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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2018

Don Liu, Hui-Li Han and Yong-Lai Zheng

This paper aims to present a high-order algorithm implemented with the modal spectral element method and simulations of three-dimensional thermal convective flows by using…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a high-order algorithm implemented with the modal spectral element method and simulations of three-dimensional thermal convective flows by using the full viscous dissipation function in the energy equation. Three benchmark problems were solved to validate the algorithm with exact or theoretical solutions. The heated rotating sphere at different temperatures inside a cold planar Poiseuille flow was simulated parametrically at varied angular velocities with positive and negative rotations.

Design/methodology/approach

The fourth-order stiffly stable schemes were implemented and tested for time integration. To provide the hp-refinement and spatial resolution enhancement, a modal spectral element method using hierarchical basis functions was used to solve governing equations in a three-dimensional space.

Findings

It was found that the direction of rotation of the heated sphere has totally different effects on drag, lateral force and torque evaluated on surfaces of the sphere and walls. It was further concluded that the angular velocity of the heated sphere has more influence on the wall normal velocity gradient than on the wall normal temperature gradients and therefore, more influence on the viscous dissipation than on the thermal dissipation.

Research limitations/implications

This paper concerns incompressible fluid flow at constant properties with up to medium temperature variations in the absence of thermal radiation and ignoring the pressure work.

Practical implications

This paper contributes a viable high-order algorithm in time and space for modeling convective heat transfer involving an internal heated rotating sphere with the effect of viscous heating.

Social implications

Results of this paper could provide reference for related topics such as enhanced heat transfer forced convection involving rotating spheres and viscous thermal effect.

Originality/value

The merits include resolving viscous dissipation and thermal diffusion in stationary and rotating boundary layers with both h- and p-type refinements, visualizing the viscous heating effect with the full viscous dissipation function in the energy equation and modeling the forced advection around a rotating sphere with varied positive and negative angular velocities subject to a shear flow.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Barbara Kaufman

Reinforce the importance of influence skills, collaborative decision‐making and flexible leadership styles in today's complex business environment.

Abstract

Purpose

Reinforce the importance of influence skills, collaborative decision‐making and flexible leadership styles in today's complex business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Introduce research conducted by Robert Cialdini, Ph.D. on influence and explain how these skills can be applied through examples and quotes from senior executives.

Findings

Influence skills help leaders get colleagues on board for change initiatives, access resources, guide teams, develop shared goals, reduce resistance, encourage teamwork beyond functional boundaries, win support from those with competing agendas, empower others and sell ideas to the boss.

Practical implications

When leaders harness the power of influence, they create a shared sense of responsibility, improve communications, encounter fewer problems with change‐implementation, discover more innovation and creativity, experience less attrition and less resistance while gaining access to more information for better decision making.

Originality/value

Leaders benefit from recognizing the importance of influence skills and taking the steps to increase their sphere of influence by nurturing a culture in which these skills can flourish.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Rolf H. Carlsson

In both Britain and the USA, the majority of the shares in quoted companies are owned by institutional shareholders such as pension funds and insurance companies. But, in…

Abstract

In both Britain and the USA, the majority of the shares in quoted companies are owned by institutional shareholders such as pension funds and insurance companies. But, in most cases these major shareholders are “passive”, that is they prefer not to become involved in the management of the companies in which they invest – unless there is a crisis. By this time unfortunately it is often too late to prevent their shareholders or pensioners from losing money. In this article Rolf Carlsson describes how the Wallenberg family through their holding company Investor AB have helped a number of Swedish companies to become world leaders by working with their managers as active investors. He tells the story of ABB and L.M. Ericsson but the Wallenberg sphere of influence has also included Atlas Copco, SAAB Scania, SKF, Swedish Match, Alfa Laval, Stora and Electrolux. Also he explains how the Wallenberg family evolved the competencies and structures which they needed to fulfil their role as an active investor. These competencies included: choosing the right businesses in which to invest; “meta‐management” – recruiting and appointing the right chief executives; “legitimization” – building the Wallenberg reputation and good name in Swedish society and internationally by pursuing socially responsible and ethical policies; and nurturing corporations so they can become global leaders. The family works through two key structures: Investor AB – an investment company which has a board of non‐executive directors and two executive vice chairmen most of whom are experienced CEO’s from industry and commerce; and independent company boards, with strong CEO’s – which they change as necessary to ensure that they have the competencies required to deliver the agreed strategies. The Wallenberg’s approach to active ownership is entrepreneurial: “the need for incessant renewal”.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Rick Wicks

This paper revisits old questions of the proper subject and bounds of economics: does economics study “provisioning”? or markets? or a method of reasoning, self‐interested…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper revisits old questions of the proper subject and bounds of economics: does economics study “provisioning”? or markets? or a method of reasoning, self‐interested rational optimization?

Design/methodology/approach

A variety of scholars and others in many fields make use of a taxonomy of society consisting of three “spheres”: markets, governments, and communities. It is argued here that this tripartite taxonomy of society is fundamental and exhaustive. A variety of ways of understanding this taxonomy are explored, especially Fiske's (1991, 2004) “Relational models theory.” Then – after communities and their products, social goods, are defined more thoroughly – a visual model of interactions among the three spheres is presented.

Findings

The model is first used briefly to understand the historical development of markets. The model is then applied to understanding how economic thinking and market ideology, including the notion of social capital, can be destructive of communities and their production of social goods (and their production of social capital as well).

Research limitations/implications

It is not possible to measure these effects monetarily, so calculating precisely “how this affects results” in a standard economic model is impossible.

Practical implications

Nevertheless we could better prepare students for real‐world analysis, and better serve our clients, including the public, if – whenever relevant, such as in textbook introductions and in benefit/cost analyses – we made them aware of the limitations of economic analysis with respect to communities and social goods.

Originality/value

The three‐spheres model offered here, based on Fiske's “Relational models theory,” facilitates this awareness.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Richard D. Sudduth

The purpose of this paper is to expand the theoretical meaning and application of the separate components of the interaction coefficient as obtained from the generalized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to expand the theoretical meaning and application of the separate components of the interaction coefficient as obtained from the generalized viscosity model.

Design/methodology/approach

Both theoretical and experimental analysis have been utilized to better understand the meaning of the separate components of the interaction coefficient obtained from the generalized viscosity model. Analysis of the experimental data of Schaller and Humphrey has been used to successfully isolate the separate components of the interaction coefficient.

Findings

The relative unhindered volume is the volume outside the sphere of influence of a particle that is responsible for the viscosity characteristics of a coating. This is the volume available for particles to move in the suspension and still contribute to the viscosity. The smaller the relative unhindered volume the higher the viscosity. As the interaction coefficient, σ, increases the particles increase their interaction with each other and the relative unhindered volume decreases. Using the data of Schaller and Humphrey, it was found that the interaction coefficient agreed best with the theoretical expectation relative to particle size when the ionic strength was low. At high levels of ionic strength, the solvent‐particle component of the interaction coefficient was dominant and the influence of particle size on the interaction coefficient was minimal.

Research limitations/implications

Only one set of experimental data was successfully utilized for illustrative purposes in this study but the resulting analysis has implicated a broad range of practical applications. In addition, the general theoretical concepts elucidated relative to the interaction coefficient should still be applicable independent of the experimental results.

Practical implications

The analysis presented in this paper provides several practical guidelines to separate and control the charge component of pigments in a suspension from their size component using the interaction coefficient as described in this study. Consequently, the results of this study should provide several new practical approaches to use when attempting to control the viscosity of suspensions for a broad range of practical applications and for a broad range of suspension types including coatings.

Originality/value

This is the first time that the theoretical statistical character of the interaction coefficient as indicated in the generalized viscosity model has been specifically elucidated. In addition, the relatively simple experimental separation of the interaction coefficient into its size and electrical components has been shown to be widely applicable in this paper.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Derina Holtzhausen

The purpose of this paper is to consider the threats and potential of Big Data for strategic communication. It explains the concepts of datafication and Big Data and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the threats and potential of Big Data for strategic communication. It explains the concepts of datafication and Big Data and establishes the social and cultural context of Big Data from the way those constructing algorithms superimpose their value systems and cultural references onto the data. It links Big Data and strategic communication through the segmentation devices and strategies both use and propose discourse analysis as a valid method for the critique of Big Data. The importance of strategic communication for the public sphere suggests that Big Data can pose a serious threat to public discourse.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual and theoretical paper that first explains and interprets various new terms and concepts and then uses established theoretical approaches to analyze these phenomena.

Findings

The use of Big Data for the micro-segmentation of audiences establishes its relationship with strategic communication. Big Data analyses and algorithms are not neutral. Treating algorithms as language and communication allow them to be subjected to discourse analysis to expose underlying power relations for resistance strategies to emerge. Strategic communicators should guard the public sphere and take an activist stance against the potential harm of Big Data. That requires a seat at the institutional technology table and speaking out against discriminatory practices. However, Big Data can also greatly benefit society and improve discourse in the public sphere.

Research limitations/implications

There is not yet empirical data available on the impact of datafication on communication practice, which might be a problem well into the future. It also might be hard to do empirical research on its impact on practice and the public sphere. The heuristic value of this piece is that it laid down the theoretical foundations of the phenomena to be studied, which can in future be used for ethnographic research or qualitative studies. It might eventually be possible to follow personalized messages generated through datafication to study if they actually lead to behavior change in specific audience members.

Practical/implications

As guardians of the public sphere strategic communication practitioners have to educate themselves on the realities of Big Data and should consciously acquire a seat at the institutional technology table. Practitioners will need to be involved in decisions on how algorithms are formulated and who they target. This will require them to serve as activists to ensure social justice. They also will need to contribute to organizational transparency by making organizational information widely available and accessible through media bought, owned, and earned. Strategic communicators need to create a binary partnership with journalists of all kinds to secure the public sphere.

Social/implications

The paper exposes the role of algorithms in the construction of data and the extent to which algorithms are products of people who impose their own values and belief systems on them. Algorithms and the data they generate are subjective and value-laden. The concept of algorithms as language and communication and the use of Big Data for the segmentation of society for purposes of communication establish the connection between Big Data and strategic communication. The paper also exposes the potential for harm in the use of Big Data, as well as its potential for improving society and bringing about social justice.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that it introduces the concept of datafication to communication studies and proposes theoretical foundations for the study of Big Data in the context of strategic communications. It provides a theoretical and social foundation for the inclusion of the public sphere in a definition of strategic communication and emphasizes strategic communicators’ commitment to the public sphere as more important than ever before. It highlights how communication practice and society can impact each other positively and negatively and that Big Data should not be the future of strategic communication but only a part of it.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Angélique Rodhain and Philippe Aurier

– The purpose of this paper is to study the child–brand relationship dynamic in interaction with the relationships children develop with their family, peers and teacher.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the child–brand relationship dynamic in interaction with the relationships children develop with their family, peers and teacher.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, six classes in French primary schools are observed for six months. Among the 112 children observed, aged 10-11 years, 24 of them are interviewed twice individually and 24 others are interviewed in focus groups.

Findings

A lack of coherence between parents, peers and the teacher, as well as with the child’s own desires, affects the child–brand relationship and reduces the child’s self-esteem. Based on this, this study proposes a four-case typology of child–brand relationship dynamics with two criteria: the child’s attitude toward the brand relationship (favorable and unfavorable) and the consistency of attitudes in his/her socialization spheres (peers, parents and teacher) relative to this relationship. Then, the most frequent trajectories children follow across these brand relationship cases are identified.

Research limitations/implications

This study applies to branded clothes.

Practical implications

From a marketer’s perspective, this study reveals that there are different qualities in child–brand relationships. The strongest one appears when the child feels free from outside pressure and when peers, parents and the teacher create a virtuous circle for brands (or at least do not contradict the child’s desires for brands).

Social implications

For public policymakers, it can be useful to be aware that when peers, parents and teachers’ opinions about brands differ, this affects the child’s self-esteem.

Originality/value

The study offers a dynamic approach to child–brand relationships.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

J. Langus, P. Šuštarič and T. Rodič

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect that polymer coat has on the impact behavior of grinding sphere and to find possible subsection of parameter space in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect that polymer coat has on the impact behavior of grinding sphere and to find possible subsection of parameter space in which grinding sphere wear could be reduced.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical analysis is based on axisymmetric finite elements that were developed using symbolic tool AceGen. Comparing stress response of elastic and visco‐elastic material revealed that for high strain rates observed in impacts both behave the same and that is why elastic elements were used in simulations.

Findings

Impact velocity, coat thickness and polymer material properties were varied in a parametric case study of polymer‐coated sphere impact. Decrease of the pressure on the surface of grinding sphere indicates that polymer layer can be effective in reducing grinding media wear, but in order to maintain adequate impact pressure to do the grinding the impact velocity has to be increased. Both upper and lower limit for impact velocity were determined for some arbitrary pressure threshold values. This shows that combining measured threshold values of specific material with results from presented numerical tool could provide valuable guides for finding optimum stirred media milling operation parameters.

Originality/value

In this work, the authors develop numerical tools with the aim of supporting experimental development of polymer coat capable of reducing grinding media wear.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Richard Reed and Susan F. Storrud‐Barnes

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For patenting, the paper seeks to show how invention value and firm rivalry drive the tactics of competing, deterring competitors, retreating from markets, and cooperating. It also aims to explore the effects of the contingencies of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness.

Design/methodology/approach

The work is conceptual.

Findings

The base model shows that patenting can be used to protect markets where there is high invention‐value and high rivalry. When both invention‐value and rivalry are low, the best tactic is to cooperate. When value is high and rivalry low, patenting can be used as a signaling and deterring mechanism, but when value is low and rivalry is high the best option is to let patents lapse and retreat from markets. The moderating effects of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness affect rivalry and the amount of patenting that will be done.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides propositions for empirical testing that are predictive of firm performance, rivalry, and patent bulking. Despite the authors' attention to key contingencies, it is impossible to be completely comprehensive in addressing all contingencies.

Practical implications

The framework provides tactics for competing and, consequently, maximizing income and minimizing costs.

Originality/value

The work synthesizes extant thinking on patents and multipoint competition. While the base model should be valuable for managers, the overall work should be valuable for academics.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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