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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2016

Markus Lamprecht, Siegfried Nagel and Hanspeter Stamm

This chapter examines the origins and institutionalization of sport sociology in Germany and Switzerland and provides an overview of the current state of research. It…

Abstract

This chapter examines the origins and institutionalization of sport sociology in Germany and Switzerland and provides an overview of the current state of research. It shows how academic chairs and research committees were established and how the first textbooks, anthologies, and journals appeared from the 1970s onwards. The institutionalization process of German-speaking sport sociology proceeded parallel to the establishment of sport science. With regard to its theoretical and empirical basis, German-speaking sport sociology is rooted in theories and concepts of general sociology. Studies using a system theory perspective, conceptualizing sport as a societal sub-system and examining its linkage with and dependence on economy, media, or politics are particularly common in the German-speaking region. In addition, actor theoretic perspectives are very popular, and French sociologists such as Bourdieu and Foucault have had a marked influence on German-speaking sport sociology. A large number of sport sociology studies are concerned with the changes in leisure and elite sports. In this context, the emergence of new trends in risk sports as well as the fitness boom and its implications on body perception are of special interest. Further areas of research refer to sport participation and the impact of social inequality, particularly with respect to gender differences and social integration. Finally, organization research focusing on change at the level of sport associations and clubs has a long tradition. Major challenges for the future of German-speaking sport sociology include its internationalization and an enhanced international linkage in order to improve the visibility of research results.

Details

Sociology of Sport: A Global Subdiscipline in Review
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-050-3

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Grazia Lang, Torsten Schlesinger, Markus Lamprecht, Kaisa Ruoranen, Christoffer Klenk, Emmanuel Bayle, Josephine Clausen, David Giauque and Siegfried Nagel

The purpose of this paper is to identify types of professionalization in Swiss national sport federations (NSFs) and analyze organizational characteristics associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify types of professionalization in Swiss national sport federations (NSFs) and analyze organizational characteristics associated with specific types of professionalization. Such types reveal common patterns among the increasingly complex organizational designs of NSFs and thus contribute to the understanding of professionalization in NSFs.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of all Swiss NSFs was conducted to identify types of professionalization in these organizations using hierarchical cluster analysis, based on a multi-dimensional framework of professionalization.

Findings

The analysis revealed four types of professionalization: formalized NSFs managed by paid staff, NSFs managed by volunteers and a few paid staff off the field, NSFs with differing formalization and paid staff on the field, and moderately formalized NSFs managed by volunteers. The types differ in terms of the NSFs’ organizational characteristics, in particular, size, financial resources, Olympic status, and performance.

Originality/value

Applying factor and cluster analysis is a new approach to analyzing professionalization in NSFs that makes uncovering distinctive organizational patterns among a large number of NSFs possible. These results lay the foundation for understanding the professionalization of NSFs, counseling NSFs on their organizational development, and conducting future research on the design types of sport organizations.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Kwang-Hoon Lee

Despite the privatization of its various components, the bidding process and the preparations for the Olympics are still initiated and tightly managed by central…

Abstract

Despite the privatization of its various components, the bidding process and the preparations for the Olympics are still initiated and tightly managed by central governments. Moreover, intentionally and unintentionally, governments use mega sports events such as the Olympics as a soft power medium in which to pursue their goals such as economic development and social integration and a lot of literature has already reviewed the economic and sociocultural impact of hosting the event. This chapter argues that the Olympics have been used as the medium to assist in the formation of legitimacy for a weakened authoritarian leader in the early phase of democratization in Korea. In addition, the chapter tries to explain how the bureaucracy contributed to the success of the national event and how it eventually impacted political modernization and the attitude of bureaucrats. To these ends, first, this chapter explores the influence of soft power on international competition by providing an empirical statistical analysis. Specifically, the chapter analyzes the process by which countries compete with one another for the privilege of hosting the Olympic Games as an important field of global interaction between political actors Further, the chapter discusses which components of soft power can affect international competition. To investigate the explanatory power and concrete applicability of soft power theory, the chapter looks at the influence of democratic and government dimensions of soft power on the selection of Olympic host cities and the role of bureaucracy during that process.

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Robert VanWynsberghe and Caitlin Pentifallo

This chapter coins the term Development through Mega-Events (DME) in order to propose a next step for developing social legacies in accordance with the principle of social…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter coins the term Development through Mega-Events (DME) in order to propose a next step for developing social legacies in accordance with the principle of social development.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter’s argument for DME is developed using quantitative, indicator-based data from the Olympic Games Impact (OGI) study as well as relevant literature from the sub-fields of Sport for Development and Peace and Sport Mega-Events.

Findings

We discuss the absence of a baseline understanding of the properties of sport mega-events. Also absent are progressive efforts to achieve sustainability by means other than competition among prospective bidders. We recommend that hosts tie social legacies to public policy objectives that are concomitant with the properties of the sport mega-events. Retrospectively applied, OGI data from 2010 reveals social inclusion as one potential social legacy that reflects the nature of the Olympics and the policy realm in the host region.

Originality/value

This chapter is original work. It would be of interest to potential host communities, policymakers, and researchers.

Details

Sport, Social Development and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-885-3

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Christian Imdorf, Kristinn Hegna, Verena Eberhard and Pierre Doray

How do institutional settings and their embedded policy principles affect gender-typed enrolment in educational programmes? Based on gender-sensitive theories on career…

Abstract

How do institutional settings and their embedded policy principles affect gender-typed enrolment in educational programmes? Based on gender-sensitive theories on career choice, we hypothesised that gender segregation in education is higher with a wider range of offers of vocational programmes. By analysing youth survey and panel data, we tested this assumption for Germany, Norway and Canada, three countries whose educational systems represent a different mix of academic, vocational and universalistic education principles. We found that vocational programmes are considerably more gender-segregated than are academic (e.g. university) programmes. Men, more so than women, can avoid gender-typed programmes by passing on to a university education. This in turn means that as long as their secondary school achievement does not allow for a higher education career, they have a higher likelihood of being allocated to male-typed programmes in the vocational education and training (VET) system. In addition, social background and the age at which students have to choose educational offers impact on the transition to gendered educational programmes. Overall, gender segregation in education is highest in Germany and the lowest in Canada. We interpret the differences between these countries with respect to the constellations of educational principles and policies in the respective countries.

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Gender Segregation in Vocational Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-347-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

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Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Gerd Lupp, Linda Heuchele, Christina Renner, Ralf-Uwe Syrbe, Werner Konold and Dominik Siegrist

Implementing climate change adaptation measures immediately is considered both to minimize considerably negative impacts on biodiversity as well as on outdoor recreation in

Abstract

Purpose

Implementing climate change adaptation measures immediately is considered both to minimize considerably negative impacts on biodiversity as well as on outdoor recreation in protected area management. This study aims to give answers, why, however, climate change issues receive very limited implementation by practitioners in day-to-day-management.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a motivation model by Rheinberg (2006), a more differentiated understanding was gained why stakeholders took almost no action regarding climate change adaptation. A participatory spatial scenario method including a map exercise was used to motivate stakeholders to develop, discuss, exchange and negotiate strategies under different possible future developments and their implementation in protected area management.

Findings

According to the motivation model, taking action is dependent on a number of factors and will only happen when all correlations are positive. It can be shown that for adaptation to climate change, concerning almost all of the various factors, no stimuli existed or actors expected a positive outcome when taking action. More motivation was generated for halting the loss of biodiversity and visitor management. In the participatory spatial scenario planning work, stakeholders from different sectors and decision-makers found consensus to implement integrated strategies, considering adaptation to climate change, reduction of greenhouse gases, better protection of biodiversity and different future developments in outdoor recreation activities.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the importance of single motivation factors such as perceived competence, abilities to act and perceived positive outcomes including rewards for taking action. Using participatory spatial scenario planning methods can be powerful tools to stimulate joint action, though implementing organizations must be willing to make real use of the outcome of such work.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2015

Abstract

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Tourism Research Frontiers: Beyond the Boundaries of Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-993-5

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2018

Maurizio Valenti, Nicolas Scelles and Stephen Morrow

Women’s football has received increasing attention in the academic literature, partly due to its growing popularity worldwide. However, women’s football research remains…

Abstract

Purpose

Women’s football has received increasing attention in the academic literature, partly due to its growing popularity worldwide. However, women’s football research remains scattered across numerous academic domains. Focusing on the social sciences, humanities and management disciplines, the purpose of this paper is to map and organise contributions, and to identify research directions for future studies within these disciplines.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the keywords “women”, “girls”, “female” and “football” or “soccer” to initially identify articles, an integrative approach was followed to evaluate and analyse relevant literature. In all, 117 academic journals were classified and subsequently divided into 26 themes according to the subject area, topic and level examined.

Findings

Results of this integrative review show an increasing trend of journal publications since 1998, with a large representation of studies related to historical and sociological research, where qualitative methods are dominant. Articles investigating economic, managerial and marketing areas appeared in more recent times. Women’s football has been researched from different perspectives (players, fans, sport organisations) and across various countries.

Research limitations/implications

The restricted scope of this review (i.e. its focus on social sciences) and the manual classification of articles represent two limitations of this study. However, the synthesis of academic literature provided may assist scholars who are interested in women’s football and women’s sports research to fill identified research gaps and contribute to further advance academic investigations in this area.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of salient research avenues and represents the first attempt to critically appraise the direction of academic contributions in women’s football for the purpose of advancing scholarly inquiry in this sport.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2017

Frédéric C. Godart and Kim Claes

The conception of markets as interfaces connecting semi-autonomous systems of producers and customers has led to an extensive use of social network analysis. So far, the…

Abstract

The conception of markets as interfaces connecting semi-autonomous systems of producers and customers has led to an extensive use of social network analysis. So far, the network focus has been on connections among people, paying less attention to the crucial role played by connections between cultural elements (e.g., concepts, representations, ideas) in the way markets are formed and sustained. Such connections constitute “semantic networks” and are the focus of the present article. We attend to them by developing a network view of the cultural dimension of markets and apply it in an empirical setting where culture plays a crucial role – luxury watchmaking – to illustrate the impact of market semantic networks on a major outcome: price.

Details

Structure, Content and Meaning of Organizational Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-433-0

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