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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Hüseyin Köse, Metin Argan and David P. Hedlund

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a scale to measure the perceived orientation of sport organizations toward their fans, and subsequently, to test…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a scale to measure the perceived orientation of sport organizations toward their fans, and subsequently, to test its relationship with six outcomes based on data from the fanbases of three distinct sport teams.

Design/methodology/approach

Using interviews and focus groups, important elements of fans' perceptions of their relationship with sport organizations are identified. After creating items based on the results of the interviews and focus groups, EFA, CFA and SEM procedures are used to create and test a multidimensional scale of perceived fan orientation.

Findings

Using EFA and CFA procedures, an 11-item, four-dimension scale of perceived fan orientation is validated, including components measuring (1) hosting events and campaigns for fans, (2) communicating information to fans, (3) interacting with fans when requests and problems arise and (4) providing preferential treatment to fans. The SEM results provide evidence of the impact of fan orientation on multiple measured outcomes for three professional football teams.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to three professional football teams in Turkey. However, the development of the multidimensional perceived fan orientation (PERFANOR) scale provides sport organizations' management and personnel with information about the relationship fans desire.

Practical implications

Sport managers, marketers and front-line staff are recommended to undertake activities to improve the relationship between the organization, team and its fans.

Originality/value

The principles and practices of relationship marketing and service quality often include discussions of the importance of “putting fans first,” however until now, no multidimensional scale existed in sport which measures the perceived fan orientation of a sport organization.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Paloma Escamilla-Fajardo, Vanessa Ratten and Juan Núñez-Pomar

Sports clubs are one of the most important elements in the sports systems of today’s societies. In the field of sport, a sports club aims, among other things, to make the…

Abstract

Sports clubs are one of the most important elements in the sports systems of today’s societies. In the field of sport, a sports club aims, among other things, to make the sport more affordable and accessible to all, showing the organizational characteristics of companies, but with a much broader social mission. The aim of this chapter is to characterise sports clubs as potentially favorable environments for sports entrepreneurship, making questions about their nature and purposes. Aspects such as the hybridization of organizations, the progressive professionalisation of their members, the use of the entrepreneurial spirit as an instrument to facilitate the achievement of the organisation’s objectives or the need to seek alternative sources of funding to traditional public aid are discussed in the context of increasingly hostile and competitive environments, where social organizations must seek out resources in a similar way to companies.

Details

Entrepreneurship as Empowerment: Knowledge Spillovers and Entrepreneurial Ecosystems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-551-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Alexeis Garcia-Perez, Alessandro Ghio, Zeila Occhipinti and Roberto Verona

This paper provides a conceptual discussion of the bidirectional relationship between knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) in a specific subset of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides a conceptual discussion of the bidirectional relationship between knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) in a specific subset of knowledge-based organisations, i.e. professional sport organisations. Through the review and conceptual discussion of two relevant research themes, i.e. KM strategies for IC value creation and IC codification, this paper aims to highlight research gaps useful to future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply a systematic literature review method to analyse 66 management and accounting studies on KM and IC in sport organisations. Internal and external validity tests support the methodology adopted.

Findings

The authors provide a conceptual model to explain how KM strategies about IC investments can be optimal, i.e. they create value for all the stakeholders but also suboptimal, i.e. they create value only for a group of stakeholders. Next, they provide evidence of the opportunistic use of the codification associated with IC investments that impair financial reporting information transparency and mislead managers and investors.

Practical implications

The results are informative for managers, regulators and policymakers to mitigate the inefficiencies regarding KM and IC codification and decisions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the bidirectional relationship between KM and IC in knowledge-based organisations by focussing on professional sport organisations in which KM and IC have played an important role for a long time. It also includes future avenues for advances in managing, measuring and reporting IC.

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Majd Megheirkouni

The purpose of this study is to investigate the transformational and transactional leadership styles and organizational learning at for-profit and non-profit sports

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the transformational and transactional leadership styles and organizational learning at for-profit and non-profit sports organizations, and the impact of these leadership styles on enhancing organizational learning in these sports organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative questionnaire survey method was adopted. The data were collected from for-profit and non-profit sports organizations in the UK.

Findings

Management by exception-active in transactional leadership and idealized leadership in transformational leadership seem to be equally important for facilitating organizational learning. The results also revealed significant differences between for-profit and non-profit sports organizations in leadership styles and organizational learning.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the results for different sports settings or different countries must be examined, given that only some sports organizations under the umbrellas of non-profit and for-profit sectors were used as the target population. The research is limited to the use of moderating variables, such as motivation, organizational structure, culture and innovation, that might attenuate this effect. This study contributes to the field by investigating the direct relationship between leadership styles and organizational learning in a sports setting.

Originality/value

The originality of this study is its advances of sports leadership research that is linking leadership styles and organizational learning in for-profit and non-profit sports organizations.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Wojciech Kulczycki, Santosh Mikas and Joerg Koenigstorfer

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether consumers’ attitude toward sporting goods retailers depends on who engages in corporate social responsibility (CSR…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether consumers’ attitude toward sporting goods retailers depends on who engages in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and where CSR takes place. The study aims to replicate previous findings on football teams (Kulczycki and Koenigstorfer, 2016) for for-profit sporting goods retailers by looking at how organization size and proximity of the supported cause to the retailers’ headquarters interact with consumers’ motive attributions for CSR (philanthropic vs profit).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 200 participants took part in the experimental study. The study applied a between-participant design manipulating both the proximity of the supported social cause (local vs distant CSR) and the size of the organization (small- vs large-sized organization) and measured perceived motives for CSR as independent variables. Attitude toward retailers was the dependent variable.

Findings

The results of regression analyses showed that perceived philanthropic motives increased attitude toward retailers. This relationship became stronger for large-sized sporting goods retailers, in particular when they engaged in CSR activities at distant locations. For small-sized retailers, the proximity of CSR did not impact on the relationship between motive attribution and attitude toward the retailer.

Practical implications

Large-sized retailers are encouraged to take particular care that consumers perceive CSR activities as philanthropy-driven, especially when supporting social causes at distant locations.

Originality/value

The study replicates previous findings and shows that not only for sports teams, but also for sporting good retailers, CSR can increase consumer attitudes even when the consumer population at the organization headquarters’ location does not directly benefit from CSR.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Gerard Masdeu Yélamos, Catherine Carty, Úna Moynihan and Breda ODwyer

The purpose of this paper is to present the development and validation of the Universal Transformational Management Framework (UTMF), an entrepreneurial tool that guides…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the development and validation of the Universal Transformational Management Framework (UTMF), an entrepreneurial tool that guides the development of inclusion-driven strategic management, planning and practice in sport organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of qualitative data collection techniques was undertaken in this action research: seven cross-sectoral semi-structured interviews; one focus group with sports professionals; a qualitative survey and research group consultations. A matrix analysis, a thematic analysis and secondary research were undertaken to analyze data.

Findings

The UTMF is a staged framework that embeds principles of behavioral, organizational and transformative change theory, guiding strategic development toward inclusion from a contemplation phase toward an action and maintenance stage. The UTMF is composed of 14 fundamental components identified as key areas that sport entrepreneurs should recognize and address for planning and delivering sport services that leave no one behind.

Practical implications

Policy makers, management and sport professionals have at their disposal an inclusion-driven framework that challenges their systems and establish mechanisms to leave no one behind.

Social implications

Organizational transformation can ultimately produce a contagion effect advancing equality and inclusion in society. The UTMF offers a structure for sport entrepreneurs aiming to facilitate and activate social transformation in and through sport.

Originality/value

The UTMF is a wide-ranging framework to facilitate an orchestrated transformation of sport organizations in order to provide universal services that include marginalized groups and address global challenges identified in intersectional agendas like the SDGs.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Yuhei Inoue and Cody T Havard

– The purpose of this paper is to explore disaster relief activities implemented by high-profile sport organisations and athletes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore disaster relief activities implemented by high-profile sport organisations and athletes.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 70 newspaper and magazine articles reporting the disaster relief efforts of sport organisations and athletes in various regions were identified and analysed through a content analysis.

Findings

The authors find 11 forms of activities that sport organisations and athletes have implemented to provide social support in post-disaster situations. These forms are classified based on type of post-disaster social support: eight forms are categorised as tangible support, while the other three are categorised as emotional support.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on the analysis of the news media that predominantly reported North American cases, and the current list of disaster relief activities may exclude some activities ignored by these specific data sources. Using the forms of disaster relief activities identified in this study as an initial framework, future studies should engage in the focused analysis of disaster response among sport organisations and athletes.

Practical implications

The comprehensive list of the disaster relief activities identified by this study should aid the decision-making of sport organisations and athletes in facing disasters and enable them to better prepare for their disaster response.

Originality/value

This study reveals the extensiveness and uniqueness of disaster relief activities currently implemented by sport organisations and athletes.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Vahid Delshab, Mathieu Winand, Saeed Sadeghi Boroujerdi, Do Young Pyun and Abed Mahmoudian

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employee values and knowledge management (KM) in sport organizations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employee values and knowledge management (KM) in sport organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data (N = 234) were collected online through a structured questionnaire from employees of 33 sport organizations in Iran. To test the hypotheses, Pearson correlation test and a regression analysis was conducted.

Findings

The results from the study revealed that there were significant relationships between employee values and KM. Both instrumental and terminal values significantly influenced KM.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is related to the generalizability of the results. Therefore, the current study is required to be replicated with other sport organizations in various sectors (public or private) to improve external validity of the results.

Practical implications

Based on this study, employees of sport organizations in developing countries tend to store knowledge more than sharing and applying it. The findings can be used by human resources and KM practitioners who are interested in developing organizational knowledge through employees’ values.

Originality/value

Through this study, the positive roles of employee instrumental and terminal values, as the key drivers in determining intangible assets in organizations, were found.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Mahmood Hajli and Mohammad Hajli

Empowered by Web 2.0 and social media, consumers join online communities and produce social capital. They generate information for online communities by sharing their

Abstract

Purpose

Empowered by Web 2.0 and social media, consumers join online communities and produce social capital. They generate information for online communities by sharing their knowledge, information and experience, and thus support organisational learning. Co‐creation of value with consumers instead of co‐creation of value for consumers is a new strategy for organisational development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate social factors introduced through social media to sport organisations in the co‐creation of value with fans.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts social capital and social support theory and investigates the way sport organisations can apply social relationship with fans in online communities in order to co‐create value for organisational development. The study looks at the current literature and the potential theoretical development for organisational learning.

Findings

Social interaction of individuals through social media and online communities has introduced co‐creation of value with customers. This behaviour originates from the supportive climate that has emerged through Web 2.0, where individuals share their information, knowledge, and experience through online communities. This co‐creation offers online social support as a source of social capital for organisations. The results can be beneficial for the development of sport organisations in the co‐creation of value with fans.

Research limitations/implications

The clear implication of the research would be whether sport organisations can develop virtual communities and offer rich means that facilitate individuals' interactions. The research highlights the theoretical foundation and opportunities for sport organisational development. However, the study does not provide an empirical test of the theory. Therefore, an empirical test of the research theory is a future research direction.

Originality/value

This research investigates social factors introduced through social media to sport organisations in the co‐creation of value with fans. The contribution of the research is to provide the theoretical bases for a new research area for sport organisational development through social media. Sport organisations can learn from the social interactions of their fans and develop their strategies. This research shows how sport organisations can use social capital theory and online social support to progress in the industry.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Panagiotis Dimitropoulos, Ioannis Kosmas and Ioannis Douvis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of performance management in the public sector and specifically the implementation of the balanced scorecard (BSC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of performance management in the public sector and specifically the implementation of the balanced scorecard (BSC) methodology on a public (municipal) non-profit sport organization in Greece. The research provides a discussion on the BSC development process, the goals set on each pillar and the outcome that the organization achieved, in order to be used as a roadmap for other managers in the public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used information extracted from the municipal board of Papagos-Holargos city in Greece, including board reports, documents and decision transcripts and open-ended interviews related to the implementation of BSC method, as well as to the impact of this decision on the quality of services, citizens’ satisfaction and the improvement of internal processes.

Findings

The results indicated that the citizens of Papagos-Holargos perceived sport services to be of enhanced quality related to/when compared to the previous years (based on a questionnaire submitted by the citizens of Papagos-Holargos at the end of the each sample per year). In addition, the staff improved its skills and abilities by participating in training seminars and, in general, the implementation of the BSC method on the municipal sport organization of Papagos-Holargos city sets the basis for an effective performance management which can enhance its future sustainability.

Practical implications

Managers of municipal and public sport organizations could use the findings of the study as a roadmap for discussing, evaluating and possibly implementing the BSC approach in their organizations’ daily operations.

Originality/value

This study fills a significant gap in the existing literature on the implementation of a traditional business performance management tool on a non-profit public sport organization.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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