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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Ram Herstein and Ron Berger

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies

Abstract

Purpose

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies, and how businesses take advantage of such opportunities to increase their incomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A new framework is presented that is based on four different alternatives for city re‐branding strategies based on sport events. These four re‐branding strategies are derived from two main dimensions: the locus of the sports event (local vs international) and the longevity of the sports event (one‐off vs continual).

Findings

Prospective hosts of mega or international sports events must ensure that people all over the world see their city as a leisure, tourism and consumption center and not just a sports arena. Conversely, when hosting medium or minor sports events, planners must aim for these sport events to increase residents' civic pride.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper demonstrates how city planners and decision makers can leverage their city image and its business sector's potential to earn from this event directly and indirectly, based on the aforesaid four re‐branding strategies: Mega sports events, International sports events, Medium sport events, and Minor sport events.

Originality/value

This article deals with four types of sports event strategies at the same time, whereas other investigations tend to deal with only a single type.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Joon-ho Kang

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Tommasina Pianese

This study aims at understanding how professional sports events compete with each other to attract spectators, sponsors and media coverage, by referring to the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at understanding how professional sports events compete with each other to attract spectators, sponsors and media coverage, by referring to the resource-based view (RBV) theory, which interprets firms as a bundle of idiosyncratic resources and capabilities. Specifically, the authors aim to identify the value-creating resources that support event success in the long run.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a literature review on RBV and sports events, which provided the analytic categories used for on a cross-case analysis of popular cycling events held in Italy.

Findings

Each event has different value-creating resources, depending on its governance model. Specifically, organisational knowledge accumulated over time by a stable event promoter/organiser enables an understanding of stakeholders’ needs and leads to a competitive advantage. As for events with temporary organising committees, event reputation is decisive to their long-term success. Here, event promoters play a key role in managing reputation over time, i.e., properly selecting host countries, balancing their cultural differences and supporting their capacity to produce long-term benefits.

Originality/value

Sports events may be leveraged within place-branding strategies to increase the attractiveness and level of socio-economic development of a destination. It is thus important to understand the competitive dynamics among sports events. The existing studies have focused on event organisers while underestimating the contribution of sports organisations and/or private companies that promote sport events. This study adopts a broad perspective that takes account of both promoters and organisers in order to verify whether and how the governance model affects the resources relevant to the event’s success.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Jinho Choi, Yosuke Tsuji, Michael Hutchinson and Adrien Bouchet

Event sponsorship has been recognised as an effective means through which companies can communicate with target markets and attendees of sports events. This study…

Abstract

Event sponsorship has been recognised as an effective means through which companies can communicate with target markets and attendees of sports events. This study investigates the interrelationship between satisfaction with event sponsors, goodwill and fan identification and their influence on purchase intentions at a state sports festival held in Lakeland, Florida. Results indicate that satisfaction with event sponsors mediated goodwill and purchase intentions while controlling for the effects of fan identification. In addition, results differed between competitors and spectators of the event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Sunil Hazari

Using the context of Rio Olympic games, the purpose of this paper is to investigate attitude toward sponsorship outcome as it relates to purchase behavior, gender, sponsor…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the context of Rio Olympic games, the purpose of this paper is to investigate attitude toward sponsorship outcome as it relates to purchase behavior, gender, sponsor patronage, sports enthusiasm, and social media consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using an online survey of 265 participants. Questions regarding demographics, viewing habits, sports participation, enthusiasm, attitude toward Olympic events were included in the survey. The four sub-scales were sponsorship attitude, sponsor patronage, social media consumption, and sports enthusiasm.

Findings

The findings of the study showed that social media consumption is positively related to attitude toward event and sports patronage. There was a significant gender difference on attitude toward event, social media consumption, and sports enthusiasm. Predictors for making a purchase as a result of seeing a social media advertisement were gender, playing competitive sport, and social media consumption.

Practical implications

This study will add to the body of academic and practitioner research on sponsorship outcomes, and provides an opportunity for marketers to leverage social media networks for sponsorship communication.

Originality/value

As the use of social media networks has increased over the past few years, no previous study has investigated association of sports enthusiasm, gender, or social media consumption toward sponsor patronage which relates to consumers seeking out sponsors and being influenced to make a purchase as a result of marketing communication of sponsors.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kirstin Hallmann, Kyriaki Kaplanidou and Christoph Breuer

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by…

Abstract

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active and passive sports tourists at four marathon races in Germany. Some differences in the perception of event images were found for active and passive sports tourists as well as for different types of destinations. For active sports tourists, emotional, physical and organisational image associations were clustered closer. For passive sports tourists, social and historical image associations were clustered closer. The type of destination elicited different event images among active and passive sports tourists.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

V.G. Girish and Choong-Ki Lee

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships among brand experience, sports event image and loyalty in the Jeju International Ultramarathon Race.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships among brand experience, sports event image and loyalty in the Jeju International Ultramarathon Race.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 313 ultramarathon runners during the 16th Jeju International Ultramarathon Race. Statistical analyses were carried out using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

An analysis of the relationship between brand experience and sports event image revealed that affective experience is the most influential dimension, followed by sensory and behavioral experiences. However, intellectual experience showed insignificant relationship. Sports event image indicated a positive effect on word-of-mouth and revisit intention.

Research limitations/implications

Ultramarathon races are sporting events with few participants, even though it is becoming more popular. The attitude, motivation and personality of people participating in these races may be different in terms of the extreme characteristic and endurance level of sports activity. If the results of this study need to be generalized with other sports event images, a comparative study may help to understand the personality traits of people participating in ultramarathon races and other sports.

Practical implications

As ultramarathon races are not yet popular sports, to target more people, behavioral experience has an influential role because it is action oriented and actively engages the body. Enriching consumer life by facilitating and creating opportunities to physically experience as well as showing them alternate ways of doing things may attract them to substitute lifestyle and interactions (Pine and Gilmore, 1999). Few other popular endurance race events organize short-distance races and kid races for fun (e.g. Lavaredo Ultra trail race), to engage friends and family members before the start of the main event. Doing so may provide an opportunity to attract more runners, and they may engage in running activities and participate in these kinds of events later, after having this sort of casual experience.

Social implications

Social networking sites may be used to maintain continuous interaction with the runners and followers. Supporting a social cause is another measure to generate the intellectual experience of sports events. The result of this study shows no significant relationship between intellectual experience and the sports event image. To increase the worldwide popularity of this race and to attract more international runners, a judicious use of web platforms may be an option to maintain regular contact with a wider group of audience.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the relationship between brand experience and sports event image in an ultramarathon event context. Findings contribute to an understanding of the impact of brand experience on sports event image, thereby influencing the loyalty of runners participating in an ultramarathon event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Lidija T. Petrović, Dragorad Milovanović and Michel Desbordes

The purpose of this paper is to review the development and potential applications of emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs) in sports. The case studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the development and potential applications of emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs) in sports. The case studies are presented in details: computer system for tracking and visualisation in TV broadcasting and players/teams performance analysis in football. The paper concludes with the authors’ opinion that future implementation of digital technologies, in the first instance, goal-line technologies, to support accurate, practical and reliable decision making in sports is highly needed and represent a basis for further increase in the commercial value of the pre-eminent global sport.

Design/methodology/approach

The research utilised an exploratory approach to data gathering due to the fact that the topic is new and data are difficult to collect. The topic is analysed using case study method.

Findings

The research found that there is an emerging market to extend the reach of digital technologies adapted for sports industry and sports events. Increasingly, developers are exploring and exploiting the vast potential of the ICTs to create value in the field of sports events. The development of emerging technologies create new opportunities that sports industry demands a growing range of innovative solutions for the purposes of decision making to be tested and accepted in the near future.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on data limitations related to the innovative ICT solutions, the rules of the game which significantly limit the scope for product innovation and a need to make a decision on application of an adequate solution within a short time period. In order to develop the extensive research results in the future, more information will be available after the termination of ongoing testing procedure.

Practical implications

It is evident that digital video processing has found many applications in sports content analysis and TV broadcasting of competitive sports. The governing bodies should be aware of their role to support successful innovation which requires the coordinated action of all the actors who play vastly different roles in its commercialisation process.

Originality/value

The paper emphasises how much technology has added to communication and economic potential of sports events, underlying that issue of video technology application to ease decision making in football is currently one of the most pressing matters due to constant arrival of new cases concerning “incorrect” decisions that add fuel to the controversy. The football authorities have finally recognised that the game has to be responsive to the concerns and suggestions of its customers.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

David M. Herold, Tim Breitbarth, Nico Schulenkorf and Sebastian Kummer

Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although logistics management is a crucial part of local and global sports events, there is no research-driven characterization of “sports logistics management”. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a framework that allows for a more structured recognition of logistics in sports, in general, and sport event management, in particular. In addition, we conduct a systematic literature review of sports logistics management and locate opportunities for future research both for sports management and logistics management scholars.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by Durach et al.’s (2017) systematic literature review approach, we identify key attributes and characteristics of sports logistics management. These are based on studies featuring at least partial aspects of logistics management in sports and sport events, and that were published between 2000 and mid-2019.

Findings

The study reveals that sports logistics management – meaning logistics activities in sports and sport event management – is a heavily under-researched area that provides an abundance of scientific opportunities. Based on the three sport event types of local/regional sport events, major sport events and mega sport events, the authors propose four sports logistics management pillars that are central to the proposed Sport Logistics Framework: venue logistics management, sports equipment logistics management, athletes logistics management, and fan and spectators logistics management.

Practical implications

By providing a conceptual framework for sports logistics, the authors progress towards informing the sport sector on relevant strategic and operational levels of logistics management and set the stage for empirical studies that are likely to advance sport logistics planning and management.

Originality/value

This is the first study that builds on a systematic review of literature specifically focused on the logistics aspect in sports and sport event management. It provides a conceptual framework of sports logistics management and offers an agenda of future research opportunities.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Behzad Foroughi, KhairulAnuar Mohammad Shah, Davoud Nikbin and Sunghyup Sean Hyun

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between event quality and fan satisfaction and consequent fan attendance of soccer matches in Iran. Data on game…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between event quality and fan satisfaction and consequent fan attendance of soccer matches in Iran. Data on game quality, augmented service, interaction, outcome, environment, fan satisfaction and attendance were gathered from 260 spectators attending an Iranian premier league soccer match by means of a survey. The results show that, except for interaction, all dimensions of event quality have a significant relationship with fan satisfaction. Moreover, the effect of game quality on fan satisfaction is stronger than other dimensions. The results also confirm the significant relationship between fan satisfaction and attendance. Fan satisfaction is shown to be partially mediating the relationship between event quality and game attendance. Practical implications for facility managers and sports marketers are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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