this typology should be performed to provide an empirical basis for a taxonomical foundation of strategic segmentation. Empirical testing should examine whether: resource availability is directly related to managers’ views of market heterogeneity, resources are negatively correlated with market approach, market-based intelligence (customer needs) are linked to the market approach, and there is relationship between a firm’s position within the typology and its long-term performance.
This paper provides an understanding that a manager’s knowledge of resource availability may be strategically counter-productive when creating a strategic segmentation. This limitation may lead to short-run choices for segmentation and market approach. Managers should, therefore, consider their strategic goals both with and without limiting their view based on current resources.
This paper provides the first typology of strategic segmentation by considering theoretical foundations of business that could bridge the often-noted theory–practice gap of segmentation.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze conditional failure rates, and prioritize water pipelines for replacement based on their expected failure rate where pipes are…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze conditional failure rates, and prioritize water pipelines for replacement based on their expected failure rate where pipes are grouped based on age and pipe type. Thus, predictions can be made on the expected number of breaks in future years.
The time to failure of a pipe can be characterized by the stochastic properties of the population as a whole, from which the likelihood of component failure is derived. When the corresponding failure rate is plotted against time, a bathtub‐shaped curve results. The bathtub curve assists in determining maintenance schedules depending on the age of the pipe. Failure rates help determine whether the rates are more than an acceptable best practice threshold to signal replacement.
Ductile iron pipes had the highest failure rates, followed by asbestos cement pipes; PVC and concrete cylinder pipes had the lowest failure rates, but because concrete cylinder pipes are very time‐consuming to repair and very expensive to install, only PVC pipes are recommended on the basis of this study. Cast iron pipes fit the bathtub shape; ductile iron and asbestos concrete were somewhat bathtub shaped, though the early phase period was not apparent; the bathtub curve for concrete cylinder was fully inverted; while PVC pipes showed zero probability of failure during the middle period. The shapes of bathtub curves drawn on conditional failure rates were similar to those for the failure rates. The bathtub curves indicate that the general failure performance of pipe materials is somewhat contrary to general principles in manufacturing.
Analysis of failure serves a practical purpose for water utilities to allocate funds for pipe maintenance and prepare a schedule for pipe replacement, so as to provide the best quality services and safe drinking water to users of the utility.
The proper prioritization of water supply pipes for repair and replacement is of great social importance to the public at large, which expends considerable funds to maintain their drinking water supply.
The study of bathtub curves has not been seen before in the analysis of water supply pipes. A unique discovery is that the traditional shape of the bathtub curve is not always applicable for water supply pipes.