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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Ric Jensen and Bryan Butler

Throughout sport, the incidence of commercial sponsorship is increasing and shows no signs of slowing. This case study examines the negative consequences that can arise…

Abstract

Throughout sport, the incidence of commercial sponsorship is increasing and shows no signs of slowing. This case study examines the negative consequences that can arise when a corporate stadium naming rights partner (Enron) becomes embroiled in financial and ethical controversies and how its collapse affected the team that uses the stadium for its home games (Major League Baseball's Houston Astros). It examines public relations strategies and tactics the Astros used to disassociate themselves from Enron and to recapture public support.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Xuemin Zhao and Xinbao Wang

At present, the evaluation methodology on the design innovation of the stadia is not complete. The degree of innovation of the design scheme of the stadia still cannot be…

Abstract

At present, the evaluation methodology on the design innovation of the stadia is not complete. The degree of innovation of the design scheme of the stadia still cannot be quantitatively estimated; this inability makes it difficult to guide the selection of a design scheme. To solve the problem of evaluation on the innovative design of the stadia, improve such design’s evaluation theory, and accurately direct the selection of the design scheme of the stadia, the Delphi method is used to select evaluation indexes. Moreover, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to determine the index weight in this study; based on this index weight, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to establish the model of the design innovation evaluation of the stadia. The model involves the comprehensive and simple selection of indexes and the high reliability of weight selection; the model can quantitatively calculate the comprehensive index evaluation value of the design innovation of the stadia in a relatively accurate and rapid way. In this study, Hunan People’s Stadium is taken as the example for design innovation evaluation; the procedure of design innovation evaluation is introduced in detail. The design innovation evaluation value of the stadia is 2.977 through analysis; this value indicates an ordinary degree of innovation. The innovation evaluation value of the shape is 3.425; this value shows a relatively high degree of innovation. The innovation evaluation value of the structure is 2.47; this value represents a relatively low degree of innovation. The model in this study is an accurate and prompt model that can conduct a comprehensive evaluation on the design innovation of the stadia based on quantitative calculation. This model directly and comprehensively finds the advantages and disadvantages of a design scheme. Thus, it is quite suitable for the design innovation evaluation of the stadia.

Details

Open House International, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2019

Jinao Chen, Aming Lu and Feng Zhai

In order to ensure the high-quality completion of the construction of stadiums and gymnasiums and the smooth holding of the Fourteenth National Games, through on-the-spot…

Abstract

In order to ensure the high-quality completion of the construction of stadiums and gymnasiums and the smooth holding of the Fourteenth National Games, through on-the-spot investigation and collation of relevant literature at home and abroad, lessons are drawn from the experience of the planning and construction of the stadiums and gymnasiums of the recent three National Games. According to the investigation of the stadiums and gymnasiums in Shaanxi Province, the number, characteristics, overall layout and construction methods of the required stadiums are specifically analyzed. Taking Xi'an Sports Center as an example, from the point of view of the construction requirements of the main stadium of the National Games and the sports construction technology, the functional orientation and construction standards of the competition facilities and training base facilities are put forward. Especially for the planning and design of sports construction facilities including “one stadium, two gymnasiums”, Tennis Center and outdoor sports stadium, the specific index analysis is made. The index analysis provides suggestions for the compilation of the planning and design task sheet of Xi'an Sports Center, and provides reference for the planning and construction of other stadiums and gymnasiums for the Fourteenth National Games.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Timothy D. DeSchriver, Daniel A. Rascher and Stephen L. Shapiro

Two of the primary growth strategies for Major League Soccer (MLS) have been team expansion and the construction of soccer-specific stadiums. Therefore, the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Two of the primary growth strategies for Major League Soccer (MLS) have been team expansion and the construction of soccer-specific stadiums. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between these factors and game-specific MLS spectator attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

Two multiple regression models, one using multi-level mixed effects linear regression and another using interval regression, were developed to explain the variation in attendance utilizing the two factors of interest along with other control factors that have been identified as attendance determinants in previous literature. Game-specific data were collected for five MLS seasons, 2007-2011.

Findings

The two regression models explained approximately 40 percent of the variation in spectator attendance and the results showed that expansion teams and soccer-specific stadiums were significantly related to attendance. However, the effect of soccer-specific stadiums was minimized due to the extreme success of the Seattle Sounders in drawing about twice as many fans as the next highest drawing franchise, yet playing in an American football stadium.

Research limitations/implications

While many of the standard factors such as the presence of holidays and novelty players, competition from other professional teams, and day of week, competition from other professional teams; team quality failed to show significance. Expansion teams drew better than incumbent teams and the impact from soccer-specific stadia is weak given the success of the Seattle franchise (and possibly negative when excluding Seattle). Censoring of the dependent variable had a discernible impact on many of the attendance factors.

Practical implications

These findings may be useful to managers of MLS and their teams along with other professional teams and/or leagues that are investigating the use of either team expansion or the construction of new facilities to increase spectator attendance.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the relationship between expansion and new stadium construction in MLS over multiple years. The results indicate that MLS’s decision to use team expansion and the construction of soccer-specific stadiums has been beneficial with respect to spectator attendance.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Michael L. Naraine, Norm O'Reilly, Nadège Levallet and Liz Wanless

Although sports fans have increased their use of digital media to consume sport, especially at professional sport venues, it is unknown the extent to which patrons of said…

Abstract

Purpose

Although sports fans have increased their use of digital media to consume sport, especially at professional sport venues, it is unknown the extent to which patrons of said venues are utilizing venue services for these activities. As such, this study asks: (1) How much data do patrons at a sports venue consume via the provided Wi–Fi? and (2) What types of online activity behaviors do Wi–Fi users at sports venues exhibit?

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical study reports stadia Wi–Fi data usage and consumer behavior from three National Basketball Association venues in the United States: Amway Center in Orlando, FL, Barclays Center in Brooklyn, NY and Target Center in Minneapolis, MN, over a course of 7 games per venue.

Findings

The findings suggest that Wi–Fi usage is more limited than anticipated. Users who do utilize the venue Wi–Fi do so for very short periods, with the vast majority of user duration lasting between 1 and 10 min. Additionally, the halftime period of games experiences the peak of Wi–Fi usage.

Originality/value

By increasing our understanding of Wi–Fi usage in venues, this study informs relationship marketing theory research and contributes to the sport management literature. Practically, a better knowledge of Wi–Fi usage is critical, as it constitutes a critical antecedent to develop online marketing strategies.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Christopher Huth

Despite the growing number of corporate-sponsored sport facilities, public resistance to naming rights sometimes arises. In line with other supporter-based financial…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the growing number of corporate-sponsored sport facilities, public resistance to naming rights sometimes arises. In line with other supporter-based financial instruments such as fan bonds or shares, the possibility arises that a sport club’s supporters could invest in the stadium naming rights to secure a traditional name, possibly by initiating a crowdfunding project. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the factors separating potential capital providers from non-participants and to determine which factors influence the investment decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used an online questionnaire to evaluate respondents’ willingness to participate in a crowdfunding project. The data were analyzed by logit and probit regressions. The link was posted to selected online fan forums as well as to clubs’ fan group caretakers in Germany. In total, 708 respondents fully completed the questionnaires. Additionally, the authors provided the initial results of a proposal for a hypothetical reward-based crowdfunding project that was also part of the questionnaire.

Findings

The findings indicate that the most involved participants who support traditional values in sports are the most willing to participate in a crowdfunding project. Thus, crowdfunding can actually be seen as a supporter-based instrument that is an alternative to existing sport facility naming rights models. However, the analysis also indicates that the sums that can be generated through crowdfunding are limited.

Originality/value

Insight into a relatively new financial instrument is provided, and an alternative approach to sport facility naming rights management is offered. Ultimately, a combination of a crowdfunding project with financing by a certain number of sponsors supporting a traditional name is proposed, which may be a possible future solution that sport facility naming rights management groups can pursue.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Steve Frosdick

Presents the findings from recent research into the management ofpublic safety risks in British sports grounds. Discusses the concept of“safety culture” and briefly sets…

Abstract

Presents the findings from recent research into the management of public safety risks in British sports grounds. Discusses the concept of “safety culture” and briefly sets out the methodology adopted for the study. Reviews some previous work on “safety culture” analysis, and then cultural theory, introduces and offers a socio‐anthropological method of fourfold cultural categorization as the theoretical orientation. Reveals the four contrasting, viable and archetypical models of organizing the cross‐organizational collaboration required for public safety risk management in British stadia and other sporting venues. Concludes by drawing out some implications for public policy. Since there are four viable ways of organizing, and the management system at each venue will have evolved in response to its changing local environment, it follows that there is no “one best way” of managing safety at sports grounds.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Bastian Popp, Claas Christian Germelmann and Benjamin Jung

Social media has promoted anti-brand communities, which build around the shared aversion to a specific brand. The purpose of this paper is to investigate social…

Abstract

Purpose

Social media has promoted anti-brand communities, which build around the shared aversion to a specific brand. The purpose of this paper is to investigate social media-based anti-brand communities and their effects on the sports team brand in question.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a netnographic study of Facebook-based anti-brand communities that oppose a professional football team.

Findings

The netnographic study reveals characteristics and drivers of Facebook-based anti-brand communities that oppose a professional football team. The research further identifies co-destructive behaviours of anti-brand community members that harm the sports team brand and even its sponsors. However, the findings also reveal that anti-brand communities may play a positive role in sport, as they strengthen the relationship between fans of the opposed brand and this brand and foster rivalry among football fans.

Practical implications

This research establishes the relevance of social media-based anti-brand communities for sports brands. Recommendations are made for team sport brands with regards to how to deal with the phenomenon of anti-brand communities.

Originality/value

While the previous research on anti-brand activism focused on either offline movements or movements using traditional websites, this research is the first to investigate the pivotal role of social networking sites for anti-brand activism. The paper further uncovers unique motivational, attitudinal, and behavioral patterns of fans that meet in communities opposing not only the rival team, but also the brand associated with the team. Findings show ways to better understand and deal with such anti-brand communities in sports.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

James Santomier and John Gerlach

The purpose of this article is to examine selected public policy and funding issues of six New York Metropolitan Area sport venues and to discuss their implications for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine selected public policy and funding issues of six New York Metropolitan Area sport venues and to discuss their implications for the future of sport venue construction.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of this paper is a descriptive case study, which is appropriate when the question to be answered is how or why, when there is no necessary control of behavioral events, and when the study is focused on contemporary events. A systematic review of public documents and available research related to the recent development and funding of selected sport venues was conducted. In addition, a critical appraisal and financial analysis was performed on selected data collected from a variety of proprietary facility reports and public documents.

Findings

Based on a systematic examination of public documents and available research it was determined that a complex mix of local, regional, and state politics has impacted significantly the dynamics of professional sport venue development in the New York Metropolitan Area. It is also apparent that there has been a significant lack of transparency with respect to public policy. In addition, it appears that sport venue development in the entire US will experience a trend toward integration with retail, commercial, and residential real estate development that appears to be a result of political pressure and the need to rapidly recoup investment costs associated with sport venue construction.

Research limitations/implications

Because this is a descriptive case study, the findings, etc., are limited to those specific venues and public policy issues that were selected for examination.

Practical implications

This case study should provide educators and practitioners with insight into the complexity of mission critical decisions that are involved in the development and funding of sport venues. It also should provide insight into the political process related to sport venue construction and the importance of transparency in communicating with the public.

Social implications

This case study may provide educators and practitioners with insight into the relationship among public policy, venue financing, and selected social issues.

Originality/value

This case study provides original insight into the key elements of funding sport venues in the New York Metropolitan Area. It will provide educators and practitioners with a frame of reference for further examination of the development of sport venues worldwide.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Joseph Loersch and William Ross

The purpose of this paper is to describe a classroom negotiation exercise. A case involving controversy over the naming of a sports stadium containing a university…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a classroom negotiation exercise. A case involving controversy over the naming of a sports stadium containing a university football field and track is described. A local municipality, representing veterans groups, negotiates with university officials over a university plan to rename “Veteran's Memorial Stadium” after a recently‐retired football coach.

Design/methodology/approach

The negotiation activity is adapted from an actual case. It requires little advance preparation and can be used with either pairs or small groups of participants. “Teaching notes” provide instructions for using the activity.

Findings

The “Teaching Notes” examine how this controversy illustrates several concepts related to conflict, integrative bargaining, power and negotiating on behalf of constituents.

Originality/value

The case differs from many published cases in that one side's position is apparently rooted in values and matters of principle whereas the other side's position is interest‐based. The student must grapple with these dynamics, while seeking an integrative solution to the issues.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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