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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Milos Vulanovic

The purpose of this paper is to study how institutional characteristics of specified purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) are related to their post-merger survival. SPACs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study how institutional characteristics of specified purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) are related to their post-merger survival. SPACs are unique financial firms that conduct the initial public offering (IPO) with the sole purpose of using the proceeds to acquire another private company. The paper finds that institutional characteristics of SPACs are important in determining post-merger outcomes of new company, specifically when it comes to their survival/failure, i.e., increases in pre-merger commitment by SPAC stakeholders and initial positive market performance increase post-merger survival likelihood; on the contrary, mergers with higher transaction costs and focused on foreign companies exhibit increased likelihood of failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Using unique sample of companies conducting an IPO, namely, SPACs, with the sole purpose to execute an acquisition in the future date within limited time, this paper presents additional evidence on the survival and acquisition frequency of IPOs, and determinants of these choices.

Findings

Observing unique set of specified purpose companies, this paper documents that SPACs’ failure rate is at the level of 58.09 percent, higher than any previously reported failure rate in the post-IPO survival literature and comparable only to failure rates found by Hensler et al. (1997) at 55.10 percent for general companies. In addition, the paper documents similar findings to Bhabra and Pettway (2003) that prospectus and market characteristics of original companies have predictive power with respect to survival.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature on post-IPO survival in following ways. First, the paper documents survival rates for unique set of companies organized with the sole purpose to acquire another company. Second, the paper presents evidence on how institutional characteristics of SPAC determine their post-merged outcomes, specifically when it comes to their failures. Finally, paper contributes to the scant literature on SPACs providing new evidence on their post-merger outcomes and performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2017

Kamal Ghosh Ray and Sangita Ghosh Ray

Special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) are created by a group of specialists to pool funds for financing future acquisitions within a specified time limit. SPACs…

Abstract

Special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) are created by a group of specialists to pool funds for financing future acquisitions within a specified time limit. SPACs are basically “shell” companies with no operations and business, assets or liabilities but they acquire the status of public corporations through initial public offerings (IPOs). The SPAC founders use the IPO funds to acquire a potential target. They are generally found to be successful to close an mergers & acquisitions (M&A) deal but they may not bother to ensure perpetual success of the acquired entity for a long time. In many countries, “shell” companies are characterized as the “bad boys” of the corporate world but they can be used for long-lasting successful M&As due to their inherent strengths, if they play the role of protagonists and “good guys” as SPACs. This chapter examines how SPACs can be used as special vehicles to ensure worthy and successful acquisitions to create sustainable corporations.

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Milan Lakicevic and Milos Vulanovic

This paper aims to study characteristics of specified purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) and examine the performance of their securities over time.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study characteristics of specified purpose acquisition companies (SPACs) and examine the performance of their securities over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous findings in literature on SPACs' performance around the announcement of merger date are scarce, not uniform, and mostly address the performance of SPACs' common shares. The authors believe that more insights on merger announcements can be obtained if the perf]ormance of all three types of securities that SPACs issue during the IPO, namely units, common stocks, and warrants are analyzed simultaneously. In order to examine the behavior of these securities we form three samples with daily returns for three distinguished SPAC securities. Results are obtained for abnormal returns based on the market model from Brown and Warner.

Findings

It is found that SPACs represent a fairly unique way to raise capital. The incentives of their founders, underwriters, and investors are interdependent and successful business combinations generally result in significant returns to founders. The analysis shows that SPACs have a complex corporate structure in which the incentives of the founders, underwriters, and investors are interdependent and where successful mergers result in significant returns to the founders. It also shows that different SPAC securities do not exhibit similar reactions in response to announcements regarding their corporate status. While holders of all three securities realize positive abnormal returns on the merger announcement day, the strongest reaction is observed among the investors holding warrants, while common stock holders react very mildly.

Originality/value

SPACs are recent phenomena in capital markets and very few papers in finance literature describe them. None of the existing papers evaluated performance of all three types of SPAC securities: units, common shares and warrants before this paper.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1976

The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the…

Abstract

The Howard Shuttering Contractors case throws considerable light on the importance which the tribunals attach to warnings before dismissing an employee. In this case the tribunal took great pains to interpret the intention of the parties to the different site agreements, and it came to the conclusion that the agreed procedure was not followed. One other matter, which must be particularly noted by employers, is that where a final warning is required, this final warning must be “a warning”, and not the actual dismissal. So that where, for example, three warnings are to be given, the third must be a “warning”. It is after the employee has misconducted himself thereafter that the employer may dismiss.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous…

Abstract

Knight's Industrial Law Reports goes into a new style and format as Managerial Law This issue of KILR is restyled Managerial Law and it now appears on a continuous updating basis rather than as a monthly routine affair.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Bram Boekestein

This paper aims to assess to what extent intellectual capital is revealed once a company is acquired.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess to what extent intellectual capital is revealed once a company is acquired.

Design/methodology/approach

The research question was approached by analyzing official accounts of companies, like annual reports and documents provided to stock exchange authorities before and after the acquisition. In its purchase price allocation the acquiring company is providing insight in the total value of the company acquired.

Findings

The mean total value of the companies studied increases approximately six fold on acquisition. This increase is mainly due to the increase in intangible assets (including goodwill), which substantially overlap with intellectual capital. The intangible assets specified are mostly connected to rights‐related and technology‐related items, while goodwill shows more “bias” to expertise and customer‐related items. Thus it is hypothesized that a substantial part of the intellectual capital of the company acquired is revealed in the official accounts of the acquiring company.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to companies primarily in the pharmaceutical sector. The situation with respect to intangible assets may deviate from the situation in other industrial sectors. Another limitation is the restriction to public companies with respect to the acquiring party because of the information requirements imposed by the authorities. Further, this study was restricted in time to the last seven years in order to have a group of acquisition situations for which similar recent accounting guidelines apply.

Practical implications

This line of research could have practical implications for future valuation policies in acquisition situations and for intellectual capital valuation strategies.

Originality/value

The paper is a quantitative evaluation of intellectual capital in mergers and acquisitions based on formal accounting records.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term…

Abstract

A distinction must be drawn between a dismissal on the one hand, and on the other a repudiation of a contract of employment as a result of a breach of a fundamental term of that contract. When such a repudiation has been accepted by the innocent party then a termination of employment takes place. Such termination does not constitute dismissal (see London v. James Laidlaw & Sons Ltd (1974) IRLR 136 and Gannon v. J. C. Firth (1976) IRLR 415 EAT).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1974

An Act to make further provision for securing the health, safety and welfare of persons at work, for protecting others against risks to health or safety in connection with…

Abstract

An Act to make further provision for securing the health, safety and welfare of persons at work, for protecting others against risks to health or safety in connection with the activities of persons at work, for controlling the keeping and use and preventing the unlawful acquisition, possession and use of dangerous substances, and for controlling certain emissions into the atmosphere; to make further provision with respect to the employment medical advisory service; to amend the law relating to building regulations, and the Building (Scotland) Act 1959; and for connected purposes. [31st July 1974]

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

The Nature of Business Policy Business policy — or general management — is concerned with the following six major functions:

Abstract

The Nature of Business Policy Business policy — or general management — is concerned with the following six major functions:

Details

Management Decision, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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