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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Ken Sumida, Junya Fujimoto and Masayuki Sakata

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate sport spectators’ attitudes, specifically team loyalty and attitude towards spectating behaviour by investigating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate sport spectators’ attitudes, specifically team loyalty and attitude towards spectating behaviour by investigating the reliability and validity of the proposed model, and the influence of the attitudinal factors on intention to re-attend sporting events.

Design/methodology/approach

In this quantitative study, data were longitudinally collected from five professional soccer teams of the Japanese professional soccer league official surveys of 2008. The study was analysed in two phases by first examining the reliability and validity of the measurements and then the appropriateness of the model. Finally, a multiple group analysis was conducted to examine the applicability across the aforementioned five teams.

Findings

Team loyalty conceptually and empirically differed from attitudes towards spectating behaviour. The proposed model indicated how attitudes have impacts on spectators’ future attendance at professional sports events, but the model significantly changed when parameters of the model were progressively constrained, suggesting that each team's uniqueness may influence spectators’ intention to attend future games.

Originality/value

Sport spectators’ attitudes play a significant role in the decision-making process of deciding to attend an event, and an understanding of how spectators’ attitudes influence their intention to re-attend events could be of value to both scholars and sports team managers. Spectators of each team have their own characteristics and although this makes it difficult to generalise the results, this study contributes to an understanding of spectators’ attitudes.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Max Sjöblom, Joseph Macey and Juho Hamari

Esports (electronic sports) are watched by hundreds of millions of people every year and many esports have overtaken large traditional sports in spectator numbers. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Esports (electronic sports) are watched by hundreds of millions of people every year and many esports have overtaken large traditional sports in spectator numbers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate spectating differences between online spectating of esports and live attendance of esports events. This is done in order to further understand attendance behaviour for a cultural phenomenon that is primarily mediated through internet technologies, and to be able to predict behavioural patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the Motivation Scale for Sports Consumption to investigate the gratifications spectators derive from esports, both from attending tournaments physically and spectating online, in order to explore which factors may explain the esports spectating behaviour. The authors investigate how these gratifications lead into continued spectatorship online and offline, as well as the likelihood of recommending esports to others. The authors employ two data sets, one collected from online spectators (n=888), the other from live attendees (n=221).

Findings

The results indicate that online spectators rate drama, acquisition of knowledge, appreciation of skill, novelty, aesthetics and enjoyment of aggression higher than live attendees. Correspondingly, social interaction and physical attractiveness were rated higher by live attendees. Vicarious achievement and physical attractiveness positively predicted intention to attend live sports events while vicarious achievement and novelty positively predicted future online consumption of esports. Finally, vicarious achievement and novelty positively predicted recommending esports to others.

Originality/value

During the past years, esports has emerged as a new form of culture and entertainment, that is unique in comparison to other forms of entertainment, as it is almost fully reliant on computer-human interaction and the internet. This study offers one of the first attempts to compare online spectating and live attendance, in order to better understand the phenomenon and the consumers involved. As the growth of esports is predicted to continue in the coming years, further understanding of this phenomenon is pivotal for multiple stakeholder groups.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Juho Hamari and Max Sjöblom

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why do people spectate eSports on the internet. The authors define eSports (electronic sports) as “a form of sports where the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why do people spectate eSports on the internet. The authors define eSports (electronic sports) as “a form of sports where the primary aspects of the sport are facilitated by electronic systems; the input of players and teams as well as the output of the eSports system are mediated by human-computer interfaces.” In more practical terms, eSports refer to competitive video gaming (broadcasted on the internet).

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs the motivations scale for sports consumption which is one of the most widely applied measurement instruments for sports consumption in general. The questionnaire was designed and pre-tested before distributing to target respondents (n=888). The reliability and validity of the instrument both met the commonly accepted guidelines. The model was assessed first by examining its measurement model and then the structural model.

Findings

The results indicate that escapism, acquiring knowledge about the games being played, novelty and eSports athlete aggressiveness were found to positively predict eSport spectating frequency.

Originality/value

During recent years, eSports (electronic sports) and video game streaming have become rapidly growing forms of new media in the internet driven by the growing provenance of (online) games and online broadcasting technologies. Today, hundreds of millions of people spectate eSports. The present investigation presents a large study on gratification-related determinants of why people spectate eSports on the internet. Moreover, the study proposes a definition for eSports and further discusses how eSports can be seen as a form of sports.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2019

Konstantinos Koronios, Athanasios Kriemadis and Andreas Papadopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to investigate issues relevant to service quality and propose a conceptual model addressing the convictions held by consumers in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate issues relevant to service quality and propose a conceptual model addressing the convictions held by consumers in relation to the service quality of sport services as regards spectators and their influence on sport consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative method was used for the purpose of this study and 1,643 questionnaires were gathered and analyzed. The current research intended to employ an integrated service quality model within the scope of sport spectating. The model included five fundamental factors and they were examined in association with the behavioral intentions that spectators have. By combining all these factors and aspects, it was attempted to shape consumers’ general perception regarding quality in service. The model of the research considers quality in service to be a hierarchical construct comprising many dimensions and it is observed that service quality can be classified into five factors, all of which can be defined by a variety of corresponding sub-factors.

Findings

The outcomes showed that four of the suggested factors regarding quality (i.e. game quality, augmented service quality, interaction quality and outcome quality) had an important as well as favorable influence on sport consumption.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical evidence for this research is derived from one specific professional sport event (European Basketball League) and spectators who took part were from Greece. Future research could use a wider sample of sport events and the participation of spectators from various countries is necessary before such findings are generalized.

Originality/value

The present research provides a contemporary analysis of factors influencing sport spectators anticipated quality and their influence on sport consumption.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2020

Konstantinos Koronios, Antonios Travlos, John Douvis and Andreas Papadopoulos

The present study is an initial attempt to assess the impact of motivators and constraints on individual's intention for sport media consumption. The advancement of sport

Abstract

Purpose

The present study is an initial attempt to assess the impact of motivators and constraints on individual's intention for sport media consumption. The advancement of sport media consumption has been underlined by the academic literature during the past few years. In fact, one of the most conspicuous concerns that experts in the sport industry face nowadays is the fans' preference to stay home and watch sport events. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of motivations and constraints for individuals' sport media consumption intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative method was used for the purpose of this study, and a sum of 1,704 fulfilled questionnaires were obtained and analyzed by means of SPSS and AMOS

Findings

According to the results, internal and external motivators such as attachment to team, achievement, social, drama, role model and promotion observed to have a considerable impact on participants' consumption intention. Moreover, results pointed out a significant impact of structural and intrapersonal constraints on consumption intention.

Originality/value

The aim of the present research was to analyze the link between the constraints of spectator purposes and actual media consumption. In addition, there is an examination of generation-based factors among the spectators within the scope of possible contrasting aspects, a variable which has not been examined in any previous studies until now.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Hirotaka Matsuoka and Akiko Arai

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Yuko Minowa and Terrence H. Witkowski

This study seeks to further understanding of spectator consumption practices by applying modern consumer theory in a much different historical context: the gladiator games…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to further understanding of spectator consumption practices by applying modern consumer theory in a much different historical context: the gladiator games during the time of the Roman Empire. The objective is to validate modern ideas of consumption practices with evidence from the past.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws from a sampling of classical and contemporary literatures as well as the interpretation of the images and inscriptions delineated on archaeological artifacts such as relief sculptures on sarcophagi, floor mosaics, fresco paintings, and terracotta and glass lamps. The visual content and consumption themes of selected objects are described and analyzed.

Findings

Spectators at the Roman games used these events for the sake of the experience, for integrating themselves into their community, for classifying themselves in a certain group category, and for interacting and socializing with other people. As in modern sporting events, consuming the Roman games served both instrumental and autotelic purposes for spectators. The games were directly an object of consumption as well as the focal resource of interpersonal communications.

Research limitations/implications

The set of visual data sources is small and the literary evidence is in translation of the original sources.

Originality/value

The research shows that Holt's typology of sports consumer practices is supported by evidence from a much different time and context. Thus, the theory provides a robust framework for analysing consumer practices and rituals.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Daniel C. Funk, Daniel F. Mahony, Makoto Nakazawa and Sumiko Hirakawa

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event…

Abstract

A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event. Spectators (N=1,321) attending five different US venues during the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup were administered the SII. Analysis revealed that sport and team interest, excitement, supporting women's opportunity in sport, aesthetics and vicarious achievement explained 35 per cent of the variance in spectators' interest in the event. Results provide sport marketers with consumer-based marketing strategies, particularly for women's sport.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2007

Rudi Meir and Don Scott

This paper examines the literature relating to tribalism and considers its existence and its relevance to the marketing of sport. Tribal marketing is not a feature of the…

Abstract

This paper examines the literature relating to tribalism and considers its existence and its relevance to the marketing of sport. Tribal marketing is not a feature of the philosophy dominating today's sports marketing programmes. It is suggested, however, that more focus be placed on the interactions and relationships of groups of sports spectators as tribal members, and this paper presents factors that should be considered by the sports marketer to encourage and facilitate tribalism.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Behzad Foroughi, KhairulAnuar Mohammad Shah, Davoud Nikbin and Sunghyup Sean Hyun

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between event quality and fan satisfaction and consequent fan attendance of soccer matches in Iran. Data on game…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between event quality and fan satisfaction and consequent fan attendance of soccer matches in Iran. Data on game quality, augmented service, interaction, outcome, environment, fan satisfaction and attendance were gathered from 260 spectators attending an Iranian premier league soccer match by means of a survey. The results show that, except for interaction, all dimensions of event quality have a significant relationship with fan satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of game quality on fan satisfaction is stronger than other dimensions. The results also confirm the significant relationship between fan satisfaction and attendance. Fan satisfaction is shown to be partially mediating the relationship between event quality and game attendance. Practical implications for facility managers and sports marketers are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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