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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Hsuan-Yi Chou and Tuan-Yu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of brand strategies and spokesperson expertise on consumer responses to hypermarket private-label products by…

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1868

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of brand strategies and spokesperson expertise on consumer responses to hypermarket private-label products by combining concepts from consumer attitude change, resistance to persuasion and construal level theory (CLT).

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted to test the propositions.

Findings

Consumers perceived the low-price (low-quality) characteristic of private-label products as a high-level (low-level) construal consideration when forming purchase decisions. Product relevance negatively affected consumers’ perceived product distance. Compared with store brands, separate brands enhanced consumer product attitudes and purchase intentions. Brand strategies and product distance affected consumer message-processing mindset (i.e. resistant to persuasion or open to persuasion) when processing advertisements, ultimately moderating the effect of spokesperson expertise.

Practical implications

The findings are useful for hypermarkets seeking to implement brand strategies and select spokespersons for private-label products. Additionally, the findings show that advertisers should design advertising elements to match consumers’ construal approaches to product-related information.

Originality/value

This study contrasts two common hypermarket brand strategies, identifies the construal levels corresponding to the dual roles of private-label products and expands CLT dimensions. Additionally, the results bridge two research approaches (persuasion and resistance to persuasion) and demonstrate the pivotal influence of brand strategies. The findings also advance understanding of the effects of spokesperson expertise and contribute to resistance theory by showing how to effectively reduce attitude certainty after resistance to persuasion.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Mark Toncar, Jane S. Reid and Cynthia E. Anderson

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service…

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3557

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service radio announcement (PSA) soliciting contributions for victims of Hurricane Katrina.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were exposed to one of three public service announcements and were then asked to report their reactions to the messages. Differences in the self‐reported reactions of subjects were used to test a series of hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of the three different types of spokespersons.

Findings

The paper finds that the hurricane victim was the most credible and believable spokesperson. The national celebrity, Ashlee Simpson, was the least credible and the least believable. The local celebrity was more credible and believable than the national celebrity, but no more so than the hurricane victim.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper a small student sample was used in an experimental setting involving one set of stimuli and one set of spokespersons. It cannot be said that the results would generalize to other celebrities, non‐celebrities, video formats, or non‐experimental settings.

Practical implications

The paper shows that nonprofit agencies considering using celebrity spokespersons in PSAs should do so with caution. There is no evidence that they increase their effectiveness and, at least in the case of the national celebrity, the use of national celebrities may reduce the effectiveness of the PSA.

Originality/value

The paper applies the concepts developed in the study of celebrity spokespersons in advertising and applies them to PSAs. The effects of celebrity spokespersons in PSAs are not the same as in conventional advertising messages.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Abhishek Mishra, Shweta Jha and Rajendra Nargundkar

Students’ experiences with instructors and courses determine an institute’s identity. With the instructor analogous to a brand spokesperson and the course to a brand, this…

Abstract

Purpose

Students’ experiences with instructors and courses determine an institute’s identity. With the instructor analogous to a brand spokesperson and the course to a brand, this study aims to examine the impact of the instructor experiential values on the student’s course experiences, as well as their attitudes and behavioral intentions towards the instructor.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a mixed-method approach that combines literature review and qualitative research, with two stages of empirical validation using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The instructor experiential values comprise appearance, entertainment, escapism, intrinsic enjoyment, efficiency and service excellence. The course experiences are composed of sensory, sentimental, behavioral and intellectual experiences. Strong effects of the instructor experiential values on the course experiences and, in turn, on the students’ attitudes and behavioral intentions are found.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to higher education literature by leveraging the theories of meanings transfer, experiential value and brand experience for a unique perspective to the students’ interactions with higher education institute instructors and courses.

Originality/value

The paper’s analogy of an instructor as a brand spokesperson endorsing the course brand is an original contribution to this domain.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Sally R. Ross, Lynn L. Ridinger and Jacquelyn Cuneen

This study presents an analysis of the evolution of advertising's portrayal of women in motorsport. The construct of source credibility is examined and used as a framework…

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383

Abstract

This study presents an analysis of the evolution of advertising's portrayal of women in motorsport. The construct of source credibility is examined and used as a framework to better understand the limitations and opportunities of female athlete endorsers in general and female racing car drivers in particular. The advertising images of pioneer drivers Janet Guthrie, Lyn St. James and Sarah Fisher are discussed and compared to that of Danica Patrick, a media star in the Indy Racing League (IRL). Patrick has been successful in capitalising on her expertise and attractiveness to enhance her image and endorse products. Attitudes towards using sex appeal to sell products are presented and discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Sunyoung Hlee

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of reviewer qualification and credibility (RQC) and hotel classification involving online hotel reviews (OHRs). The…

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350

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of reviewer qualification and credibility (RQC) and hotel classification involving online hotel reviews (OHRs). The study examines the effects of the reviewer level as a proxy of RQC on review helpfulness and reviewing behavior (review rating, review length). The study also included hotel classification as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 1,968 reviews were collected from TripAdvisor.com using a web data-harvesting technique. Hypothesized relations in the model were tested with t-test and MANOVA analysis.

Findings

The empirical results show that the effect of reviewer level on review helpfulness is not significant. In addition, a high-level reviewer tends to leave a lower rating and a lengthier review than a low-level reviewer. Regarding the moderating effects, for the high-level reviewer, three-star independent hotels have a greater effect on review helpfulness.

Research limitations/implications

The study has several useful implications for researchers, hotel industry when managing OHR and disseminating information to their potential consumers.

Practical implications

The findings help online review website organizers manage the operation of RQC and hotel classification in a proper manner. Marketing managers, especially those of three-star independent hotels, can effectively utilize review management to the desired effect.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this study explores the effect of RQC on review helpfulness and reviewing behaviors across the hotel classification. In addition, this study contributes to the hotel industry developing more effective online reviews from the reviewer level and diverse hotel types (three-star independent, four-star chain, five-star luxury hotels).

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

Raj Arora

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of message framing and source credibility on attitudes, intentions and beliefs about attributes of teeth whitening…

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3309

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of message framing and source credibility on attitudes, intentions and beliefs about attributes of teeth whitening products. Although each of these variables, message framing and credibility, has been explored individually, few attempts have been made to investigate them jointly. This study aims to base itself on a full factorial design that allows for testing of interaction effects. Similar investigations in marketing limit their inquiries primarily to attitudes and intentions as dependent variables. This study goes further in that it also aims to investigate the effect of framing and credibility on the salient attributes of products. Third, the market for whitening products is maturing, resulting in a target market that is gaining knowledge about these products. Thus, the paper seeks to use knowledge as a covariate in the above investigation to determine if the communication strategy should be changed as the product moves from introduction to maturity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a 2 × 2 factorial design with framing (positive‐negative) and credibility (high‐low). The setting for the study is a hypothetical brand name of teeth whitening products.

Findings

The results reveal that positive framing is more effective in changing attitudes and intentions. However, the effects of framing and credibility are significant in changing beliefs related to the product's attributes. Although the covariate knowledge is significant, the findings indicate that communication strategy need not change as the product moves from introduction to maturity.

Research limitations/implications

Caution is advised in extrapolating the results beyond the issues investigated in the study.

Practical implications

The findings help marketers in formulating effective strategies.

Originality/value

The focus of most research studies in marketing is on changing attitudes and intentions. This research also includes the change in beliefs regarding the attributes of the product. Prior research on framing is tilted towards the use of negative framing. The findings of this study suggest using positive or gain‐framed messages.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Nancy Stephens and William T. Faranda

Tests the effectiveness of three different types of service companyemployees as advertising spokespersons in an experiment involving printadvertisements for a bank and a…

Abstract

Tests the effectiveness of three different types of service company employees as advertising spokespersons in an experiment involving print advertisements for a bank and a hotel. Reveals that front‐office employees functioned best as print advertising spokespersons and that CEOs were adequate and back‐office employees were least effective.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Gail Tom, Rebecca Clark, Laura Elmer, Edward Grech, Joseph Masetti and Harmona Sandhar

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of realand created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and femalespokespersons′ effectiveness by…

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2716

Abstract

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of real and created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and female spokespersons′ effectiveness by audience gender. Concludes that celebrities can be used to gain attention and maintain sales, while created spokespersons′ effectiveness is in establishing a lifelong link with the product.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Raksha R. Deshbhag and Bijuna C. Mohan

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of celebrity credibility (trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise) on risk perception and buying intention of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of celebrity credibility (trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise) on risk perception and buying intention of Indian fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study adopted the survey method to know the influence of celebrity credibility dimensions on the perceived risk and purchase intentions of Indian FMCG consumers. This study has performed a survey on 250 respondents using the self-administered questionnaire consisting of 18 measurement scales.

Findings

The major findings of this study indicate celebrity trust and celebrity expertise are the most important dimensions of celebrity to influence the risk perceptions of Indian FMCG consumers. The risk perceptions positively influence the purchase intentions of Indian FMCG consumers.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited to the Indian context, but theoretical contributions in terms of justifying the relationship linking variables, which might affect success, as well as the failure of celebrity endorsements.

Practical implications

The research findings can assist the practitioners in selecting the right celebrity endorser as a spokesperson for promoting Indian FMCG brands based on three dimensions of celebrity credibility (trust, expertise and attractiveness).

Originality/value

The study has proposed and tested the new theoretical model considering the celebrity trust, celebrity expertise and celebrity attractiveness as the affective responses from the buyers of FMCG. Perceived risk is mainly cognitive responses influenced through celebrity credible sources. The study attempted to investigate the impact of both affective and cognitive responses on the purchase intentions of Indian FMCG consumers.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Feray Adıgüzel and Carmela Donato

This paper aims to examine and compare the simultaneous effect of financially successful appeals and attractiveness for male spokespersons, as well as explain why and when…

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288

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare the simultaneous effect of financially successful appeals and attractiveness for male spokespersons, as well as explain why and when this effect happens based on the viewer’s gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were designed by manipulating the success (vs absent) and attractiveness (vs average looking) of a male spokesperson and compared his marketing effectiveness in terms of purchase intention and advertising attitude. Additionally, the influence of gender through the mediating effect of negative/positive affect was compared.

Findings

Participants indicated lower purchase intention and advertising attitude in light of the success appeal in both studies; however, this effect was influenced by attractiveness in case of high involvement product. Additionally, success had a greater effect on ad effectiveness than attractiveness. Only for males, negative affect mediated the relationship between ad effectiveness and exposure to a successful spokesperson.

Practical implications

Practitioners should be aware of the negative influence of a financially successful spokesperson overall, especially if he is also very attractive and the product is a high involvement one targeting males. On the contrary, attractiveness of a successful spokesperson might cancel out negative effects for those products targeting females.

Originality/value

This study differs from previous studies by considering the simultaneous effect of successful and/or attractive male spokespersons on adult sample instead of college students and examine the effects for high and low involvement product.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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