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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Gail Tom, Rebecca Clark, Laura Elmer, Edward Grech, Joseph Masetti and Harmona Sandhar

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of realand created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and femalespokespersons′ effectiveness by…

2905

Abstract

Reports on a study designed to analyse the effectiveness of real and created spokespersons in advertisements. Compares male and female spokespersons′ effectiveness by audience gender. Concludes that celebrities can be used to gain attention and maintain sales, while created spokespersons′ effectiveness is in establishing a lifelong link with the product.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Jasmina Ilicic, Stacey M Baxter and Alicia Kulczynski

The purpose of this paper is to compare the influence of spokesperson appearance (visual congruence) and the sounds contained in a spokesperson’s name (verbal congruence…

2329

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the influence of spokesperson appearance (visual congruence) and the sounds contained in a spokesperson’s name (verbal congruence) on consumer perceptions of spokesperson–product fit.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 ensured that verbal congruence impacted perceptions of spokesperson–product fit. Experiment 2 compared the effect of verbal congruence versus traditional match-up (visual congruence) on perceptions of spokesperson–product fit. The mediating role of spokesperson–product fit on attitude towards the advertisement and the moderating role of need for cognition (NFC) was also tested.

Findings

Findings indicate that verbal congruence influences consumer perceptions of fit, regardless of visual congruence. Perceptions of spokesperson–product fit also act as mediators between visual and verbal congruence and attitude towards the advertisement. However, verbal congruence did not influence consumer perceptions of spokesperson–product fit when the NFC was low.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for advertisers and brand managers considering the creation of a name for a non-celebrity spokesperson or the development of a brand/spokes-character. However, this research is limited, as it examines only male names.

Originality/value

This research shows that perceptions of spokesperson and product fit are not only influenced by spokesperson appearance (visual congruence) but also by spokesperson name (verbal congruence). This research also identifies limitations of the applicability of phonetic symbolism theory by identifying a condition under which phonetic symbolism (verbal congruence) exerts no effects on perceptions of spokesperson–product fit.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Alice Zoghaib

This paper aims to explore the characteristics of a brand spokesperson’s voice that are the most valuable for consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and evaluates various…

1594

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the characteristics of a brand spokesperson’s voice that are the most valuable for consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and evaluates various explanations in previous research regarding the influences of a speaker’s voice.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand identities can transfer their associations and affect as well as influence brand recall, thus contributing to CBBE. In addition, the pitch and gender of a speaker’s voice are considered as key characteristics of voice perception. This experimental study exposed 521 respondents to 12 different voices and measured the effects of a spokesperson’s voice pitch and gender on associations, attitude toward the voice and brand recall.

Findings

This study presents a model that explains the influence of a brand spokesperson’s voice on CBBE. The findings show that low-pitched voices induced distinctive, positive associations and led to a more positive attitude toward the voice and greater brand recall, regardless of the gender of the spokesperson and that of the respondent. Moreover, voice associations partially mediated the effects on attitude toward the voice and completely mediated the effects on brand recall.

Originality/value

While numerous brands have resorted to specific voices to represent themselves, brand spokesperson’s voice and its associations have not been studied. This study highlights the importance of a spokesperson’s voice pitch and its associations in building CBBE and nuances the roles of spokespersons’ and respondents’ gender.

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Mark Toncar, Jane S. Reid and Cynthia E. Anderson

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service…

3704

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service radio announcement (PSA) soliciting contributions for victims of Hurricane Katrina.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were exposed to one of three public service announcements and were then asked to report their reactions to the messages. Differences in the self‐reported reactions of subjects were used to test a series of hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of the three different types of spokespersons.

Findings

The paper finds that the hurricane victim was the most credible and believable spokesperson. The national celebrity, Ashlee Simpson, was the least credible and the least believable. The local celebrity was more credible and believable than the national celebrity, but no more so than the hurricane victim.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper a small student sample was used in an experimental setting involving one set of stimuli and one set of spokespersons. It cannot be said that the results would generalize to other celebrities, non‐celebrities, video formats, or non‐experimental settings.

Practical implications

The paper shows that nonprofit agencies considering using celebrity spokespersons in PSAs should do so with caution. There is no evidence that they increase their effectiveness and, at least in the case of the national celebrity, the use of national celebrities may reduce the effectiveness of the PSA.

Originality/value

The paper applies the concepts developed in the study of celebrity spokespersons in advertising and applies them to PSAs. The effects of celebrity spokespersons in PSAs are not the same as in conventional advertising messages.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2019

Kevin P. Newman and Rebecca K. Trump

Companies are increasingly emphasizing corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, consumers are often skeptical of the sincerity of companies’ CSR claims…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies are increasingly emphasizing corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, consumers are often skeptical of the sincerity of companies’ CSR claims, particularly when the claim comes directly from the company. This paper aims to demonstrate how to reduce consumer CSR skepticism by examining the role of a company spokesperson’s gender and gender-related characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Two between-subjects experiments with a combined total of 329 participants examined how consumers’ levels of CSR skepticism are affected depending on the gender of the consumer and the gender and gender-related characteristics of the company’s CSR spokesperson.

Findings

Study 1 finds that a female (vs male) spokesperson generally elicits less CSR skepticism. However, Study 2 expands on this to demonstrate that consumers are less skeptical of a company’s CSR efforts when they are promoted by a spokesperson who exhibits gender-related characteristics that match, or are typically associated with, the individual consumer’s gender.

Practical implications

Brands often face difficulties in successfully promoting their own CSR efforts to skeptical consumers. These findings should guide companies and their brands in choosing ideal spokespeople for making effective, sincere CSR claims, depending on the target market.

Originality/value

This research is the first to identify the important role of gender in consumers’ perceptions of CSR sincerity. Thus, it provides practically-oriented strategies that may mitigate a growing consumer CSR skepticism that exists in today’s marketplace.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Hsuan-Yi Chou and Tuan-Yu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of brand strategies and spokesperson expertise on consumer responses to hypermarket private-label products by…

2019

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of brand strategies and spokesperson expertise on consumer responses to hypermarket private-label products by combining concepts from consumer attitude change, resistance to persuasion and construal level theory (CLT).

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted to test the propositions.

Findings

Consumers perceived the low-price (low-quality) characteristic of private-label products as a high-level (low-level) construal consideration when forming purchase decisions. Product relevance negatively affected consumers’ perceived product distance. Compared with store brands, separate brands enhanced consumer product attitudes and purchase intentions. Brand strategies and product distance affected consumer message-processing mindset (i.e. resistant to persuasion or open to persuasion) when processing advertisements, ultimately moderating the effect of spokesperson expertise.

Practical implications

The findings are useful for hypermarkets seeking to implement brand strategies and select spokespersons for private-label products. Additionally, the findings show that advertisers should design advertising elements to match consumers’ construal approaches to product-related information.

Originality/value

This study contrasts two common hypermarket brand strategies, identifies the construal levels corresponding to the dual roles of private-label products and expands CLT dimensions. Additionally, the results bridge two research approaches (persuasion and resistance to persuasion) and demonstrate the pivotal influence of brand strategies. The findings also advance understanding of the effects of spokesperson expertise and contribute to resistance theory by showing how to effectively reduce attitude certainty after resistance to persuasion.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Lina Pileliene and Viktorija Grigaliunaite

The purpose of this paper is to develop guidelines for the selection of a female advertising spokesperson and brand position regarding the selected spokesperson in the…

3616

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop guidelines for the selection of a female advertising spokesperson and brand position regarding the selected spokesperson in the context of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents findings using both neuromarketing and traditional marketing research methods.

Findings

The findings are based on the results of P300 event-related brain potentials, eye-tracking experiments and a questionnaire research. It was concluded that a famous female spokesperson indeed has a significant effect on FMCG advertising effectiveness.

Practical implications

The selection of a female celebrity spokesperson when seeking FMCG advertising effectiveness depends on the primary determined aim of marketing communication. If the aim of the advertising campaign is to form attitude, then selecting a celebrity as the FMCG advertising spokesperson is recommended, but if the aim of the FMCG advertising campaign is to enhance brand awareness, it is recommended to select a non-celebrity spokesperson. Furthermore, the brand should be presented at the top of the advertisement’s layout, particularly when a celebrity is chosen as a spokesperson because this allows lowering the possibility of the “vampire effect” occurrence.

Originality/value

As a study on the effect of a female spokesperson on FMCG advertising effectiveness, this research will be of academic interest, integrating both marketing theory and neuroscience to analyze and evaluate consumer behavior. This research is also relevant to businesses, because it provides guidelines for the selection of female advertising spokespersons in the context of FMCG advertising.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Feray Adıgüzel and Carmela Donato

This paper aims to examine and compare the simultaneous effect of financially successful appeals and attractiveness for male spokespersons, as well as explain why and when…

368

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare the simultaneous effect of financially successful appeals and attractiveness for male spokespersons, as well as explain why and when this effect happens based on the viewer’s gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were designed by manipulating the success (vs absent) and attractiveness (vs average looking) of a male spokesperson and compared his marketing effectiveness in terms of purchase intention and advertising attitude. Additionally, the influence of gender through the mediating effect of negative/positive affect was compared.

Findings

Participants indicated lower purchase intention and advertising attitude in light of the success appeal in both studies; however, this effect was influenced by attractiveness in case of high involvement product. Additionally, success had a greater effect on ad effectiveness than attractiveness. Only for males, negative affect mediated the relationship between ad effectiveness and exposure to a successful spokesperson.

Practical implications

Practitioners should be aware of the negative influence of a financially successful spokesperson overall, especially if he is also very attractive and the product is a high involvement one targeting males. On the contrary, attractiveness of a successful spokesperson might cancel out negative effects for those products targeting females.

Originality/value

This study differs from previous studies by considering the simultaneous effect of successful and/or attractive male spokespersons on adult sample instead of college students and examine the effects for high and low involvement product.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Terrence L. Warburton and Rod Troester

While the importance of the corporate spokesperson in the media‐organisation relationship is consistently recognised in the literature, little is known in terms of the…

Abstract

While the importance of the corporate spokesperson in the media‐organisation relationship is consistently recognised in the literature, little is known in terms of the actual practices and perceptions of the various parties involved. Based on a survey of media personnel, corporate spokesperson and CEOs, this paper identifies the respective perceptions and discusses their implications.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Jasmina Ilicic, Stacey M. Baxter and Alicia Kulczynski

This research aims to examine the effect of spokesperson facial symmetry on advertisement attitude, brand attitude and purchase intention and the mediating role of source…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the effect of spokesperson facial symmetry on advertisement attitude, brand attitude and purchase intention and the mediating role of source authenticity on attitudinal and behavioral judgments.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were undertaken. Study 1 examined the effect of facial symmetry on source authenticity and endorsement effectiveness. Study 2 investigated the influence of the authentic facial cues of freckles and moles on source authenticity and advertisement attitude, brand attitude and purchase intention.

Findings

Findings indicate that source authenticity is the mechanism that explains attitudinal and behavioral judgments toward advertisements featuring asymmetrical spokespeople. The phenomenon observed is due to a proposed source authenticity overgeneralization effect, whereby spokespeople with asymmetrical faces are perceived as more genuine and real which, subsequently, results in more positive attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand and greater purchase intention than advertisements featuring spokespeople with symmetrical faces. The addition of authentic (biological) facial cues (i.e. freckles and moles) on spokespeople with a symmetrical facial structure, however, can heighten perceptions of source authenticity and the manifestation of the source authenticity overgeneralization effect.

Research limitations/implications

This research has implications for marketing managers in the selection and depiction of spokespeople in their advertisements. However, this research is limited, as it only examines the facial feature characteristics of symmetry, freckles, and moles.

Originality/value

This research shows that an asymmetrical facial structure can positively influence source, attitudinal and behavioral judgments. This research also identifies that although symmetrical facial structures dilute source- and endorsement-based judgments, the addition of authentic facial cues, freckles and moles, can reverse the negative effects and enhance perceptions of source authenticity, attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand and purchase intentions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000