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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Zélia Serrasqueiro, Fernanda Matias and Julio Diéguez-Soto

This paper seeks to analyze the family firm's capital structure decisions, focusing on the speed of adjustment (SOA) as well as on the effect of distance from the target…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyze the family firm's capital structure decisions, focusing on the speed of adjustment (SOA) as well as on the effect of distance from the target capital structure on the SOA towards target short-term and long-term debt ratios in unlisted small and medium-sized family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodologically, we use dynamic panel data estimators to estimate the effects of distance on the speeds of adjustment towards those targets. Data for the period 2006–2014 were collected for two research sub-samples: one sub-sample with 398 family firms; the other sub-sample contains 217 non-family firms.

Findings

The results show that the deviation from the target debt ratios impacts negatively on the speeds of adjustment towards target short-term and long-term debt ratios in unlisted family firms. These results suggest that family firms, deviating from target debt ratios, face deviation costs, i.e. insolvency costs, inferior to the adjustment costs, i.e. transaction costs. Therefore, family firms stay away from the target debt ratios for a long time than do non-family firms.

Research limitations/implications

The research sample comprises a low number of family firms, therefore for future research we suggest increasing the size of the sample of family firms to get a deeper understanding of family firms' SOA towards capital structure. Additionally, we suggest the analysis of other potential determinants of the speed of adjustment towards target capital structure.

Practical implications

The results obtained suggest that the distance from the target short-term and long-term debt ratios can be avoided if these firms do not depend almost exclusively on internal finance to adjust towards target capital structure. Moreover, for policymakers, we suggest the creation/promotion of alternative external finance sources, allowing reduced transaction costs that contribute to a faster adjustment of small family firms towards target capital structure.

Originality/value

The most previous research focusing on capital structure decisions have focused on listed family firms. To fill this gap, this study examines the speed of adjustment towards target debt ratios in the context of unlisted family firms. Moreover, transaction costs are a function of debt maturity, therefore this study examines separately the speeds of adjustment towards target short-term and long-term debt ratios. This paper shows that the adjustment costs (i.e. transaction costs) could hold back family firms from rebalancing its capital structure.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Nufazil Ahangar

The study examines the existence of target level of working capital and the speed of adjustment toward the target for eight manufacturing sectors of Indian economy. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The study examines the existence of target level of working capital and the speed of adjustment toward the target for eight manufacturing sectors of Indian economy. In addition, this study examines the impact of financial constraints on the speed of adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on secondary financial data of 1936 Indian manufacturing companies from eight sectors for a period of 18 years (2000–2018). This study employs two-step GMM techniques to arrive at results.

Findings

Results of the study confirm that firms do have target working capital, but the speed of adjustment from the current level of working capital to the target working capital is slow, and the speed of adjustment varies across sub-sectors. Moreover, we found that firms that are likely to be less constrained adjust their working capital quickly compared to firms facing high financial constraints.

Originality/value

This study contributes to working capital management literature by examining the speed with which the firms move toward their target and also the impact of financial constraints on the speed of adjustment across eight manufacturing sectors of Indian economy. Further, the study examines the impact of financial constraints on the speed of adjustment.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Filipe Sardo and Zelia Serrasqueiro

The purpose of this paper is to analyse if capital structure decisions of small- and medium-sized Portuguese firms are in accordance with the predictions of dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse if capital structure decisions of small- and medium-sized Portuguese firms are in accordance with the predictions of dynamic trade-off theory, more precisely, the speed of adjustment of short-term debt (STD) and long-term debt (LTD) towards the respective target debt ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on two samples of Portuguese firms, 1,377 small-sized firms and 811 medium-sized firms, dynamic estimators were used for the treatment of data obtained from the Amadeus database for the period 2007-2011.

Findings

The results indicate that small- and medium-sized firms adjust their STD and LTD ratios towards the respective target ratios. Small- and medium-sized firms present a high-speed adjustment towards the target STD ratio, suggesting that both types of firm face costs of deviating from the target capital structure, which are, probably, greater than the costs of adjustment associated with STD. However, considering the distance from the target ratio as a determinant of the adjustment speed, the results show the predominance of the negative effect of the costs of adjustment on capital structure adjustment speeds.

Originality/value

The results obtained for the speed of adjustment of STD and LTD, in a recession context, show that for small firms and medium-sized firms, mainly for the former, the costs of external market transactions are prohibitively high, slowing the speed of adjustment towards the target capital structure.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2018

Rofin T.M. and Biswajit Mahanty

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of price adjustment speed on the stability of Bertrand–Nash equilibrium in the context of a dual-channel supply…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of price adjustment speed on the stability of Bertrand–Nash equilibrium in the context of a dual-channel supply chain competition.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers a dual-channel supply chain comprising a manufacturer, a traditional retailer and an online retailer. A two-dimensional discrete dynamical system is used to examine the Bertrand competition between the retailers. The retailers are assumed to follow bounded rational expectations. Local stability of Bertrand–Nash equilibrium is investigated with respect to the price adjustment speed.

Findings

As the price adjustment speed increases, the stability of Bertrand–Nash equilibrium is lost, leading to complex chaotic dynamics. The results showed that chaotic dynamics deteriorates the profit of the retailers. The authors also found that the chaos can be controlled using an adaptive adjustment mechanism and the retailers enjoy higher profit when the chaos is controlled.

Practical implications

This study helps retail managers to choose an appropriate price adjustment speed to maximize profit.

Originality/value

The heterogeneity of the retailers is not considered in the studies involving dynamics of retailer competition. This paper contributes to the literature by considering the operational difference between a traditional retailer and an online retailer, i.e. price adjustment speed. In addition, the study establishes a link between price adjustment speed and profit.

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Tesfaye T. Lemma and Minga Negash

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of institutional, macroeconomic, industry, and firm characteristics on the adjustment speed of corporate capital structure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of institutional, macroeconomic, industry, and firm characteristics on the adjustment speed of corporate capital structure within the context of developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors considers a sample of 986 firms drawn from nine developing countries in Africa over a period of ten years (1999-2008). The study develops dynamic partial adjustment models that link capital structure adjustment speed and institutional, macroeconomic, and firm characteristics. The analysis is carried out using system Generalized Method of Moments procedure which is robust to data heterogeneity and endogeneity problems.

Findings

The paper finds that firms in developing countries do temporarily deviate from (and partially adjust to) their target capital structures. Our results also indicate that: more profitable firms tend to rapidly adjust their capital structures than less profitable firms; the effects of firm size, growth opportunities, and the gap between observed and target leverage ratios on adjustment speed are functions of how one measures capital structure; and adjustment speed tends to be faster for firms in industries that have relatively higher risk and countries with common law tradition, less developed stock markets, lower income, and weaker creditor rights protection.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should focus on examination of the adjustment speed of debt maturity structure. Identification of industry-specific characteristics that affect the pace with which firms adjust their capital structure to the optimum is another possible avenue for future research.

Practical implications

Our findings have practical implications for corporate managers, governments, legislators, and policymakers.

Originality/value

The study focuses on firms in developing countries for which the literature on adjustment speed of capital structure is virtually non-existent. Furthermore, unlike previous works on capital structure, it explicitly models industry variable as one of the determinants of adjustment speed. Therefore, it contributes to the literature on capital structure and adjustment speed in general and to the literature on developing countries in particular.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Sulagna Mukherjee and Jitendra Mahakud

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of capital structure in the context of Indian manufacturing companies in a partial‐adjustment framework during the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of capital structure in the context of Indian manufacturing companies in a partial‐adjustment framework during the period 1993‐1994 to 2007‐2008.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper specifies a partial‐adjustment model and uses the generalized method of moments technique to determine the variables which affect the target capital structure and to find out the factors affecting the adjustment speed to target capital structure.

Findings

Firm‐specific variables like size, tangibility, profitability and market‐to‐book ratio were found to be the most important variables which determine the target capital structure across the book and market leverage and the factors like size of the company, growth opportunity and the distance between the target and observed leverage determine the speed of adjustment to target leverage for the Indian manufacturing companies.

Research limitations/implications

The behavioural variables like managers' confidence and attitude towards raising the external finance have not been incorporated in the model to determine the target capital structure due to the data constraint.

Practical implications

This paper has implications for corporate managers in India, for example, to consider the various adjustment costs while altering the financing decisions of the company with other variables like flexibility of the manager, direct cost of debt and equity.

Originality/value

This paper is first of its kind to study both the determination of target capital structure and the speed of adjustment to target capital structure in the context of Indian companies.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Muhammad Naveed, Suresh Ramakrishnan, Melati Ahmad Anuar and Maryam Mirzaei

This study aims to examine the existence of capital structure dynamics and speed of adjustment during different economic periods. This study adds to the existing body of

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the existence of capital structure dynamics and speed of adjustment during different economic periods. This study adds to the existing body of literature by investigating the factors influencing adjustment process toward target debt in developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

By employing two-step generalized method of moment (GMM) and sensitivity analysis, the study highlights critical factors which affect firms’ adjustment mechanism for target debt.

Findings

Dynamic GMM estimations confirm the substance of past leverage on current debt, which recognizes the existence of dynamic capital structure. The findings corroborate that adjustment process is subject to trade-off between convergence rate and cost of being off-target. The fraction of financing of Pakistani firms confirms the pattern of pecking order hypothesis. The outcome of study clearly validates the significance of dynamic trade-off modeling for optimal capital structure.

Research limitations/implications

As more data become available, the authors would extend this study to investigate the sectoral analysis to find how capital structure dynamics are different across sectors and how distinctive behavior of each sector differently affects the adjustment process toward target debt across each sector. In addition, sector-level and macro-economic factors could be incorporated to examine how external factors affect the firm’s speed of adjustment across sectors.

Practical implications

The present study provides valuable insights for banking and corporate sector, mainly in Pakistan. The companies could take into consideration the firm-level factors which affect the adjustment process toward target debt. Likewise, the borrowing and lending procedures could be advanced by complying with dynamic mechanism of speed of adjustment. Furthermore, the findings of this research provide obstinate grounds for future research.

Originality/value

Both the use of dynamic GMM adjustment model and sensitivity analysis along with Sargan test validate the health of instruments and values.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Isaac Cliford Queku, Seth Gyedu and Emmanuel Carsamer

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the causal relationships and speed of adjustment of stock prices to changes in macroeconomic information (MEI) in Ghana from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the causal relationships and speed of adjustment of stock prices to changes in macroeconomic information (MEI) in Ghana from 1996 to 2018 using monthly data. The paper seeks to conduct the investigation at individual MEI level rather than the composite MEI.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative approach was used in this paper. Monthly data span of 1996–2018 was used. The delay and half-life technique was used to determine the speed with which the information resulting from the changes in the macroeconomic are evident in the stock price. Thereafter, Toda–Yamamoto Granger no-causality approach was used to examine the causal relationship amongst variables.

Findings

The paper revealed that although the market adjustment to MEI has improved, the speed is till slow. The exchange rate exhibited the slowest speed in respect of the market reaction while the market reaction to money supply was the fastest. Toda–Yamamoto Granger no-causality estimation also revealed a bi-directional causality between MEI (gross domestic product, interest rate and money supply) and stock price and uni-directional relationship flowing from MEI (the exchange rate and foreign direct investment) to stock price. The paper also found no causality between inflation and stock price.

Research limitations/implications

The findings although revealed improved level of market efficiency in comparison with the earlier data, the speed of adjustment is still undesirable. Rigorous approach should be adopted for the implementation of major reforms such as alternative market so as to increase the number of share listing and to increase the scope of investors' participation to enhancing trading volume and marketability and ultimately speed up information diffusion.

Practical implications

The practical implication of the low level of information processing rate of Ghana Stock Exchange (averagely more than a month) is that astute investors and market analysts could employ MEI to outperform the market prior to their infusion onto the stock market.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few studies in the Ghanaian literature that has extended the investigation of the speed of adjustment beyond composite or aggregate macroeconomic level estimation to estimation at individual variable level. This contribution is very relevant since each macroeconomic variable has unique characteristics and require specific policy framework, it is important to consider the speed of adjustment from the perspective of each of the individual variables.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Liang-Wei Kuo, Hsin-Yu Liang and Yung-Jang Wang

Building upon the framework of the tradeoff model of capital structure and motivated by the equity market timing theory, we examine whether equity misvaluation is a source…

Abstract

Building upon the framework of the tradeoff model of capital structure and motivated by the equity market timing theory, we examine whether equity misvaluation is a source of adjustment “costs” that will affect a firm’s leverage adjustment speed toward target. We also investigate whether the quality of a firm’s long-term growth options will influence the decisions of managers to exploit the mispriced equity to converge to the optimum. Using a sample of listed Taiwanese firms during 1992–2014 and employing the market-to-book decomposition as developed by Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson, and Viswanathan (2005), we find that overleveraged and overvalued firms demonstrate faster adjustment speed than overleveraged but undervalued firms. Furthermore, controlling for the misvaluation status, high-growth firms converge to target faster than their low-growth counterparts. The effect of growth options on the relation between equity mispricing and adjustment speed does not mirror the effect of financing deficits. With the detailed financial information of the local companies across a rather long time series, this study provides incremental inputs to the literature of capital structure from the determinants of target leverage, the estimation of leverage adjustment speeds, to the identification of the sources of adjustment costs in an emerging market where institutional environment is strikingly different from the US.

Details

Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-446-6

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Abdul Rashid

This paper aims to theorize that if risk affects costs and benefits of capital structure adjustments, then it should affect the speed at which firms adjust their leverage…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theorize that if risk affects costs and benefits of capital structure adjustments, then it should affect the speed at which firms adjust their leverage toward the target. To investigate this hypothesis, the author empirically examines the role of firm-specific and macroeconomic risk on firms’ capital structure adjustments.

Design/methodology/approach

The author augments the standard reduced-form partial adjustment model of capital structure by incorporating firm-specific and macroeconomic risk. The two-step robust system-generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator is used to estimate the proposed model for a large panel of UK manufacturing firms. An unbalanced annual panel data set covering the period from 1981 to 2009 is utilized for empirical analysis.

Findings

The estimated adjustment speeds indicate that both firm-specific risk and macroeconomic risk significantly affect the speed at which firms adjust their capital structure toward the target. In particular, the author shows that firms adjust their leverage faster toward the target when firm-specific risk is relatively low. This is perhaps because firms face lower costs of adjustment when both firm-specific and macroeconomic risks are low. Overall, the paper provides evidence that different levels and different types of risk exert asymmetric effects on capital structure adjustments.

Practical implications

The results presented in this paper suggest that managers have to carefully consider both the overall state of the economy and the solvency of their own business activities when making their financing decisions. The results also help in explaining why firms time equity and debt markets.

Originality/value

The paper significantly adds to our understanding of asymmetries in adjustment speed across firms and over times. The paper can also be useful to understand why firms would not aggressively act to offset the effects of changes in the market value of equity or gains and losses in earnings.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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