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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with their hosting being a deliberate policy for many nations, most notably among emerging nations. One such nation is South Africa, which explicitly stated its nation branding ambitions through the staging of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Through this single case, this paper aims to identify the unique characteristics of the sport mega-event that were leveraged for benefits of nation branding.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, qualitative study explored the insights of nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) undertaken two to three years after the staging of the event.

Findings

Three characteristics of the 2010 sport mega-event were deemed by stakeholders to be unique in creating nation branding opportunities: the scale of the event that created opportunities for transformational development; the global appeal, connection and attachment of the event; and the symbolic status of the event that was leveraged for internal brand building and public diplomacy. The paper proposes that while sport mega-events provide nation branding opportunities, the extent of these benefits may vary according to the context of the nation brand with lesser-known, troubled or emerging brands seemingly having the most to gain.

Originality/value

While acknowledging the critique of mega-events, this paper highlights a pertinent example of an emerging nation that leveraged the potential of a sport mega-event for nation branding gains. It extends the understanding of sport mega-events and their potential for nation branding.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Hiba Khodr

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main driving factors behind the recent increase in the event market size in Qatar from a public policy perspective. It reports…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main driving factors behind the recent increase in the event market size in Qatar from a public policy perspective. It reports on a case study of the 2006 15th Asian Games that assisted in further examining both the underlying and implicit motives behind the phenomenon as well as its expected policy implications.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory paper uses a case study approach in which two complementary types of data sources are employed. The qualitative data was mainly obtained from in‐depth semi‐structured interviews conducted with 26 key stakeholders ranging from middle to senior professionals, academicians, high‐ranking officials from the local tourism/sports authorities, and representatives from the private sector. The data was further enhanced by an extensive review and analysis of related documents available in the public domain. Data was analyzed using an iterative thematic content analysis whose findings served to illustrate the theoretical perspectives in the relevant prevailing literature.

Findings

Findings suggest that Qatar is using events as a way to reimage and position itself as a destination and increase its profile internationally in addition to gaining a competitive edge regionally. Other explanatory factors include: economic sustainability and diversification plans and tourism‐related policies as well as social development strategies. Another identified driver is linked to globalization and modernization trends. These driving factors are consistent with the ones acknowledged in the literature on national and urban event strategies and their purpose.

Originality/value

The analysis conducted in this paper laid the foundation for much needed future evaluation studies on the country's tourism strategies and trends as well as events' impacts. The treatment of this subject from a governmental policy angle has not received nearly enough attention among scholars of tourism policy and events management. Moreover, considering the growing event market in Qatar, this paper fills the gap in the literature in terms of analyzing the driving forces behind this growth and highlights important issues specific to a relatively unexplored region undergoing rapid development.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Stefan Groschl

This study aims to provide an understanding of the multi-layered managerial and organizational challenges of mega sporting events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide an understanding of the multi-layered managerial and organizational challenges of mega sporting events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, identify key competencies that address the complexities and uncertainties when planning and organizing the Olympic and Paralympic Games and provide a framework to classify sporting events according to their complexity and uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses in-depth semi-structured interview with key organizing actor of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio in 2016.

Findings

Planning and organizing complex and long-term mega sporting events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games require a set of key competencies, including a range of soft skills (collaboration, negotiation, communication), goal-setting, persistence and resilience, paradox thinking and timing.

Originality/value

Presenting the findings in an unedited and raw interview format provides practitioners and scholars alike with unfiltered and rich data that allows to choose, apply and adapt key competencies and heuristics from Rio 2016 to their own mega sporting projects or research agendas; allows to differentiate between sporting events according to their complexity and uncertainty.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Benjamin Rosenthal and Flavia Cardoso

This paper discusses the evolving nature of the symbolic meaning of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Exploring the kratophanous power of soccer in Brazil, we seek to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper discusses the evolving nature of the symbolic meaning of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Exploring the kratophanous power of soccer in Brazil, we seek to explain how the relationship that Brazilians had with the 2014 FIFA World Cup reflects profound changes in a mutating society that has deep emotional connections with soccer but at the same time has started to reject the misuse of public resources and struggles to see corruption as a fact of life.

Methodology/approach

The authors conducted a netnography on Facebook communities and on Instagram, reviewed documentaries and short films, as well as press articles on the subject. Data was collected both retrospectively and concurrently. Analysis used open coding, moving up from the emic meanings extracted from the texts to an etic account of the phenomena (Cherrier & Murray, 2007; Thompson, 1997; Thompson & Haytko, 1997).

Findings

We argue that the duality of the Brazilian culture and the kratophanous power of soccer help understand the evolving nature of the relationship Brazilians had with the 2014 FIFA World Cup. We sustain that soccer in Brazil is viewed both as a sport – representing democracy and the hope of social mobility – and as an industry – echoing dissatisfaction with the status quo. Even if ideologically opposed to what the event represented, consumers were bound by very strong cultural connections built around soccer as a sport, a national passion. This changing nature of feelings and attitudes echoes marketplace tensions of a country passing through a democratization maturity process and of a culture in which its citizens find it easier to attempt to be many things at the same time than to take a stand.

Research limitations/implications

This research analyzes the role of social tensions and national passions in relation to a global industry (soccer) and a mega event (the FIFA World Cup). We have looked at the influence of macro cultural forces and tension forces in a sporting event as our findings cannot be understood outside the context of network-based power (Labrecque, vor dem Esche, Mathwick, Novak, & Hofacker, 2013) with Brazilians mobilizing the structure of social networks in favor of their contextual interests. The tense and dynamic political environment in which this research was conducted shed some light on why the #naovaitercopa changed its meaning overtime.

Originality/value

The context of this research contributes to the literature on boycotting (Kozinets & Handelman, 2004; Lee, Motion, & Conroy, 2009), considering that most previous studies had not extensively explored situations where protests arise, obtain significant engagement, yet end up being unsuccessful. We answers the call made by Izberk-Bilgin (2010) for understanding how and why consumer attitudes toward certain types of consumption may change overtime and we demonstrate how the FIFA World Cup possesses kratophanous power in Brazil, and how this characteristic, which is strongly rooted in local culture, contributed to the failure of the boycott.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-323-5

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Pam Kappelides, Shane Barry, Eunjung Kim, Liz Fredline and Graham Cuskelly

This article assesses how the human management practices of recruitment, selection, orientation, training and recognition enacted by the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games…

Abstract

Purpose

This article assesses how the human management practices of recruitment, selection, orientation, training and recognition enacted by the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games impacted volunteers' experiences and their likelihood of volunteering in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data from 30 volunteers, involved in various stages (including selected and not selected) of the selection process for the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games, was collected through focus group interviews.

Findings

The findings offer important insights for mega sport event managers and their organisations around utilising a traditional human resource management approach for their volunteer workforce.

Originality/value

The findings of the study point to a number of important opportunities for mega event organisers: ensuring there is a personal and consistent approach for all volunteers (even volunteers who are not successful in the application), flexibility in the way volunteers are provided training and support (online, self-paced and tailored to specific roles) and ensuring that organising committees have a strong strategy and direction for host cities to engage in a volunteer legacy.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

John Nadeau, Norman O'Reilly and Louise A. Heslop

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent that marketers are using place-based images to promote their brands within the host city of the Olympic Games. It is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent that marketers are using place-based images to promote their brands within the host city of the Olympic Games. It is thought that non-sponsors may use place imagery as an alternate way to affiliate with the event or sponsors may use place to enrich their sponsorship activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an observation-based approach to collect a sample of place-based promotional activity that is accessible to pedestrians during the 2012 Olympic Games.

Findings

Results reveal that official sponsors and non-official sponsors are both using place-based imagery in their promotions within the host city of the Olympic Games. However, non-sponsors use place images more frequently than sponsors of the event. Place images were invoked by promoters using country flags most frequently followed by icons and explicit mention of place. The leading dimensions of place images employed by marketers include country character, the built environment and people competence. Place-based promotional activity was frequently observed in shopping areas, transportation, sports venues and in free media.

Research limitations/implications

Results provide justification for future research in the area. Specifically, the need for empirical work based on surveys of consumers and interviews with practitioners are noted.

Practical implications

In an era of highly protected event marketing rights, the existence of promotions based on place images can be a useful application for official sponsors to leverage their investments and protect their exclusivity. Similarly, results are beneficial to non-official sponsors who may seek to market in the vicinity of these events without infringing on the rights of official sponsors.

Originality/value

While previous research on place, mega-events, the Olympic Games and sponsors has found the images of the three to be related, it is not known to what extent sponsors and non-sponsors utilize place images in their promotional activities throughout the Olympic host city.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 10 March 2020

Carole B. Sox, Mary M. Sox and Jeffrey M. Campbell

Mega-events have been the topic of unprecedented consideration within recent research. Research on the residents' perspectives, however, is still in the infancy stage, yet…

Abstract

Purpose

Mega-events have been the topic of unprecedented consideration within recent research. Research on the residents' perspectives, however, is still in the infancy stage, yet a key contributor to the overall legacy planning considerations and process. This research investigates resident perceptions toward a mega-event to assist with planning/execution of such events in addition to advancing knowledge within this area.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, an online survey was utilized to reach out to residents in the host city during the mega-event, Solar Eclipse Weekend. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the results.

Findings

Using exploratory factor analysis, 305 online surveys were analyzed. Using varimax rotation, factor analysis determined four significant factors: environment, local engagement, tourism support, and infrastructure. Cluster analysis was then conducted identifying three clusters of residents labeled neutralists, supporters and enthusiasts.

Practical implications

The practical implications should be of assistance to professional event planners, city governments and destination marketing organizations. Through utilization of the information provided, community participation should be sought after throughout the planning phase and into the management and execution of large events to best gain resident support.

Originality/value

This research further explored residents' perspectives of a mega-event. While this area of research has been noted in strategic approaches to planning, managing and executing mega-events, the research on stakeholders (such as residents') perspectives is still in the infancy stage. This research contributes to advancing industry planning approaches and strategic execution, in addition to advancing academic knowledge within this area.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Ying Deng and S.W. Poon

A mega‐event flagship (MEF) refers to a popular instrument developed for staging a mega‐event and catalyzing area‐based urban regeneration. Despite its lasting appeal and…

Abstract

Purpose

A mega‐event flagship (MEF) refers to a popular instrument developed for staging a mega‐event and catalyzing area‐based urban regeneration. Despite its lasting appeal and controversial nature, insufficient research on its critical early stage has been done to provide useful analysis. When the clients lack appropriate capabilities to confront sustainability challenges, MEFs may end up functioning poorly in the post‐event era and even hindering the progress of intended renewals. The purpose of this study is to enhance MEF clients’ capabilities in meeting sustainability challenges at the early stage and ultimately producing responsible MEFs of enduring worth.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiple‐case study method was adopted due to its widely recognized reliance on multiple sources to facilitate in‐depth analyses. Data were collected through archival records, documentation, direct observation and participant observation.

Findings

By proposing a comprehensive development framework based on the findings of multiple‐case studies, this paper corrects a misunderstanding of such a development being an end in itself, and contributes new insights into the definitional early stage of MEFs.

Social implications

The fact that MEFs are a global phenomenon as well as a local undertaking leads to a need to develop a database of useful lessons and critical decisions from previous MEFs, to establish a best practice targets system in future research.

Originality/value

As an initial attempt, this paper lays the groundwork for research on MEFs by investigating how mega‐event hosts have prepared in meeting its sustainability challenges.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

This paper aims to indicate a shift in focus from legacy to the leveraging of event impacts, and previous papers have indicated a growing awareness of the brand-related…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to indicate a shift in focus from legacy to the leveraging of event impacts, and previous papers have indicated a growing awareness of the brand-related legacies associated with sport mega-events for a host nation. However, none have explored this in relation to the strategic activities of nation brand stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The case of South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World Cup was selected, as this host nation clearly stated its aim of using the sport mega-event to develop its brand. A qualitative study explored the insights of selected, definitive nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) that took place two to three years post the event.

Findings

A thematic analysis clustered the leveraging imperatives into seven key strategic focus areas, namely, the media, local citizens, stakeholder partnerships, the tourism experience, design, sustainable development and urban transformation and event hosting.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is not an audit of leveraging activities nor does it assess the costs of leveraging. The focus on a specific case has allowed for an in-depth analysis, although, for greater transferability of these findings, it is recommended that further comparative studies be conducted, especially in emerging nation contexts.

Practical implications

The paper identifies key strategic focus areas as well as examples of practical activities for leveraging mega-events to gain and sustain nation brand benefits. In particular, stakeholders are urged to plan and budget for leveraging before, during and especially post an event.

Social implications

In light of the critique of mega-events linked to their social impacts and costs, this paper recommends leveraging focus areas, and especially the mobilisation of citizen support, that can assist the realisation of positive social outcomes.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the emerging discourse of nation branding, highlighting opportunities derived through sport mega-events and assisting brand stakeholders to leverage such opportunities more effectively.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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