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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Andrew Allan Johnson, Guy Bingham and Candice Majewski

The purpose of this paper is to establish the minimum thickness required to provide stab protection in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the minimum thickness required to provide stab protection in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) standards while testing a series of laser sintered (LS) planar specimens using instrumented test apparatus.

Design/methodology/approach

Planar test specimens were LS in single-layer thicknesses ranging from 1.00 to 15.00 mm in four material powder categories – DuraForm® virgin, DuraForm 50/50 mix, DuraForm EX® virgin and DuraForm EX 50/50 mix. All specimens were tested using instrumented drop test apparatus and were impacted with established Stanley Tools 1992 trimming blades to the UK HOSDB KR1-E1 stab impact energy level.

Findings

The research demonstrated that a minimum single planar specimen thickness of 11.00 mm, manufactured from DuraForm EX 50/50 mix powder, was required to provide protection against the HOSDB KR1-E1 level of stab impact energy. The alternative powder mixes tested within this experiment demonstrated poor levels of stab protection, with virgin powder specimens demonstrating no protection up to 15.00 mm, whereas DuraForm 50/50 mix specimens demonstrating inconsistent performances.

Originality/value

This paper enhances on existing literature surrounding the manufacturing and testing of additive manufacturing (AM) stab-resistant armour by adding further rigour to the testing of AM body armour specimens. In addition, this research establishes key foundation characteristics which could be utilised for the future development of bespoke AM body armour garments.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

John Dixon, Alexander Kouzmin and Nada Korac‐Kakabadse

Of many managerialist panaceas, the most prevalent one today is the assertion that private sector practices will solve the public sector’s “self‐evident” inadequate…

Abstract

Of many managerialist panaceas, the most prevalent one today is the assertion that private sector practices will solve the public sector’s “self‐evident” inadequate performance. This managerialist view assumes hegemonic proportions in Anglo‐Saxon public sectors and largely goes unchallenged, notwithstanding serious reservations about the superiority of private managerial prerogatives one would draw from organization theory or, even, mainstream liberal economics, which is largely silent about the role of management and control in economic behaviour. It is a particular brand of economics that underscores the linking of public agency efficiency to managerial ability and performance. In neo‐institutional economics, “rent‐seeking” behaviour is attributed to civil servants, rather than corporate entrepreneurs, and from that ideological perspective of bureaucratic pathology flows a whole series of untested propositions culminating in the commercializing, corporatizing and privatizing rationales, now uncritically accepted by most bureaucrats themselves to be axiomatically true. The economistic underpinning of managerialism and its “New Functionalism” in organizational design hardly addresses the significant structural, cultural and behavioural changes necessary to bring about the rhetorical benefits said to flow from the application of managerialist solutions. Managerialism expects public managers to improve efficiency, reduce burdensome costs and enhance organizational performance in a competitive stakeholding situation. Managerialism largely ignores the administrative‐political environment which rewards risk‐averse behaviour which, in turn, militates against the very behavioural and organizational reforms managerialists putatively seek for the public sector.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Andrew Johnson, Guy A. Bingham and David I. Wimpenny

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the stab resistance characteristics of a series of planar and articulated laser sintered (LS) samples, in accordance with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the stab resistance characteristics of a series of planar and articulated laser sintered (LS) samples, in accordance with the United Kingdom Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) Body Armour Standard – Publication 39/07.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of LS planar samples were manufactured using an EOS P100 Formiga system, manufactured from 100 per cent virgin or a 50:50 mix of recycled and virgin Nylon (PA2200), ranging in thickness from 1‐10 mm. All planar samples were stab tested to the HOSDB knife‐resistance (KR) level one impact energy of 24 Joules, using an in‐house manufactured HOSDB guided rail drop test impact rig and standardised knives. Penetration through the underside of each sample was measured and recorded. These results were then used to develop an articulated, additive manufactured (AM) scale textile – LS from a 50:50 mix of recycled and virgin PA2200 powder. These samples were then tested using the aforementioned impact rig and stab impact energy.

Findings

The research demonstrated that while virgin PA2200 sample required a minimum thickness of 8 mm to achieve stab‐resistance below the HOSDB maximum penetration limit of 7 mm, this figure can be reduced to 5.6 mm when manufacturing LS planar samples from a 50:50 mix of virgin and recycled PA2200. Results from stab testing the articulated samples indicated a successful AM textile‐like design, with a maximum knife penetration of 1.6 mm – below the 7 mm HOSDB limit.

Originality/value

The paper describes a unique application of AM technologies for the manufacture of high‐performance stab resistant AM textiles.

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Zheng Gong, Xinming Qian and Mengqi Yuan

Stab-resistant body armor (SRBA) can protect the human body from injury as a result of stabbing by sharp projectiles. However, in its current design SRBA, it has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

Stab-resistant body armor (SRBA) can protect the human body from injury as a result of stabbing by sharp projectiles. However, in its current design SRBA, it has not been widely adopted for use, because of its weight and poor flexibility. Herein, this paper aims to detail a new type of SRBA that is inspired by the armor plating of mammals and is fabricated using laser sintering (LS) technology.

Design/methodology/approach

This new type of SRBA was fabricated using LS technology. The laser sintered SRBA was subjected to a stab resistance performance test that conformed to the GA 68-2008 Chinese National Standard. The stab resistance response of the novel structured, stab resistance test plates in this study was analyzed using the using the AUTODYN explicit module in ANSYS-Workbench.

Findings

The structure of the novel stab resistance plate was designed and the optimum structural parameters were tested, discussed and achieved. The mechanism of dissipation of the impact energy by the pyramidal structures of the novel SRBA was studied, and it was found that this structure dispersed the kinetic energy of the knife and minimized the structural damage to the plate. Interlinks inspired by the pangolin hierarchy structure were designed and used to fabricate a large piece of laser sintered body armor.

Originality/value

High-performance laser sintered stab resistance plate was produced via the material and structure studies, which could reduce 40 per cent weight on the stab resistance body armor and increase the wearability.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Barnaby Dunn and Winifred Bolton

This case study describes how threats to stab people, in a client with learning disabilities, may have been inadvertently reinforced during detention in a medium secure…

Abstract

This case study describes how threats to stab people, in a client with learning disabilities, may have been inadvertently reinforced during detention in a medium secure unit by over‐looking borderline personality traits. Formulating the case from the biopsychosocial model of borderline personality disorder (Linehan, 1993), the article illustrates how an invalidating environment provided by learning disability services may have interacted with underlying difficulties in emotion regulation to reinforce challenging behaviour. Explaining threats to stab purely in terms of learning disability accidentally invalidated the client's emotional distress, so the only way he could convey how he was feeling was by escalating challenging behaviour. Risk management procedures also strengthened the client's belief that he was a dangerous person, and reinforced the challenging behaviour by gaining interpersonal attention. The need for learning disability services to be aware of how personality features contribute to learning disability presentations and to formulate from an interactive perspective is highlighted.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Jenny Lloyd

The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities of geographical child protection assessment methods for adolescents victimised in extra-familial contexts.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities of geographical child protection assessment methods for adolescents victimised in extra-familial contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Presenting empirical evidence from an action research study within one child protection service in the UK, the study draws upon qualitative data from practice observations, case review, training and five context assessments.

Findings

Safety mapping and neighbourhood observations provide options to assess extra-familial contexts. Findings reveal that these methods support practitioners to build local knowledge of areas supporting interventions into community places rooted in principles of child protection.

Research limitations/implications

While geographical methods are already used by the police to map the locations of crimes, these methods provide opportunities to account for young people’s own experiences of harm and support interventions into neighbourhood spaces supporting a contextual safeguarding approach to adolescent harm.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the need for further testing of contextual safeguarding approaches and policy guidance that outlines whose role it is to protect children in communities.

Social implications

Geographical assessment methods provide a route to engage with young people’s lived experience of place. And develop interventions that target contexts and not just individuals affected by extra-familial harm.

Originality/value

The paper presents original research into the use of geographical assessment methods to be used within a child protection framework.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Swen Koerner, Mario S. Staller and André Kecke

The study compares the impact of two different pedagogical approaches in police training by assessing the knife defense performance of German police recruits against…

Abstract

Purpose

The study compares the impact of two different pedagogical approaches in police training by assessing the knife defense performance of German police recruits against different types of knife attacks. Linear or nonlinear – which pedagogical approach leads to more efficient knife defense performance?

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 20 German state police recruits (w = 5, m = 15) were assigned to linear and nonlinear groups. The linear and nonlinear groups' performance on knife defense was assessed in a pretest, after a three-week training intervention in a posttest and eight weeks thereafter in a retention test, utilizing a mixed-method design (Sendall et al., 2018).

Findings

Quantitative data on knife defense performance suggest a lastingly better performance of the nonlinear group: in the retention test, participants of the nonlinear group were hit less (p = 0.029), solved the attack faster (p = 0.044) and more often (81.8%) than participants of the linear group (55.6%). In contrast, qualitative data reveal that, despite of evidence for a high level of perceived competence, the nonlinear teaching of knife defense skills has been accompanied by considerable uncertainties, affected by the lack of techniques and the focus on principles and operational parameters only.

Originality/value

It is the first study assessing the impact of different pedagogical approaches in police training. For the practice of police trainers, the results provide empirical orientations for an evidence-based planning of and reflection on pedagogical demands within their training (Mitchell and Lewis, 2017).

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Jeanie M. Welch

One of the newest crimes to be put on the books is stalking, usually defined as repeatedly being in the presence of another person with the intent to cause emotional…

Abstract

One of the newest crimes to be put on the books is stalking, usually defined as repeatedly being in the presence of another person with the intent to cause emotional distress or bodily harm after being warned or requested not to do so. Stalking must be done over a period of time to indicate a pattern or continuity of purpose. Threats against a person or person's family may be stated or implied in stalking. Stalking victims are followed and harassed at work, at school, and at home. Stalking can also be done electronically, either using computers to send harassing e‐mail messages or by jamming telefacsimile machines with unwanted transmissions. There have been numerous high‐profile stalking cases that gained a great deal of publicity and focused attention on stalking. “Celebrity stalking” cases came to the public's attention in 1982 when actress Theresa Saldana was stabbed by a stalker. In 1989 actress Rebecca Schaeffer was shot and killed by a man who had stalked her for two years. In the 1990s the assault on skater Nancy Kerrigan, television talk shows and movies, and nonfiction works on stalking, including cases that ended with the death of the stalking victim, have focused public attention on this issue.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1985

B.S. Wyatt

Equipment and typical results from cathodic protection surveying systems. In the simplest form, cathodic protection surveying of fixed offshore platforms is achieved by…

Abstract

Equipment and typical results from cathodic protection surveying systems. In the simplest form, cathodic protection surveying of fixed offshore platforms is achieved by the so called ‘dipping’ technique, dipping a reference electrode into the sea and measuring a steel/sea potential with respect to it via an indicating voltmeter and a metallic connection to the topside steelwork. This procedure is allowed in NACE RP‐01–76 REF 36 but the standard does address the importance of placing the electrode close to platform members, distant from anodes and into areas of greatest shielding. The conventionally undertaken dip survey, particularly in geographic regions with substantial sea currents which cany the electrode away from structure members, is nothing better than a general indication of the overall level of protection. The probability is of errors indicating better levels than actually exist, due to the IR related voltage drops in the sea between the electrode location and the platform member.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2010

David Crystal

This paper seeks to explicate the notion of “semantics”, especially as it is being used in the context of the internet in general and advertising in particular.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explicate the notion of “semantics”, especially as it is being used in the context of the internet in general and advertising in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

The conception of semantics as it evolved within linguistics is placed in its historical context. In the field of online advertising, it shows the limitations of keyword‐based approaches and those where a limited amount of context is taken into account (contextual advertising). A more sophisticated notion of semantic targeting is explained, in which the whole page is taken into account in arriving at a semantic categorization. This is achieved through a combination of lexicological analysis and a purpose‐built semantic taxonomy.

Findings

The combination of a lexical analysis (derived from a dictionary) and a taxonomy (derived from a general encyclopedia, and subsequently refined) resulted in the construction of a “sense engine”, which was then applied to online advertising, Examples of the application illustrate how relevance and sensitivity (brand protection) of ad placement can be improved. Several areas of potential further application are outlined.

Originality/value

This is the first systematic application of linguistics to provide a solution to the problem of inappropriate ad placement online.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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